Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cryogenic Detectors for Double Beta Decay and Dark Matter Searches 1 -Past and present of thermal detectors -Their role in searches of rare events -Hybrid.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Cryogenic Detectors for Double Beta Decay and Dark Matter Searches 1 -Past and present of thermal detectors -Their role in searches of rare events -Hybrid."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cryogenic Detectors for Double Beta Decay and Dark Matter Searches 1 -Past and present of thermal detectors -Their role in searches of rare events -Hybrid techniques -Present situation of searches on direct interactions of WIMPS and the role of thermal detectors -The impact of the discovery of neutrino oscillation The second mystery of Ettore Majorana -Present situation on experiments of neutrinoless double beta decay and the possible impact of thermal detectors in this field -Conclusions August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

2 First ideas 1880 => Langley => resistive bolometers for infrrared rays from SUN 1903 => Curie et Laborde => calorimetric measurement of radioactivity 1927 => Ellis and Wuster => heat less then expected => the neutrino 1949 => D. Andrews, R. Fowler, M. Williams =>  particle detection 1983 => T.Niinikoski =>observe pulses in resistors due to cosmic rays 1984 => S.H.Moseley et LT detectors for astrophysics and  mass => Fiorini and Niinikoski Low temperature detectors for rare events => A. Drukier, L. Stodolsky, => neutrino physics and astronomy 2August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

3 The cryogenic or thermal detectors 3August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

4 Incident particle absorber crystal Thermal sensor Excellent resolution <1 eV ~ 6 keV ~10 eV 2 MeV 4 Equilibrium detectors August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

5 5 - - Various types of thermometers => a thermistor => a transition edge sensor (TES) => an Equilibrium Absorber weakly coupled to a heat bath superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) Cooper pair breaking => a magnetic thermometer. The temperature information is obtained from the change of a paramagnetic sensor placed in a small magnetic field Caveat => possibility that the heat capacity of the thermometer be comparable or larger than the absorber one: August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

6 6August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

7 The first mini-meeting on thermal detectors (Ringberg castle 1986) 7August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

8 8August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

9 9August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

10 Energy resolution of a TeO 2 crystal of 5x5x5 cm 3 (~ 760 g ) : 0.8 keV 46 keV 1.4 keV MeV 2.1 keV MeV 2.6 keV MeV 3.2 keV MeV (the best  spectrometer so far 210 Po  line 10August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

11 Non equilibrium detectors  STJ Superconducting tunnel junctions  SSG Superheated superconducting granules. The field does not enter more in the granule. Often SQUID pickup Suggested for In solar neutrino detection. Considered for Dark Matter Experiments => Superfluid 3 He and 4 He detectors (rotons). Also considered for Solar neutrinos Comparison with conventional detectors: => They measure the total energy delivered (example MARE) => Slow propagation of the vibration inside the absorber Kapitza resistence detector => heat sink (slow rise and decay times)  Possible localizazion of the event (TES)  Excellent detection of nuclear recoil  Possibility of hybrid techniques (heat + ionization and/or scintillation? Crucial in searches for rare events 11August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

12 12 Possible “thermometers” S uperheated S uperconducting Granules August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

13 13 Orpheus 0.45 kg of granules 70 m.w.e for Dark Matter detection Bern Considered also for double beta decay (A.Morales) August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

14 14 Hybrid techniques heat + ionization or heat + scintillation August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

15 Bi considered the only stable isotope of Bi and the stable nucleus with higher Z A very interesting application of thermal detectors => decay of 209 Bi Scintillation and heat experiment in Paris by P.de Marcillac et al with a BGO of 47 g  ± 1 stat ± 2 syst => 1,9 ± 0.2 x a August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

16 16 Present status on direct interaction of WIMPS Indeed a challenge as also shown by many reports to this Workshop August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

17 17 Interactions of WIMPS produce rare low energy events August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

18 18 Need signals with evidence of interaction of WIMPS - seasonal modulation => general motion of the Sun toward Cygnus - directionality - different nuclei - elimination of the dominant electromagnetic background => electron versus nucleon recoils => the quenching factor e.g. 25% in Ge detectors, In thermal detectors could be > 1 ! => need calibration with neutron sources or radioactive sources August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

19 August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison19 ELEGANT, XMASS CDMSZEPLIN-IIXENONMAJORANAGEODM EDELWEISS CRESST, WARP, XENON, HDMS/GENIUS DAMA/LIBRACUORICINO/CUORE ZEPLIN-III, NaIAD, DRIFT IGEXROSEBUDANAIS Soudan Mine Soudan Mine EDELWEISS-II (cryo Fréjus) EDELWEISS-II (cryo Fréjus) CRESST-II (cryo CaWO4, Gran Sasso CRESST-II (cryo CaWO4, Gran Sasso ROSEBUD (cryo Al203, Canfranc ROSEBUD (cryo Al203, Canfranc XENON-10, XENON-100, ZEPLIN-III, DRIFT, NaIAD XENON-10, XENON-100, ZEPLIN-III, DRIFT, NaIAD WARP, ArDM, DEAP/CLEAN (liquid argon, neon) WARP, ArDM, DEAP/CLEAN (liquid argon, neon) DAMA/LIBRA (NaI, Gran Sasso) DAMA/LIBRA (NaI, Gran Sasso) Canfranc, HDMS/GENIUS-TF Gran Sasso Canfranc, HDMS/GENIUS-TF Gran Sasso CUORICINO/ CUORE Gran Sasso CUORICINO/ CUORE Gran Sasso COUPP (Chicago), SIMPLE, MACHe3, ORPHEUS (Bern) COUPP (Chicago), SIMPLE, MACHe3, ORPHEUS (Bern) ELEGANT, + Future experiments: SuperCDMS/GEODM, EURECA, XENON- 1ton, XMASS, … ELEGANT, + Future experiments: SuperCDMS/GEODM, EURECA, XENON- 1ton, XMASS, … Wimps direct detection experiments

20 20 Possible evidence (DAMA/LIBRA) Je ni laue ni blame pas. je report seulement Tallerand I do not praise, nor blame. I only report. August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

21 Close relationship => Dark Matter and double beta decay First searches on direct interations of WIMPS with Ge detectors for  decay Could this relationship start again? Why not! Answer g by Ezio Previtali to Richard Geiskell who asked if CUORE could give results on Dark Matter A personal note => Dark Matter experiments search the low energy region, the neutrinoless double beta decay ones a region at higher energy ! Problems => kitchen multipurpose tools”! Massive thermal detector s => seasonal modulation ( higher QF) Hybrid techniques Scintillation or ionization => electromagnetic background (dominant) + + heat (nuclear reecoil) => in anticoincidence. 21 Thermal detectors to search for WIMPS August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

22 22August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison After experiment in a shallow site with Ge bolometers and NTD thermistors => Soudan Laboratory also with Si bolometers with TES

23 August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison23

24 24August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

25 CDMS II results 25 In terra infidelium (in the land of infideles) August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

26 26August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

27 27 Test of first two supertowers Detectors 1 inch thick (640 g/detector unit) Improved phonon collection scheme Study of interdigitized electrodes Much larger detectors considered (6 inch diameter, 2 inch thick): nearly 5 kg ! SuperCDMS developments August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

28 Future plans of CDMS 28August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

29 29 Ge bolometers => ionization+heat EDELWEISS II I nter D igit detectors E-field modified near surface with interleaved electrodes EDELWEISS I Ge bolometers with ND sensors Guard rings Problems with surface events August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

30 30 23 detectors installed 11 detectors with <30 keV threshold.: 93.6 kgd / 4 mo. 3 events in nuclear recoil band Bkg reduced wrt EDELWEISS-I, but not sufficient to reach pb: need ID August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

31 D 08 DATA: 2 x 400g 86 live days / kgd with <15 keV 50% 10 keV No events in (or around) nucl. recoil band More ID detectors later (10 in 2009) August 31,200931Ettore Fiorini, Madison

32 32 W β+γ α O Works with many absorber materials CaWO 4, PbWO 4, BaF, BGO (other tungstates and molybdates) 300g scintillating CaWO4 crstal Light detector W thermometer Light reflector W thermometer scintillation + heat August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

33 33 17 x 300 g modules installed in Gran Sasso W films: Superconducting Transition Edge temperature sensors + SQUID read-out Absorber: CaWO4 crystal (Wimps = W recoils, neutrons = O, Ca recoils) August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

34 34 Scintillation + heat August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

35 35 A large European project involving EDELWEISS, CRESST, ROSEBUD, CERN et al >> 100 kg multitarget experiment    pb Possible location (no responsability on my side) => a new 60,000 m cavity in the Frejus tunnel August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

36 36 What about the nature of the neutrino and its mass? The second mystery of Ettore Majorana August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

37 Strongly supported by the discovery of oscillations August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison37

38 → → Majorana =>1937 Neutrinoless double beta decay and Majorana neutrinos RIGHT LEFT : : 38August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

39 39August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

40 1. (A,Z) => (A,Z+2) + 2 e e ¯ 2. (A,Z) => (A,Z+2) + 2 e - +  ( …2,3  3. (A,Z) => (A,Z+2) + 2 e - 40August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

41 0 -  decay e - e - d d u u W W e e Neutrinoless  decay 41August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

42 Predictions from oscillations 42 disfavoured by -0 disfavoured by cosmology m 2 atm < 0 m 2 atm > 0 next generation -0 exp m 1 ≈ m 2 ≈ m 3 degeneration: m 1 ≈ m 2 ≈ m 3 m 3 « m 1 ≈ m 2 inverse hierarchy: m 3 « m 1 ≈ m 2 m 1 ≈ m 2 » m 3 normal hierarchy: m 1 ≈ m 2 » m 3 〈 m 〉 [eV] lightest neutrino mass [eV] A.Strumia and F.Vissani.: hep-ph/ = f( m low,U ek ) = f( m low,U ek ) August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

43 43 Claim of Evidence for 0  in 76 Ge Single-site events in detectors 2, 3, 4, 5 (56.6 kg-y). H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E17, 505 (2008) ~ 0.2 to 0.3 eV Looks good to me…not to me (E.F.) August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

44 MOON CUORE GERDA EXO CUORICINO 2 P 1/2 4 D 3/2 2 S 1/2 493 nm 650 nm metastable47s Experimental situation 44 CUORE SNO++ MOON NEMO - SuperNEMO August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

45 Double beta decay with thermal detectors 45 Searches for the 2  decay in 130 Te (Q=2529 keV and 34% i.a.) A series of experiments carried out first by the Milano group and later by the CUORICINO and CUORE collaboration Mibeta (Milano only) an array of 20 TeO 2 bolometers of 320 g => total mass 6.8 kg CUORICINO (CUORICINO Coll.) 44 crystals of 150 g and 18 of 320 (4 enriched)n => total mass 40.7 kg CUORE (CUORE coll) 988 crystals of 750 g => total mass 741 kg August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

46 Searches in the LNGS Cuoricino (Hall A) CUORE (Hall A) CUORE R&D (Hall C) 46August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

47 year total mass [kg] 47August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison Mass increase of bolometers

48 11 modules, 4 detector each, crystal dimension 5x5x5 cm 3 crystal mass 790 g 4 x 11 x 0.79 = kg of TeO 2 2 modules, 9 detector each, crystal dimension 3x3x6 cm 3 crystal mass 330 g 9 x 2 x 0.33 = 5.94 kg of TeO 2 48 At Hall A in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) 18 crystals 3x3x6 cm crystals 5x5x5 cm3 = 40.7 kg of TeO2 Operation started in the beginning of 2003 Background.18±.01 c /kev/ kg/ a CUORICINO August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

49 49August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison CUORICINO

50 Change of the measured value of  E With ~ 18 kg x a 130Te e  E ~ 2527 keV =>  1/2 < 2.94 x ± 0.32 keV ± keV With kg x a of 130 Te and  E = / keV =>  1/2 < 3.1 x 1030 August 31,200950Ettore Fiorini, Madison

51 51 Klapdor.1-.9 August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

52 Cosmological disfavoured region (WMAP) Direct hierarchy  m 2 12 =  m 2 sol Inverse hierarchy  m 2 12 =  m 2 atm “quasi” degeneracy m 1  m 2  m 3 With the same matrix elements the Cuoricino limit is 0.53 eV Possible evidence (best value 0.39 eV) 52 Present Cuoricino region August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

53 53August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

54 The CUORE collaboration 54August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

55 55 The calibration system August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

56 56August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

57 57 The crystals August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

58 58 Growing and lapping at SICCAS  Order for 63 cristals 4 crystals by flight => OK  Order for 500 crystals INFN 26 (2 being tested)  Agreement prepared for 500 crystals DOE  Crystals are arriving at a rate of 30 crystals per month  In a year all INFN crystals produced. => Validation of the DOE ones Packaging August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

59 SICCAS/INFN Clean Room August 31,200959Ettore Fiorini, Madison

60 60August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

61 disfavoured by cosmology Strumia A. and Vissani F. hep-ph/ In 5 years: August 31,200961Ettore Fiorini, Madison CUORE expected sensitivity

62 August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison62 The earthquake 0.64 g =>center of L’Aquila 0.29g =>outside laboratory 0.03 g inside

63 CompoundIsotopic abundanceTransiton energy 48 CaF %4272keV 76 Ge7.44 " " 100 MoPbO "3034 " 116 CdWO "2804 " 130 TeO 2 34 "2528 " 150 NdF NdGaO "3368“ Other possible candidates for neutrinoless DBD 63 The future August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

64 64 *Maybe Cherenkov light T.Tabarelli de Fatis – Milano-Bicocca Scintillation* + heat (in coincidence) August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

65 August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison65 First scintillating bolometer (1991) First scintillating bolometer (1991) CaF 2

66 August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison66 Already tested different scintillating crystals (CdWO4, CaF2, CaMoO4, SrMoO4, PbMoO4, ZnSe, …). With some of them we have obtained excellent results (for example CdWO4, CaMoO4 and ZnSe). CdWO 4 : 508g ZnSe:337 g CaMoO 4 : 157g

67 Four and one CDWO 4 with Ge light detectors 67August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

68 68August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison

69 August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison hours Background CdWO 4 3x3x6 (426 g) – Scatter Plot (724 hours)                          

70 August 31,2009Ettore Fiorini, Madison70 Background CdWO 4 3x3x6 (426 g) – Beta Spectrum 113 Cd (i.a.= 12.2 %) Q β = 318 keV

71 Thermal detectors operating at low temperature (10-10 mK) had a great development in the last twenty years In many fields of physics (e.g.low energy nuclear physics, X-ray spectroscopy, material sciences, even environmental physics etc) they have not yet sufficiently exploited Their long rise and decay time not a problem for searches on rare events in non accelerator physics (see however their role in accelerator like DESY) They offer a wide choice of source or target nuclei. The possibility of hybrid employ association with detector of ionization and/or scintillation => formidable tool in searches for direct interaction of WIMPS In experiments on  decay especially in its neutrinoless channel they are already competitive with other detector. This property will be further enhanced by the use of scintillation and /or ionization in coincidence Their multidisciplinary nature => exiting and exellent for learning CONCLUSIONS August 31,200971Ettore Fiorini, Madison


Download ppt "Cryogenic Detectors for Double Beta Decay and Dark Matter Searches 1 -Past and present of thermal detectors -Their role in searches of rare events -Hybrid."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google