Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: 1/13 The Evolutionary Perspective would be interested in:"— Presentation transcript:
1Warm Up: 1/13 The Evolutionary Perspective would be interested in: a) the differences between natural blondes and fake blondesb) the genes that may make one more likely to show signs of a psychological disorderc) The thought processes made when deciding on a collegeThe cognitive perspective would be interested in:The processes made when deciding on a collegeHow someone learns a languageAll of the aboveNone of the aboveExplain the difference between the psychodynamic perspective and the perspective and the humanistic-existentialist perspective.How does the socio-cultural perspective play a part in your life?
2Review: whiteboardsAnswer the following with the correct school of thought:Would focus on how we mentally represent the world to explain behaviorsMight argue that your behavior is the result of your freedom to make choices in lifeMight look at the relationship between an individual’s cultural heritage and the frequency of psychological disordersMight argue that children who are shy and withdrawn engage in behavior because of environmental influences and reinforcementWould tend to attribute your dreams to unconscious processesMight argue that the reason males exhibit more aggressive behavior is because of their hormonal make-up
3The Scientific MethodHOMER: hypothesize, operationalize, measure, evaluate, and replicate/revise/report
4Objective & DOLObjectiveDOLWWBAT identify the 5 parts to the scientific method; know the difference between population and be able to explain potential sampling problems.Explain what a hypothesis is and why it is usedKnow the consequences of volunteer bias.
5Review: PsychologyPsychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental processPsychology seeks to describe, explain, predict, and control the events it studies.Think-Pair-Share:How do you think Psychologists do this?
6The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method: an organized way of using experience and testing ideas to expand knowledgeImagine the chaos if we didn’t have a way of doing thisNo way to prove anythingHOMER: an acronym to explain the scientific method
8HOMER: Hypothesize Hypothesize To make a specific statement about behavior or mental processesStems from a research questionDoes misery love company? Do opposites attract? Does drinking tea make a headache go away? Do kids who learn to read before kindergarten graduate with higher GPAs?
9OperationalizeOperationalize – define a fuzzy concept to make the concept clearly measurableIe: what are opposites?:Different sexes? Different political identifications? Different personalities?What are you measuring in a personality? Comical/seriousness?
10Measure T-P-S: Measure: deciding how to assess data How might you measure how funny someone is?Measure: deciding how to assess dataAge, weight, height - easyPersonality, political beliefs, “good” behavior, how funny someone is- more difficultScales, observation
11Evaluate Evaluate- do these results make sense? Is it consistent/different than what other researchers have found?What are possible explanations that would support these findings?
12Replicate/Revise/Report Must provide enough information about how the study was conducted for others to replicate the study.Allows others to evaluate the psychologist’s conclusions and methods
13Sections of a psychology paper HypothesisHypothesis, why you suspect this, previous researchMethodsOperationalized variables, how you will gather information (natural observation, survey)ResultsThe data foundDiscussionDid the data align with your hypothesis? Why or why not?
14Warm up 1. What are the words that make up the acronym “HOMER”? When researchers conduct scientific research, the people that are studied are referred to as the 2)______ and the group that is targeted for research is referred to as the 3) _______.4. Create 3 hypotheses you would be able to study.
15Objective & DOLObjectiveDOLWWBAT explain four types of observational studies: Case study, correlation, survey, and natural observationSWBAT match each observational method with its definition or purposeGive at least 1 pro and 1 con for each method.
16Station Activity There are four stations You will travel with your partner and work on your worksheet.You will work in pairs around the stations. Please work only with your partner so that everyone is involved.You will have 9 minutes at every station to:Write which observational method you’re working on and its definitionThe pros and cons of the methodRead and take notes on an example of the type of studyAnswer the questions asked.
17Raise your hand if you have any questions throughout Raise your hand if you have any questions throughout. I will be circling around.When the timer goes off,immediately circle to yournext station.
19Warm Up: 1/15Word bank: Case study, correlation, survey, natural observation 1. A way to get a lot of data quickly with relatively little effort. 2. An in-depth look at one person, animal, or group to get data that is not widely available 3. Looking to see if two occurrences are related. 4. Looks at behaviors or occurrences in a setting outside of a laboratory. 5. Give one pro and con for using a case study. 6. Give one pro and con for using a correlational study. 7. Give one pro and con for using a survey. 8. Give one pro and con for naturally observing phenomena.
20Population vs. Sample Population: The entire group targeted for study Sample: the group that is studiedWhiteboards:Write “population” if it is feasible to study the entire group of interest or “sample” if you need to get a smaller representative sampleEvery high school student in AmericaThe students of Sierra High SchoolHomecoming
21The importance of a good sample Literary digest predicted that Alf Landon would beat Franklin D. Roosevelt by a landslidePolled millions of voters by phoneYet, Roosevelt won by 11 million votesThink-Pair-Share: what could have gone wrong?During the depression, only the wealthy had telephones
22Types of SamplesRandom sample: every member of the population has an equal chance of being selectedEx: every other student who walks in the doorStratified sample: selection is made so subgroups of the population are represented equallyExample: 25 freshman, 25 sophomores, 25 juniors, 25 seniors
23Purpose of a good sample (I promise this has an academic purpose…) Would you volunteer for study on sexual activity? Why or why not?Volunteer Bias: the error that typically results when volunteers are selected to participateMoneyKinseyWhat are some possible problems that would result from volunteer bias?
24Announcements Quiz Friday Bring Books Friday! Look at announcements board and extra credit opportunityHomework: Project ideasP. 32, reflect and relate: Come up with three possible behaviors or events that you could observe and make a hypothesis. discussed today. I will give a rubric tomorrow for the project.Ideas due ThursdayWe will go over these Friday
26Review: Cause and Effect Think Tank:With your partner, come up with as many causes as possible why higher income and years of education are correlated.More education causes higher income because of better jobsEducation causes higher incomePeople with a higher income can afford an educationIncome causes more educationHigher motivation or perseverance to achieve causes both?Parent examples causes both?
27The ExperimentExperiment- a scientific method which seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables.Example: introducing alcohol dose, change in temperature, or injection of a drug to see effects on test takingalcohol dose, change in temperature, or injection of a drug are all example treatmentsTreatment- a condition received by subjects so its effects can be observed.
28The ExperimentExperiment- a scientific method which seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables.Consider the following: determining whether alcohol causes aggressionIndependent Variable: AlcoholDependent variable: Aggression
29Independent and Dependent Variables Independent variable (IV): a condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects can be observed.May be introduced, removed, increased/decreasedDependent Variable (DV): a measure of an assumed effect of an independent variablehappens as a result of the Independent VariableIt Depends on the IV
30PlacebosPlacebo- a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine (example: a sugar pill that looks like Advil)Placebo effect- the measurable or felt improvement in health not attributable to treatment (example: someone who takes a sugar pill that looks like advil, but experiences the same headache relief)Given this information, writein your notes what you think thispicture means:
31Warm Up What is an independent variable? What is a dependent variable? Why are they used?
32Practice: whiteboards Several recent studies suggest that yoga may help strengthen social attachments, reduce stress and relieve anxiety, depression and insomniaWhat is/are the Independent Variable(s)?YogaWhat is/are the Dependent Variable(s)?Social attachments, stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia
33Practice: whiteboards Studying whether or not violent television programming caused aggressive behavior in childrenWhat is/are the Independent Variable(s)?Violent televisionWhat is/are the Dependent Variable(s)?Aggressive behavior in children
34Practice: whiteboards You may have heard teachers or students claim that printing text on green paper helps students read better, or that yellow paper helps students perform better on math exams.What is/are the Independent Variable(s)?Color of paperWhat is/are the Dependent Variable(s)?Academic performance
35Experimental groups and control groups Experimental groups- receive the treatmentsControl groups- do not receive the treatmentHelps psychologists be sure that the effects are only because of the independent variableAll other conditions are made the same
36PlacebosPlacebo- a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine (already in your notes)*Used to know the true effects of theindependent VariableTo avoid the placebo effect fromtaking a pill, having an injection,or other effects of watching tv,physical activity, etc…the Control group typicallyreceives the Placebo
37Practice: whiteboards Studying whether or not a new drug, Oppimorphine can lessen depression. Group A receives Oppimorphine, Group B receives a sugar pillWhat is/are the Independent Variable(s)?OppimorphineWhat is/are the Dependent Variable(s)?Depression/lessened depressionWho is the control Group?Group BWho is the Experimental group?Group AWhat is the placebo?Sugar pill
38Practice: whiteboards Scientists want to know if wearing a magnetic bracelet really does improve agility and balance. They give Group 1 a rubber bracelet with no magnetic qualities and Group 2 a rubber bracelet with a small, hidden magnet.What is/are the Independent Variable(s)?Magnetic braceletWhat is/are the Dependent Variable(s)?Agility, balanceWho is the control Group?Group 1Who is the Experimental group?Group 2What is the placebo?Only rubber bracelet
39DOLPsychologists are curious if drinking Earl Grey tea alleviates migraines. They give Group A 3 servings a day of Earl Grey tea, and Group B 3 servings a day of colored, flavored water with no additives.1. What is/are the Independent Variable(s)?2. What is/are the Dependent Variable(s)?3. Who is the control Group?4. Who is the Experimental group?5. What is the placebo?6. Explain the purpose of an experiment.7. Explain the purpose of a placebo.
40Warm UpIn your “Thursday” section of your warm-up sheet, write what being “college and career (“real world”) ready” means to you
41Ethics in Psych Research BECAUSE YOU CAN’T JUST GO AROUND PUTTING POLES IN PEOPLE’S HEADS
42Objective & DOLObjectiveDOLWWBAT explain ethical guidelines in psychological research and explain two controversial psych studies.What is informed consent?What did psych’s learn from Milgram’s study?What did psych’s learn from Zimbardo’s study?
43Ethics Think-Pair-Share: What doe it mean if something is ethical?Ethical: Moral; referring to one’s system of deriving standards for determining what is moral or okay.Ie: is it moral to drink?Is it moral to drink and drive?Is it okay to kill someone?Is it okay to kill someone to save someone else’s life?
44Ethics in psychologyIt used to be that psychologists could do essentially whatever experiments they were interested in.Today there has to be informed consent.informed consent- a subject’s agreement to participate in a study after they have learnedthe purposes of the studythe nature of the treatments.
45Ethics in psychology (cont.) Ethics can limit the kinds of research that is doneIe: does separation from one’s mother impair social development?How does brain damage to a certain part of the head impact one’s ability to function “normally?”What kind of study must be done for the second?Case studyThe first example?Correlational study. Why?
46Debriefingif the participant knows the true reason behind the experiment, it may impact their behavior or response.If the true purpose for the study cannot be given before the study, the subject may be deceived by the psychologist and be debriefed after.Debriefed: the purposes and methods are truthfully revealed.T-P-S: What do you think the circumstances might be for deception to be considered ethical?If the benefits of the knowledge required outweigh the harm done and it is reasonable to believe that the partipant would partipate if given the benefits of the study.
47Unethical experiments in Psychology Milgram’s Obedience Study:Participants were recruited by newspaper and compensated for their participationTold it was an experiment about learning and memoryEach participant was assigned the role of “teacher” and inflict an electric shock to the “learner” if they got a wrong answer.Shocks were labeled from low to deadly.Participants were in a room with a scientist as they gave the shocks, and encouraged to go on, even when they heard shouts from the “learner”How many participants do you think gave shocks labeled “XXX”?How many do you think stopped? (Partipants were told they quit at any time and still be paid)
48VideoWrite down the unethical components of the study and the critiques.Must make at least 5 notes about the video
49Warm up: 1/17/13 1. What is a control group? Why is it important? 2. What is informed consent? (give at least 2 components)3. What are ethics?4. Challenge question: What did the Milgram Study teach about conformance to authority?
50Reflection/Predictions What was unethical?Participants experienced intense anxiety, were not told the full story. They were debriefed.How many would go all the way?When Milgram posed this question to a group of Yale University students, it was predicted that no more than 3% would deliver the maximum shock. In reality, 65% of the participants in Milgram’s study delivered the maximum shocks.
51Are people evil?In another variation, teachers were instructed to apply whatever voltage they desired to incorrect answers. Teachers averaged 83 volts, and only 2.5 percent of participants used the full 450 volts available. This shows most participants were good, average people, not evil individuals. They obeyed only under coercion."It’s got to go on, it’s got to go on."What can we learn form this experiment?
52Further StudyThe physical presence of an authority figure dramatically increased compliance.The fact that the study was sponsored by Yale (a trusted and authoritative academic institution) led many participants to believe that the experiment must be safe.The selection of teacher and learner status seemed random.Participants assumed that the experimenter was a competentexpert. The shocks were said to be painful, not dangerous.Later experiments conducted by Milgram indicated that the presence of rebellious peers dramatically reduced obedience levels. When other people refused to go along with the experimenters orders, 36 out of 40 participants refused to deliver the maximum shocks.
53Zimbardo prison experiment CFU: think-write-share What is a time where you acted in a way you would not have expected or which you knew you could have behaved better as a result of peer influence?
54Close ReadingRead and annotate the text, highlighting areas that show unethical componenets to a study.Number paragraphsCircle key terms – No more than 5 per chunkChunk as you go to group paragraphs of similar contentLeft column is a one sentence summary per chunkRight column is a question per chunk (could be confusion or higher-level)
55DOLWhat is the Milgram study? The Zimbardo study? The “Monster” Study?Rank these in order of highest-lowest of unethical. Justify your ranking.
56Test time! Take a deep breath, and relax! You will do fine! Please ask me if you need clarification on a question!Good luck!! Extra credit: on the bottom of your test respond to one or both of the following:1. List conditions that made a participant in Milgram’s study more likely to proceed with the experiment2. List conditions that made a participant less likely to proceed with the experiment.
57Prework for studyOn your homework, write the following for each hypothesis:1. What would you have to measure in this experiment? (ie: overweight/normal, male/female, number of bites, number of items ordered, amount of food left, number of chews, amount of time spent eating)2. How would you measure this? (count and record, tally, stopwatch?)Star the hypothesis you wish to use, and raise your hand for me to check.
58DOL: On a piece of paper answer the following 1. What is my hypothesis?2. Why do I think this?3. What are my variables?4. How am I going to measure these?4b: what materials do I need to bring with me?5. Who is my population?6. Who is my sample?*You may take a picture of this on your phone to refer to, and then immediately put your phone back away.
59TextbooksRank the top 3 chapters you want to cover