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Warm Up: 1/13 The Evolutionary Perspective would be interested in:

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1 Warm Up: 1/13 The Evolutionary Perspective would be interested in:
a) the differences between natural blondes and fake blondes b) the genes that may make one more likely to show signs of a psychological disorder c) The thought processes made when deciding on a college The cognitive perspective would be interested in: The processes made when deciding on a college How someone learns a language All of the above None of the above Explain the difference between the psychodynamic perspective and the perspective and the humanistic-existentialist perspective. How does the socio-cultural perspective play a part in your life?

2 Review: whiteboards Answer the following with the correct school of thought: Would focus on how we mentally represent the world to explain behaviors Might argue that your behavior is the result of your freedom to make choices in life Might look at the relationship between an individual’s cultural heritage and the frequency of psychological disorders Might argue that children who are shy and withdrawn engage in behavior because of environmental influences and reinforcement Would tend to attribute your dreams to unconscious processes Might argue that the reason males exhibit more aggressive behavior is because of their hormonal make-up

3 The Scientific Method HOMER: hypothesize, operationalize, measure, evaluate, and replicate/revise/report

4 Objective & DOL Objective DOL WWBAT identify the 5 parts to the scientific method; know the difference between population and be able to explain potential sampling problems. Explain what a hypothesis is and why it is used Know the consequences of volunteer bias.

5 Review: Psychology Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental process Psychology seeks to describe, explain, predict, and control the events it studies. Think-Pair-Share: How do you think Psychologists do this?

6 The Scientific Method The Scientific Method: an organized way of using experience and testing ideas to expand knowledge Imagine the chaos if we didn’t have a way of doing this No way to prove anything HOMER: an acronym to explain the scientific method

7 HOMER Hypothesize Operationalize Measure Evaluate
Replicate/Revise/Report

8 HOMER: Hypothesize Hypothesize
To make a specific statement about behavior or mental processes Stems from a research question Does misery love company? Do opposites attract? Does drinking tea make a headache go away? Do kids who learn to read before kindergarten graduate with higher GPAs?

9 Operationalize Operationalize – define a fuzzy concept to make the concept clearly measurable Ie: what are opposites?: Different sexes? Different political identifications? Different personalities? What are you measuring in a personality? Comical/seriousness?

10 Measure T-P-S: Measure: deciding how to assess data
How might you measure how funny someone is? Measure: deciding how to assess data Age, weight, height - easy Personality, political beliefs, “good” behavior, how funny someone is- more difficult Scales, observation

11 Evaluate Evaluate- do these results make sense?
Is it consistent/different than what other researchers have found? What are possible explanations that would support these findings?

12 Replicate/Revise/Report
Must provide enough information about how the study was conducted for others to replicate the study. Allows others to evaluate the psychologist’s conclusions and methods

13 Sections of a psychology paper
Hypothesis Hypothesis, why you suspect this, previous research Methods Operationalized variables, how you will gather information (natural observation, survey) Results The data found Discussion Did the data align with your hypothesis? Why or why not?

14 Warm up 1. What are the words that make up the acronym “HOMER”?
When researchers conduct scientific research, the people that are studied are referred to as the 2)______ and the group that is targeted for research is referred to as the 3) _______. 4. Create 3 hypotheses you would be able to study.

15 Objective & DOL Objective DOL WWBAT explain four types of observational studies: Case study, correlation, survey, and natural observation SWBAT match each observational method with its definition or purpose Give at least 1 pro and 1 con for each method.

16 Station Activity There are four stations
You will travel with your partner and work on your worksheet. You will work in pairs around the stations. Please work only with your partner so that everyone is involved. You will have 9 minutes at every station to: Write which observational method you’re working on and its definition The pros and cons of the method Read and take notes on an example of the type of study Answer the questions asked.

17 Raise your hand if you have any questions throughout
Raise your hand if you have any questions throughout. I will be circling around. When the timer goes off, immediately circle to your next station.

18 Review

19 Warm Up: 1/15 Word bank: Case study, correlation, survey, natural observation 1. A way to get a lot of data quickly with relatively little effort. 2. An in-depth look at one person, animal, or group to get data that is not widely available 3. Looking to see if two occurrences are related. 4. Looks at behaviors or occurrences in a setting outside of a laboratory. 5. Give one pro and con for using a case study. 6. Give one pro and con for using a correlational study. 7. Give one pro and con for using a survey. 8. Give one pro and con for naturally observing phenomena.

20 Population vs. Sample Population: The entire group targeted for study
Sample: the group that is studied Whiteboards: Write “population” if it is feasible to study the entire group of interest or “sample” if you need to get a smaller representative sample Every high school student in America The students of Sierra High School Homecoming

21 The importance of a good sample
Literary digest predicted that Alf Landon would beat Franklin D. Roosevelt by a landslide Polled millions of voters by phone Yet, Roosevelt won by 11 million votes Think-Pair-Share: what could have gone wrong? During the depression, only the wealthy had telephones

22 Types of Samples Random sample: every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected Ex: every other student who walks in the door Stratified sample: selection is made so subgroups of the population are represented equally Example: 25 freshman, 25 sophomores, 25 juniors, 25 seniors

23 Purpose of a good sample
(I promise this has an academic purpose…) Would you volunteer for study on sexual activity? Why or why not? Volunteer Bias: the error that typically results when volunteers are selected to participate Money Kinsey What are some possible problems that would result from volunteer bias?

24 Announcements Quiz Friday Bring Books Friday!
Look at announcements board and extra credit opportunity Homework: Project ideas P. 32, reflect and relate: Come up with three possible behaviors or events that you could observe and make a hypothesis. discussed today. I will give a rubric tomorrow for the project. Ideas due Thursday We will go over these Friday

25 The Experiment

26 Review: Cause and Effect
Think Tank: With your partner, come up with as many causes as possible why higher income and years of education are correlated. More education causes higher income because of better jobs Education causes higher income People with a higher income can afford an education Income causes more education Higher motivation or perseverance to achieve causes both? Parent examples causes both?

27 The Experiment Experiment- a scientific method which seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables. Example: introducing alcohol dose, change in temperature, or injection of a drug to see effects on test taking alcohol dose, change in temperature, or injection of a drug are all example treatments Treatment- a condition received by subjects so its effects can be observed.

28 The Experiment Experiment- a scientific method which seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables. Consider the following: determining whether alcohol causes aggression Independent Variable: Alcohol Dependent variable: Aggression

29 Independent and Dependent Variables
Independent variable (IV): a condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects can be observed. May be introduced, removed, increased/decreased Dependent Variable (DV): a measure of an assumed effect of an independent variable happens as a result of the Independent Variable It Depends on the IV

30 Placebos Placebo- a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine (example: a sugar pill that looks like Advil) Placebo effect- the measurable or felt improvement in health not attributable to treatment (example: someone who takes a sugar pill that looks like advil, but experiences the same headache relief) Given this information, write in your notes what you think this picture means:

31 Warm Up What is an independent variable? What is a dependent variable?
Why are they used?

32 Practice: whiteboards
Several recent studies suggest that yoga may help strengthen social attachments, reduce stress and relieve anxiety, depression and insomnia What is/are the Independent Variable(s)? Yoga What is/are the Dependent Variable(s)? Social attachments, stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia

33 Practice: whiteboards
Studying whether or not violent television programming caused aggressive behavior in children What is/are the Independent Variable(s)? Violent television What is/are the Dependent Variable(s)? Aggressive behavior in children

34 Practice: whiteboards
You may have heard teachers or students claim that printing text on green paper helps students read better, or that yellow paper helps students perform better on math exams. What is/are the Independent Variable(s)? Color of paper What is/are the Dependent Variable(s)? Academic performance

35 Experimental groups and control groups
Experimental groups- receive the treatments Control groups- do not receive the treatment Helps psychologists be sure that the effects are only because of the independent variable All other conditions are made the same

36 Placebos Placebo- a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine (already in your notes) *Used to know the true effects of the independent Variable To avoid the placebo effect from taking a pill, having an injection, or other effects of watching tv, physical activity, etc… the Control group typically receives the Placebo

37 Practice: whiteboards
Studying whether or not a new drug, Oppimorphine can lessen depression. Group A receives Oppimorphine, Group B receives a sugar pill What is/are the Independent Variable(s)? Oppimorphine What is/are the Dependent Variable(s)? Depression/lessened depression Who is the control Group? Group B Who is the Experimental group? Group A What is the placebo? Sugar pill

38 Practice: whiteboards
Scientists want to know if wearing a magnetic bracelet really does improve agility and balance. They give Group 1 a rubber bracelet with no magnetic qualities and Group 2 a rubber bracelet with a small, hidden magnet. What is/are the Independent Variable(s)? Magnetic bracelet What is/are the Dependent Variable(s)? Agility, balance Who is the control Group? Group 1 Who is the Experimental group? Group 2 What is the placebo? Only rubber bracelet

39 DOL Psychologists are curious if drinking Earl Grey tea alleviates migraines. They give Group A 3 servings a day of Earl Grey tea, and Group B 3 servings a day of colored, flavored water with no additives. 1. What is/are the Independent Variable(s)? 2. What is/are the Dependent Variable(s)? 3. Who is the control Group? 4. Who is the Experimental group? 5. What is the placebo? 6. Explain the purpose of an experiment. 7. Explain the purpose of a placebo.

40 Warm Up In your “Thursday” section of your warm-up sheet, write what being “college and career (“real world”) ready” means to you

41 Ethics in Psych Research
BECAUSE YOU CAN’T JUST GO AROUND PUTTING POLES IN PEOPLE’S HEADS

42 Objective & DOL Objective DOL WWBAT explain ethical guidelines in psychological research and explain two controversial psych studies. What is informed consent? What did psych’s learn from Milgram’s study? What did psych’s learn from Zimbardo’s study?

43 Ethics Think-Pair-Share:
What doe it mean if something is ethical? Ethical: Moral; referring to one’s system of deriving standards for determining what is moral or okay. Ie: is it moral to drink? Is it moral to drink and drive? Is it okay to kill someone? Is it okay to kill someone to save someone else’s life?

44 Ethics in psychology It used to be that psychologists could do essentially whatever experiments they were interested in. Today there has to be informed consent. informed consent- a subject’s agreement to participate in a study after they have learned the purposes of the study the nature of the treatments.

45 Ethics in psychology (cont.)
Ethics can limit the kinds of research that is done Ie: does separation from one’s mother impair social development? How does brain damage to a certain part of the head impact one’s ability to function “normally?” What kind of study must be done for the second? Case study The first example? Correlational study. Why?

46 Debriefing if the participant knows the true reason behind the experiment, it may impact their behavior or response. If the true purpose for the study cannot be given before the study, the subject may be deceived by the psychologist and be debriefed after. Debriefed: the purposes and methods are truthfully revealed. T-P-S: What do you think the circumstances might be for deception to be considered ethical? If the benefits of the knowledge required outweigh the harm done and it is reasonable to believe that the partipant would partipate if given the benefits of the study.

47 Unethical experiments in Psychology
Milgram’s Obedience Study: Participants were recruited by newspaper and compensated for their participation Told it was an experiment about learning and memory Each participant was assigned the role of “teacher” and inflict an electric shock to the “learner” if they got a wrong answer. Shocks were labeled from low to deadly. Participants were in a room with a scientist as they gave the shocks, and encouraged to go on, even when they heard shouts from the “learner” How many participants do you think gave shocks labeled “XXX”? How many do you think stopped? (Partipants were told they quit at any time and still be paid)

48 Video Write down the unethical components of the study and the critiques. Must make at least 5 notes about the video

49 Warm up: 1/17/13 1. What is a control group? Why is it important?
2. What is informed consent? (give at least 2 components) 3. What are ethics? 4. Challenge question: What did the Milgram Study teach about conformance to authority?

50 Reflection/Predictions
What was unethical? Participants experienced intense anxiety, were not told the full story. They were debriefed. How many would go all the way? When Milgram posed this question to a group of Yale University students, it was predicted that no more than 3% would deliver the maximum shock. In reality, 65% of the participants in Milgram’s study delivered the maximum shocks.

51 Are people evil? In another variation, teachers were instructed to apply whatever voltage they desired to incorrect answers. Teachers averaged 83 volts, and only 2.5 percent of participants used the full 450 volts available. This shows most participants were good, average people, not evil individuals. They obeyed only under coercion. "It’s got to go on, it’s got to go on." What can we learn form this experiment?

52 Further Study The physical presence of an authority figure dramatically increased compliance. The fact that the study was sponsored by Yale (a trusted and authoritative academic institution) led many participants to believe that the experiment must be safe. The selection of teacher and learner status seemed random. Participants assumed that the experimenter was a competent expert. The shocks were said to be painful, not dangerous. Later experiments conducted by Milgram indicated that the presence of rebellious peers dramatically reduced obedience levels. When other people refused to go along with the experimenters orders, 36 out of 40 participants refused to deliver the maximum shocks.

53 Zimbardo prison experiment
CFU: think-write-share What is a time where you acted in a way you would not have expected or which you knew you could have behaved better as a result of peer influence?

54 Close Reading Read and annotate the text, highlighting areas that show unethical componenets to a study. Number paragraphs Circle key terms – No more than 5 per chunk Chunk as you go to group paragraphs of similar content Left column is a one sentence summary per chunk Right column is a question per chunk (could be confusion or higher-level)

55 DOL What is the Milgram study? The Zimbardo study? The “Monster” Study? Rank these in order of highest-lowest of unethical. Justify your ranking.

56 Test time! Take a deep breath, and relax! You will do fine!
Please ask me if you need clarification on a question! Good luck!!  Extra credit: on the bottom of your test respond to one or both of the following: 1. List conditions that made a participant in Milgram’s study more likely to proceed with the experiment 2. List conditions that made a participant less likely to proceed with the experiment.

57 Prework for study On your homework, write the following for each hypothesis: 1. What would you have to measure in this experiment? (ie: overweight/normal, male/female, number of bites, number of items ordered, amount of food left, number of chews, amount of time spent eating) 2. How would you measure this? (count and record, tally, stopwatch?) Star the hypothesis you wish to use, and raise your hand for me to check.

58 DOL: On a piece of paper answer the following
1. What is my hypothesis? 2. Why do I think this? 3. What are my variables? 4. How am I going to measure these? 4b: what materials do I need to bring with me? 5. Who is my population? 6. Who is my sample? *You may take a picture of this on your phone to refer to, and then immediately put your phone back away.

59 Textbooks Rank the top 3 chapters you want to cover


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