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Electromechanics: Integrating 19 th Century Theory with 21 st Century Technology – Applications to Aerospace Systems Gregory D. Buckner Assistant Professor.

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Presentation on theme: "Electromechanics: Integrating 19 th Century Theory with 21 st Century Technology – Applications to Aerospace Systems Gregory D. Buckner Assistant Professor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electromechanics: Integrating 19 th Century Theory with 21 st Century Technology – Applications to Aerospace Systems Gregory D. Buckner Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering September 4, 2003 GDB

2 PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Electromechanics –What is Electromechanics? –Bridging 19 th Century Theory with 21 st Century Technology Electromechanics Research at NCSU –EM Research Laboratory –Active Magnetic Bearings –Automated Chatter Prediction on HSM Centers –Semi-Active Vehicle Suspensions –Other Projects Conclusions GDB

3 WHAT IS ELECTROMECHANICS? Electromechanics explores the interactions of electric and magnetic fields (electromagnetism) and how these interactions can be harnessed to produce mechanical work –An inherently multi-disciplinary engineering field –The design, analysis, and control of electric machines: GDB

4 Electromechanics is a “mature” engineering discipline –Principles unchanged since the 19 th century (Maxwell’s equations) –The design of many industrial machines (motors, generators) has changed little in the past 25 years –Once a core component of the Electrical Engineering curriculum, now few engineering undergraduates are exposed WHAT IS ELECTROMECHANICS? GDB

5 Electromechanics  Mechatronics (though the two are highly related and complimentary) WHAT IS ELECTROMECHANICS? GDB

6 WHAT IS ELECTROMECHANICS? Recent advancements in technology have renewed interest and extended applications –Materials High-energy permanent magnets “Smart materials” – SMAs, MR fluids, magnetostrictives, etc. Superconductors, hi-mu alloys –Manufacturing Processes Precision machining – DTMs, ultramills MEMS fabrication - silicon micromachining, LIGA, etc. –Computational Advancements Microcontrollers Design software – FEA, BEM Simulation software – MATLAB, Simulink Control algorithms – adaptive and intelligent control GDB

7 ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU Electro-Mechanics Research Lab (EMRL) –Research focus: development and transfer of enabling technologies (a bridge between 19 th century theory and 21 st century technology) –Over $1.2M in research grants $725K federal: NSF CISE, NSF DMII, NASA NIA, DOE NNP $450K industrial: Ethicon (J&J), Gillette, Vulcancraft, Carrera, AO Smith, Hyster/Yale $35K non-profit: Doris Duke, NCIIA –Supported 26 student researchers 6 PhD (4 current) 11 Masters (2 current) 9 Undergraduate (2 current) –Resulted in 21 papers, 5 patent disclosures GDB

8 Intelligent Controllers for Active Magnetic Bearings –Sponsor: NSF (CISE) –Research Objective: Develop self-learning (“intelligent”) AMB controllers that will enable the development of practical flywheel battery systems for automotive and aerospace applications ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU NASA Graphics from website GDB

9 Intelligent Controllers for Active Magnetic Bearings ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU –Motivation: Flywheels for space applications Motor when solar panels are active Generate when panels are inactive AMBs provide non-contacting support, reduce friction and wear, and eliminate lubrication concerns Have higher power and energy densities than batteries Longer life! –CONs AMBs are inherently unstable, highly nonlinear Gyroscopic and bending effects, model uncertainty NASA Graphics from website GDB

10 Intelligent Controllers for Active Magnetic Bearings ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU –Approach: Artificial neural networks are used to characterize (“learn”) model uncertainty These intelligent uncertainty bounds are fused with robust control synthesis Resulting controller adapts for improved performance, responds to parameter variations This fusion of intelligent and robust control is both innovative and applicable to a wide range of problems GDB

11 ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU Intelligent Controllers for Active Magnetic Bearings –Results: This intelligent approach has been successfully applied to single-input, single-output magnetic bearings Application to a 5-axis, flexible rotor AMB test rig is underway GDB

12 Integrated Chatter Prediction on High Speed Machining Centers –Sponsor: Vulcancraft, Inc. –Research Objectives: Increase High Speed Machining (HSM) productivity by predicting the onset of regenerative chatter on milling centers Design non-contacting EM actuators, sensors, and algorithms for modal testing of HSM centers ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB Boeing Graphics from website

13 Integrated Chatter Prediction on High Speed Machining Centers –Motivation: HSM advantages: –Very high material removal rates (MRR) in aluminum –Tooth passing frequency approaches or exceeds first natural frequency –Parts simultaneously lighter, stronger, cheaper –Embraced by aircraft industry HSM disadvantages: –Limited by unstable self-induced vibration… ‘regenerative chatter’ –Poor part surface finish –Tool wear/breakage ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB

14 Integrated Chatter Prediction on High Speed Machining Centers –Approach: Develop non-contating EM actuator, tool, displacement sensor Use modal testing to identify the combined tool/toolholder/spindle dynamics Use RCSA to identify the toolholder/spindle dynamics Combined response for any tool can be computed ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB

15 Integrated Chatter Prediction on High Speed Machining Centers –Results: Developed non-contacting EM actuator, displacement sensor, tool Currently validating RCSA to identify toolholder/spindle dynamics ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB

16 Optimization and Control of MR Dampers for Semi- Active Vehicle Suspensions –Sponsor: Carrera, Inc. (Atlanta) –Research Objectives: optimize the electromechanics of a commercial semi-active shock absorber develop and demonstrate real- time actuation and control to improve ride quality and vehicle handling ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB

17 Optimization and Control of MR Dampers for Semi- Active Vehicle Suspensions –Motivation: Ride quality and vehicle handling represent design tradeoffs Off-road suspensions require large displacements, peak forces Active vehicles suspensions are COMPLEX, expensive, durability is questionable Semi-active suspensions, particularly MR dampers, have fewer moving parts, are cheaper, more durable ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB

18 Optimization and Control of MR Dampers for Semi- Active Vehicle Suspensions –Results: Carrera’s Magneshock was redesigned using FEA for optimal EM performance Efficiency, damping characteristics were significantly improved FL controllers were developed and demonstrated on a vehicle equipped with Magneshocks Ride quality was significantly improved vs. passive shocks ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB

19 Other Ongoing Research Projects –AMBs for Tool Deflection Compensation in Precision Milling Operations Sponsor: NSF (DMII) Co-I: Dr. Tom Dow, NCSU Precision Engineering Center –Development of a Low-Frequency MEMS Vibration Sensor Sponsor: DOE (NNP Fellowship) Collaborator: Dr. Angus Kingon, NCSU Thin Films Lab ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB

20 Other Ongoing Research Projects –Reliability Analysis and Life Prediction of Aircraft Structures Sponsor: NASA (NIA) Co-I: Dr. Mohammad Noori, NCSU MAE –Technology Development for Robot-Assisted Cardiac Surgery Sponsor: CardioVations (J&J) Collaborator: Dr. Randolph Chitwood, ECU Brody School of Medicine ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB

21 Conclusions –Electromechanics research at NCSU focuses on the development and transfer of enabling technologies (a bridge between 19th century theory and 21st century technology) –A broad range of research projects are underway, funded by federal agencies and industries and conducted at the EMRL –Aerospace applications are obvious in many of these projects –Ideas for specific NIA projects are being explored ELECTROMECHANICS RESEARCH AT NCSU GDB


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