Presentation on theme: "By Cara Mosso Bell 2 January 15, 2015. Miner in China, where coal is very important."— Presentation transcript:
By Cara Mosso Bell 2 January 15, 2015
Miner in China, where coal is very important.
Explanation and Usages of Coal Coal comes from: North Eastern Pennsylvania West Virginia Kentucky Wyoming Texas North Dakota Montana Main usages of Coal: Electricity Exports Industries Types of Coal: Sub bituminous Bituminous Lignite Anthracite
Process of Coal First, giant machines dig out the coal. There are two ways to do this: Surface Mining Machines remove the top layer of soil exposing coal less than 200 ft. under ground. Underground Mining Miners ride elevators several hundreds of feet under, then run machines down these elevators to get the coal. Next coal is taken to a plant that cleans the coal and removes the impurities. Finally a power plant makes the electricity.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal Advantages Disadvantages Plenty still remains in the world. Can be easily transported Cheap Is the most plentiful energy source Liquefied or gasified, coal burns cleaner. Inexpensive=lower energy bills Mines are dangerous and an eyesore. Causes pollution Coal releases the most greenhouse gases. It’s non-renewable. Breathing in the dust can cause a lot of harm to miners. Contributes to acid rain Releases a lot of carbon dioxide. Example of it’s harm:
Coal Formation Coal is a fossil fuel meaning it comes from the decomposed remains of plants and animals from millions of years ago.
This is a deepwater platform in Louisiana, called Horizon, after it exploded in April 2010 it left most of the 126 workers escaped but 11 were left missing.
Explanation and Usages of Oil Oil comes from: Russia Saudi Arabia Iran China United States Texas Alaska California North Dakota Louisiana Oil is used for: Ink Crayons Bubble Gum Dishwashing liquid Deodorant Eyeglasses CDs & DVDs Tires Ammonia Heart valves
Process of Oil First Petroleum is separated into “fractions” those are: Light on top Heavy on bottom Then, molecules are cracked and rearranged to add value and create more energy. To make gas different streams of Petroleum are carefully combined.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Oil Advantages Disadvantages Found in lots of places Transportable through pipes, ships, or tankers More drilling would mean more oil is made in the U.S. resulting in less importation. By drilling more, oil and gas prices will decrease Opening restricted drilling areas will make billions in government money. Oil spills cause environmental damage. It’s non-renewable. Adds to global warming Prices increase as supplies run out. Workers are in danger as oil rigs can explode from something as simple as bad weather. Opening more oil rigs will increase global warming.
Environmental Damage of the 2010 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico This pictures shows a bird and its surroundings entirely covered in the oil from this terrible spill. These spills cause animal’s, from the rig’s surrounding habitat, death. That is probably the fate of this bird.
This is a burner of a gas powered stove.
Explanation and Usages of Natural Gas Natural Gas comes from: Texas California Louisiana New York Illinois Florida Canada Types: Gas Methane Butane Propane Natural Gas is used for: Steel Glass Paper Clothing Bricks Electricity Paints Fertilizer Plastics Antifreeze Dyes Photographic Film Medicines Explosives Industries as: Electric Industrial Residential Commercial Essential for many common products
Process of Natural Gas First, scientists take samples of rocks. Next they study the rocks if they look promising (meaning it’s likely to find gas) drilling starts. After gases are extracted it is taken to a processing plant where by-products are separated out.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Gas Advantages Disadvantages Found in lots of places Transports in pipes, ships, or tanker Doesn’t pollute water or ground when it’s burned. Natural gas can come in small tanks for those without pipes Non-renewable Adds to global warming Prices increase as supplies run out Workers are in danger of explosions Miles per gallon is lower in cars and trucks with natural gas. Can cause fires If your home isn’t properly insulated it can be expensive to use natural gas.
Molecule of Natural Gas This picture is as the title says it is, simply a molecule of natural gas. Video of what to do if Natural Gas is smelt:
Propane tanks at Heintz’s Propane.
Explanation and Usages of Propane Propane can be found in: Texas California Louisiana New York Illinois Florida Canada In the United States less than 2% of all energy used is made with propane’s energy. Propane is used for: Heating homes Heating water Cooking & Refrigerating food Drying clothes Fueling gas Fireplaces Barbeque grills Farming Transportation Hot-air balloons
Process of Propane When natural gas is found and separated propane is a by- product of it. Finally, it is made into usable energy.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Propane Advantages Disadvantages Safe to use indoors Cheap Usable in many pressure and temperature ranges Long history of safe use Easily transportable Little greenhouse gas emissions Easy to replace If spilled the gas goes into the air so there is no ground contamination. Can blow up More expensive than most resources Responsible for fires in boats and houses Won’t work in very cold weather Canisters are not refillable Hard to find in some areas of the country and/or world
Hot-Air Balloons Those colorful balloons with baskets at the end, guess what! Those are powered by the one and only propane!
Power plants to be built in the UK instead of older ones.
Explanation and Usages of Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy comes from: Western United States Australia Canada Africa South America The 2 types of Nuclear Energy reactors are: Boiling Water Reactor Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Energy is used for : Electricity 20% of energy used in the United States is made using Nuclear Power.
Process of Nuclear Energy First, atoms are split into smaller atoms, a process called fission. Next, the fission creates heat that is used to boil water. Then, the boiling water creates steam that turns turbine blades. Finally, the blades drive generators that make the electricity. Video of Fission:
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy Advantages Disadvantages No greenhouse gases A little makes A LOT of energy The energy obtained from nuclear power is 10 million times more powerful than the energy that would be made in the same amount of coal. Reliable Is unaffected by strikes and worldwide shortages. The waste is radioactive and harmful, thus having to be disposed of carefully. Supplies will run out in 50 years Power stations are at risk of being attacked If it is needed, it takes days to shut down a power plant. In a nuclear meltdown high dosages of radioactivity is exposed.
Nuclear Power Plant on Three Mile Island In 1979 a nuclear power plant on Three Mile Island, off of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had a mechanical failure in which the city was at risk of being exposed to radioactive material, that could cause the cities inhabitants to experience worse cancer. Luckily the issue was not that bad and no cancer caused by this could be traced.
Offshore wind turbines.
Explanation and Usages of Wind Energy Wind energy is generated in: United States Texas Iowa California Minnesota Washington Europe 1.8% of energy generated in the U.S. is made with wind energy. Wind energy is used for: Electricity The two types of Wind machines are: Horizontal axis wind machines Vertical axis wind machines
Process of Wind Energy First, wind turbine’s blades collect wind’s kinetic energy. Next, the wind over the blades creates “lift” making the turbines turn. Finally, the blades, that are connected to a drive shaft, turn a generator to make electricity.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Advantages Disadvantages Only cost is in building turbine (wind is free) No greenhouse gases Few safety risks Cheap Efficient Renewable Power failures are almost nonexistent With larger electric grids more electricity can be created making electricity accessible to more households Wind power can only be generated in windy areas. Some days, there isn’t wind. Need a lot of turbines to make a lot of energy Some people say they are ugly and ruin the countryside Wind turbines can be destroyed by severe storms or lightening Makes noise (the slower the more noise)
Where Wind Is Most Often This chart shows the areas where wind is densest. The darker the blue the more wind there is in that area. Wind turbines would be most effective in the darkest areas.
Solar Panels with sun beating down on them.
Explanation and Usages of Solar Energy Solar Energy can be found in: Europe California Anywhere with sunshine Solar energy is used for: Heat Heat water Heat spaces in homes Greenhouses Electricity
Process of Solar Energy First, Photovoltaic cells change sunlight to electricity, directly. Or, in Concentrating solar power plants, they generate electricity by first, taking in the sun’s heat. Next, they use the heat to warm a fluid. Finally, it creates steam that powers a generator, creating electricity. How it works video: environment/solar-power.html environment/solar-power.html
Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Advantages Disadvantages Energy is free No greenhouse gases Renewable Energy production is quiet You can harness energy in remote places. Cheaper to use in remote places than running electric wires Newer technologies allow for more efficient energy production on overcast days. Expensive Some don’t like solar panels look. Sun is not always prevalent Pollutants can effect the efficiency of panels. Solar energy can only be generated in daylight. Weather affects solar panels efficiency.
New Ways to Make Solar Panels This pictures show a “solar energy tree”. This tree shown is in Milan. The circles on top of the green stalks are the panels.
This is a hydroelectric power station.
Explanation and Usages of Hydroelectric Energy Hydroelectric Energy is popularly produced in: Washington California Oregon 6% of energy produced in the United States is made hydroelectrically. The types of Hydroelectric systems are: Run-of-the-river system The current applies the needed pressure Storage system Water is accumulated, then the needed amount is released for energy making.
Process of Hydroelectric Energy First, water runs through a pipe and pushes and turns a turbine. Finally, a turbine spins a generator making electricity.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Energy Advantages Disadvantages No greenhouse gases Water used is free Renewable Dams can store water (in the case of a drought) If needed, dams can be shut down immediately. Simple designs=easy repairs Expensive to build dam When building a dam the surrounding area has to be flooded. (wildlife and plants affected) If it doesn’t rain there might not be enough water to turn the turbines.
A Hydroelectric Dam in the U.S. This is the Grand Coulee Dam, it’s on the Columbia River, in central Washington. This dam holds the worlds largest hydroelectric generator.
This is a geothermal power plant.
Explanation and Usages of Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy can be found in: The ring of fire in Northern America South America Asia The Pacific coast of Australia Iceland Geothermal energy is used for: Heating systems Electricity Heat pumps Heat is pumped to the surface of earth to control above ground temperatures in buildings The types of geothermal plants are: Dry steam plants Flash steam plants Binary cycle power plants
Process of Geothermal Energy First, hot steam and water is piped out of the earth. Finally, the hot steam and water is in a dry steam well or water well and from there is used for each different purpose. Geothermal power plant (into electricity):
Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy Advantages Disadvantages No greenhouse gases Energy is fire and won’t run out Geothermal energy reduces acid rain 97% Renewable Power plants don’t have to be large After establishing a site for a plant, minimal “channels” are needed to channel it. Therefore it is… Efficient Not many places to build power stations Harmful gases and minerals occasionally come up, which can be difficult to control. Proper sites for plants are not common Sites are usually in areas where there are volcanoes or earthquakes so investors don’t want to invest their money.
Where the Energy Comes From Heat from earth’s hot interior is actually harnessed for this energy. From earth’s hottest places, like the mantle.
This is a wood-fired power plant.
Explanation and Usages of Biomass Biomass can be found in: California Michigan Illinois 4% of the energy used in the United States is made with Biomass Energy. Biomass is used for: Biodiesel Industry Electricity Commercial The types of Biomass are: Wood Solid waste (MSW) Crops
Process of Biomass Energy First, biomass materials are burned to make steam. Then, the steam turns turbines in a generator. Finally, this process makes the electricity.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass Advantages Disadvantages Cheap It uses things we would otherwise throw away. Waste can be found everywhere and doesn’t run out. Doesn’t require fossil fuels Waste needed is always accessible Biomass can be used to heat homes Can be produced locally (employing locals) There are pollutants from burning Sometimes biomass crops are grown where we could grow food May not have enough space to grow biomass fuel Extraction process is expensive Biomass burning still needs wood, which means trees will still be needed.
Current Use For Trash Currently our trash is mostly put in landfills, secondly recycled, and finally burned. With biomass we could reduce landfills by burning the waste instead.
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Bibliography (Continued) Coal Basics, November 6, Natural Gas Basics, November 6, Propane Basics, BASICS, November 6, BASICS Wind Basics, K.CFM, November 6, K.CFM Solar Basics, K.CFM, November 6, K.CFM Hydropower Basics, November 6, Geothermal Basics, November 6, Biomass Basics, BASICS-K.CFM, November 6, BASICS-K.CFM Uranium (nuclear) Basics, November 6,