2Coal EnergyMiner in China, where coal is very important.
3Explanation and Usages of Coal Coal comes from:North Eastern PennsylvaniaWest VirginiaKentuckyWyomingTexasNorth DakotaMontanaMain usages of Coal:ElectricityExportsIndustriesTypes of Coal:Sub bituminousBituminousLigniteAnthracite
4Process of CoalFirst, giant machines dig out the coal. There are two ways to do this:Surface MiningMachines remove the top layer of soil exposing coal less than 200 ft. under ground.Underground MiningMiners ride elevators several hundreds of feet under, then run machines down these elevators to get the coal.Next coal is taken to a plant that cleans the coal and removes the impurities.Finally a power plant makes the electricity.
5Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal Plenty still remains in the world.Can be easily transportedCheapIs the most plentiful energy sourceLiquefied or gasified, coal burns cleaner.Inexpensive=lower energy billsMines are dangerous and an eyesore.Causes pollutionCoal releases the most greenhouse gases.It’s non-renewable.Breathing in the dust can cause a lot of harm to miners.Contributes to acid rainReleases a lot of carbon dioxide.Example of it’s harm:
6Coal FormationCoal is a fossil fuel meaning it comes from the decomposed remains of plants and animals from millions of years ago.
7Oil (Petroleum) Energy This is a deepwater platform in Louisiana, called Horizon, after it exploded in April 2010 it left most of the 126 workers escaped but 11 were left missing.
8Explanation and Usages of Oil Oil comes from:RussiaSaudi ArabiaIranChinaUnited StatesTexasAlaskaCaliforniaNorth DakotaLouisianaOil is used for:InkCrayonsBubble GumDishwashing liquidDeodorantEyeglassesCDs & DVDsTiresAmmoniaHeart valves
9Process of OilFirst Petroleum is separated into “fractions” those are:Light on topHeavy on bottomThen, molecules are cracked and rearranged to add value and create more energy.To make gas different streams of Petroleum are carefully combined.
10Advantages and Disadvantages of Oil Found in lots of placesTransportable through pipes, ships, or tankersMore drilling would mean more oil is made in the U.S. resulting in less importation.By drilling more, oil and gas prices will decreaseOpening restricted drilling areas will make billions in government money.Oil spills cause environmental damage.It’s non-renewable.Adds to global warmingPrices increase as supplies run out.Workers are in danger as oil rigs can explode from something as simple as bad weather.Opening more oil rigs will increase global warming.
11Environmental Damage of the 2010 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico This pictures shows a bird and its surroundings entirely covered in the oil from this terrible spill. These spills cause animal’s, from the rig’s surrounding habitat, death. That is probably the fate of this bird.
12Natural GasThis is a burner of a gas powered stove.
13Explanation and Usages of Natural Gas Natural Gas comes from:TexasCaliforniaLouisianaNew YorkIllinoisFloridaCanadaTypes:GasMethaneButanePropaneNatural Gas is used for:SteelGlassPaperClothingBricksElectricityPaintsFertilizerPlasticsAntifreezeDyesPhotographic FilmMedicinesExplosivesIndustries as:ElectricIndustrialResidentialCommercialEssential for many common products
14Process of Natural Gas First, scientists take samples of rocks. Next they study the rocks if they look promising (meaning it’s likely to find gas) drilling starts.After gases are extracted it is taken to a processing plant where by-products are separated out.
15Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Gas Found in lots of placesTransports in pipes, ships, or tankerDoesn’t pollute water or ground when it’s burned.Natural gas can come in small tanks for those without pipesNon-renewableAdds to global warmingPrices increase as supplies run outWorkers are in danger of explosionsMiles per gallon is lower in cars and trucks with natural gas.Can cause firesIf your home isn’t properly insulated it can be expensive to use natural gas.
16Molecule of Natural Gas This picture is as the title says it is, simply a molecule of natural gas.Video of what to do if Natural Gas is smelt:
17Propane EnergyPropane tanks at Heintz’s Propane.
18Explanation and Usages of Propane Propane can be found in:TexasCaliforniaLouisianaNew YorkIllinoisFloridaCanadaIn the United States less than 2% of all energy used is made with propane’s energy.Propane is used for:Heating homesHeating waterCooking & Refrigerating foodDrying clothesFueling gasFireplacesBarbeque grillsFarmingTransportationHot-air balloons
19Process of PropaneWhen natural gas is found and separated propane is a by-product of it.Finally, it is made into usable energy.
20Advantages and Disadvantages of Propane Safe to use indoorsCheapUsable in many pressure and temperature rangesLong history of safe useEasily transportableLittle greenhouse gas emissionsEasy to replaceIf spilled the gas goes into the air so there is no ground contamination.Can blow upMore expensive than most resourcesResponsible for fires in boats and housesWon’t work in very cold weatherCanisters are not refillableHard to find in some areas of the country and/or world
21Hot-Air BalloonsThose colorful balloons with baskets at the end, guess what! Those are powered by the one and only propane!
22Nuclear PowerPower plants to be built in the UK instead of older ones.
23Explanation and Usages of Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy comes from:Western United StatesAustraliaCanadaAfricaSouth AmericaThe 2 types of Nuclear Energy reactors are:Boiling Water ReactorPressurized Water ReactorNuclear Energy is used for :Electricity20% of energy used in the United States is made using Nuclear Power.
24Process of Nuclear Energy First, atoms are split into smaller atoms, a process called fission.Next, the fission creates heat that is used to boil water.Then, the boiling water creates steam that turns turbine blades.Finally, the blades drive generators that make the electricity.Video of Fission:
25Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy No greenhouse gasesA little makes A LOT of energyThe energy obtained from nuclear power is 10 million times more powerful than the energy that would be made in the same amount of coal.ReliableIs unaffected by strikes and worldwide shortages.The waste is radioactive and harmful, thus having to be disposed of carefully.Supplies will run out in 50 yearsPower stations are at risk of being attackedIf it is needed, it takes days to shut down a power plant.In a nuclear meltdown high dosages of radioactivity is exposed.
26Nuclear Power Plant on Three Mile Island In 1979 a nuclear power plant on Three Mile Island, off of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania,had a mechanical failure in which the city was at risk of being exposed to radioactive material, that could cause the cities inhabitants to experience worse cancer. Luckily the issue was not that bad and no cancer caused by this could be traced.
28Explanation and Usages of Wind Energy Wind energy is generated in:United StatesTexasIowaCaliforniaMinnesotaWashingtonEurope1.8% of energy generated in the U.S. is made with wind energy.Wind energy is used for:ElectricityThe two types of Wind machines are:Horizontal axis wind machinesVertical axis wind machines
29Process of Wind EnergyFirst, wind turbine’s blades collect wind’s kinetic energy.Next, the wind over the blades creates “lift” making the turbines turn.Finally, the blades, that are connected to a drive shaft, turn a generator to make electricity.
30Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Only cost is in building turbine (wind is free)No greenhouse gasesFew safety risksCheapEfficientRenewablePower failures are almost nonexistentWith larger electric grids more electricity can be created making electricity accessible to more householdsWind power can only be generated in windy areas.Some days, there isn’t wind.Need a lot of turbines to make a lot of energySome people say they are ugly and ruin the countrysideWind turbines can be destroyed by severe storms or lighteningMakes noise (the slower the more noise)
31Where Wind Is Most Often This chart shows the areas where wind is densest. The darker the blue the more wind there is in that area. Wind turbines would be most effective in the darkest areas.
32Solar EnergySolar Panels with sun beating down on them.
33Explanation and Usages of Solar Energy Solar Energy can be found in:EuropeCaliforniaAnywhere with sunshineSolar energy is used for:HeatHeat waterHeat spaces in homesGreenhousesElectricity
34Process of Solar Energy First, Photovoltaic cells change sunlight to electricity, directly.Or, in Concentrating solar power plants, they generate electricity by first, taking in the sun’s heat.Next, they use the heat to warm a fluid.Finally, it creates steam that powers a generator, creating electricity.How it works video:
35Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Energy is freeNo greenhouse gasesRenewableEnergy production is quietYou can harness energy in remote places.Cheaper to use in remote places than running electric wiresNewer technologies allow for more efficient energy production on overcast days.ExpensiveSome don’t like solar panels look.Sun is not always prevalentPollutants can effect the efficiency of panels.Solar energy can only be generated in daylight.Weather affects solar panels efficiency.
36New Ways to Make Solar Panels This pictures show a “solar energy tree”. This tree shown is in Milan. The circles on top of the green stalks are the panels.
37Hydroelectric EnergyThis is a hydroelectric power station.
38Explanation and Usages of Hydroelectric Energy Hydroelectric Energy is popularly produced in:WashingtonCaliforniaOregon6% of energy produced in the United States is made hydroelectrically.The types of Hydroelectric systems are:Run-of-the-river systemThe current applies the needed pressureStorage systemWater is accumulated, then the needed amount is released for energy making.
39Process of Hydroelectric Energy First, water runs through a pipe and pushes and turns a turbine.Finally, a turbine spins a generator making electricity.
40Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Energy No greenhouse gasesWater used is freeRenewableDams can store water (in the case of a drought)If needed, dams can be shut down immediately.Simple designs=easy repairsExpensive to build damWhen building a dam the surrounding area has to be flooded. (wildlife and plants affected)If it doesn’t rain there might not be enough water to turn the turbines.
41A Hydroelectric Dam in the U.S. This is the Grand Coulee Dam, it’s on the Columbia River, in central Washington. This dam holds the worlds largest hydroelectric generator.
42Geothermal EnergyThis is a geothermal power plant.
43Explanation and Usages of Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is used for:Heating systemsElectricityHeat pumpsHeat is pumped to the surface of earth to control above ground temperatures in buildingsThe types of geothermal plants are:Dry steam plantsFlash steam plantsBinary cycle power plantsGeothermal energy can be found in:The ring of fire in Northern AmericaSouth AmericaAsiaThe Pacificcoast ofAustraliaIceland
44Process of Geothermal Energy First, hot steam and water is piped out of the earth.Finally, the hot steam and water is in a dry steam well or water well and from there is used for each different purpose.Geothermal power plant (into electricity):
45Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy No greenhouse gasesEnergy is fire and won’t run outGeothermal energy reduces acid rain 97%RenewablePower plants don’t have to be largeAfter establishing a site for a plant, minimal “channels” are needed to channel it. Therefore it is…EfficientNot many places to build power stationsHarmful gases and minerals occasionally come up, which can be difficult to control.Proper sites for plants are not commonSites are usually in areas where there are volcanoes or earthquakes so investors don’t want to invest their money.
46Where the Energy Comes From Heat from earth’s hot interior is actually harnessed for this energy. From earth’s hottest places, like the mantle.
48Explanation and Usages of Biomass Biomass can be found in:CaliforniaMichiganIllinois4% of the energy used in the United States is made with Biomass Energy.Biomass is used for:BiodieselIndustryElectricityCommercialThe types of Biomass are:WoodSolid waste (MSW)Crops
49Process of Biomass Energy First, biomass materials are burned to make steam.Then, the steam turns turbines in a generator.Finally, this process makes the electricity.
50Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass CheapIt uses things we would otherwise throw away.Waste can be found everywhere and doesn’t run out.Doesn’t require fossil fuelsWaste needed is always accessibleBiomass can be used to heat homesCan be produced locally (employing locals)There are pollutants from burningSometimes biomass crops are grown where we could grow foodMay not have enough space to grow biomass fuelExtraction process is expensiveBiomass burning still needs wood, which means trees will still be needed.
51Current Use For TrashCurrently our trash is mostly put in landfills, secondly recycled, and finally burned. With biomass we could reduce landfills by burning the waste instead.
52BibliographyEnergy Story, November 4, 2010.Energy and the Environment; Advantages and Disadvantages, covermore/advantages.pdf , November 4, 2010.What are the advantages and disadvantages of propane gas?, of_propane_gas#ixzz16amt9yW2, November 6, 2010.Advantages and disadvantages of Propane for the Outdoorsman, November 6, 2010.Pros and Cons, dams%20and%20hydropower%20report/pros%20and%20cons.html, November 6,Wind Energy Pros And Cons, ons.html, November 6, 2010.Geothermal Energy Pros And Cons, energy-pros-and-cons-8094.html, November 6, 2010.Pros And Cons of Solar Energy, ideas.com/articles/pros_and_cons_of_solar_energy.html, November 6, 2010.Biomass Energy Pros and Cons, cons/ , November 6, 2010.Pros and Cons of Offshore Drilling, offshore-oil-drilling.html, November 6, 2010.Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons, AND-CONS.HTML, November 6, 2010.
53Bibliography (Continued) Coal Basics, November 6, 2010.Natural Gas Basics, November 6, 2010.Propane Basics, BASICS, November 6, 2010.Wind Basics, K.CFM, November 6,Solar Basics, K.CFM, November 6, 2010.Hydropower Basics, , November 6, 2010.Geothermal Basics, , November 6, 2010.Biomass Basics, BASICS-K.CFM , November 6, 2010.Uranium (nuclear) Basics, , November 6, 2010.