3Occupational Safety and Health Act OSHA established a national policy for safety and health. It was the first comprehensive employee safety and health law in the history of the U.S. Called the Williams Steigers Act Passed in 1970 and was signed into law by President Nixon. Compliance to OSHA regulations has saved thousands of lives and prevented innumerable injuries.
4Occupational Safety and Health Act The OSH Act created three distinct federal elements for safety management. First is the Division that writes, produces, and manages the regulations. Next is the inspection and enforcement arm of OSHA and finally an Occupational Safety and Health Administration to hear appeals.OSHA also provides for health and safety research through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health which is managed by the Centers for Disease Control.
5Occupational Safety and Health Act The mission of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is to save lives, prevent injuries and protect the health of America's workers. To accomplish this, federal and state governments must work in partnership with the more than 100 million working men and women and their six and a half million employers who are covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
6Employee Responsibilities and Rights Employees have certain responsibilities to ensure that workplaces are safe. Employees must:Comply with OSHA standards.Employees have certain rights under OSHA such as the right to:Demand safety and health on the job.Request OSHA inspections.Accompany an OSHA officer during an inspection.File a complaint with OSHA anonymously.Be informed of workplace hazards via signs, labels or through training.Receive training which enhances safety
7Employer Responsibilities Employers have responsibilities as well such asKeeping employees informed.Displaying OSHA posters.Providing copies of rules and regulations.Maintaining accurate records of accidents.Employers must.Correct violations.Allow employees to refuse abnormally dangerous work.Provide personal protective equipment.Provide training.Enforce rules and regulations.
8Examples of OSHA Regulatory Standards There are many OSHA regulations because there are varying hazards and corrective measures depending upon the industry involved. Some of the most often applied are these:Emergency Exit ProceduresOccupational Noise ExposureMachine GuardingHazard CommunicationControl of Hazardous Energy—Lockout/ TagoutBloodborne PathogensConfined Space EntryPersonal Protective EquipmentProcess Safety Management
9OSHA Health and Safety Goals Improve workplace safety and health.Increase employer and worker awareness of safety and health.Secure public confidence.For this reason and because of the number of laboratory accidents, OSHA has begun regulating safety in laboratory settings.
10Historical Background of Lab Safety Standard Chemical accidents like those described in Module One have demonstrated the need to create and enforce safety regulations that are uniform and consistently applied across the U.S. These regulations follow a pattern of laws designed to protect workers, the environment, and communities against the dangers offered by accidents involving chemicals.As you might imagine, the Lab Standard is not the product of Washington Bureaucrats with nothing better to do than to increase the regulatory burden on the masses.For years there had been much public concern about chemical releases and the potential for dangers chemical releases from chemical processors and manufacturers.Those fears were realized in 1984 when several thousand people were killed and many more injured from a methyl isocyanate release in Bhopal, India.Soon after this accident legislation was introduced to address public safety near chemical manufacturing facilities. In 1985 the Comm. RtK Act, part of Sara Title III, became law. This legislation requires employers to prepare chemical inventories and make them available to public and fire depts.Next came the Haz. Comm. standard or Worker RtK. This required employers to have chemical inventories, MSDS’s, container labeling, and worker training in safe use of hazardous chemicals.Labs originally covered by Hazcomm. until Multiple. requests were received by OSHA from chemical community that needed a standard that fit what they were doing. That led to the promulgation or the Lab Safety Standard which became law in 1991.
11Historical Background of Lab Safety Standard Laws that impact all users of chemicals include:The Comprehensive Environmental Resource and Liability Act of This law made EPA a viable force in protecting the environment by allowing it to secure and remediate land contaminated with hazardous waste.The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) provided in Title III - Community Right to Know Act – 1985 as well as the Employee Right to Know requirements that all employees not covered by OSHA must follow.As you might imagine, the Lab Standard is not the product of Washington Bureaucrats with nothing better to do than to increase the regulatory burden on the masses.For years there had been much public concern about chemical releases and the potential for dangers chemical releases from chemical processors and manufacturers.Those fears were realized in 1984 when several thousand people were killed and many more injured from a methyl isocyanate release in Bhopal, India.Soon after this accident legislation was introduced to address public safety near chemical manufacturing facilities. In 1985 the Comm. RtK Act, part of Sara Title III, became law. This legislation requires employers to prepare chemical inventories and make them available to public and fire depts.Next came the Haz. Comm. standard or Worker RtK. This required employers to have chemical inventories, MSDS’s, container labeling, and worker training in safe use of hazardous chemicals.Labs originally covered by Hazcomm. until Multiple. requests were received by OSHA from chemical community that needed a standard that fit what they were doing. That led to the promulgation or the Lab Safety Standard which became law in 1991.
12Historical Background of Lab Safety Standard Hazard Communication Standard of1986 required employers through OSHA to notify employees as to the hazards of chemicals with which they are required to work. Signing and labeling requirements as well as training specifications mandate how employers must identify hazards. Material Safety Data Sheets are one example.The OSHA Laboratory Safety Standard of 1991 specifies safe working conditions for employees working in laboratory settings.As you might imagine, the Lab Standard is not the product of Washington Bureaucrats with nothing better to do than to increase the regulatory burden on the masses.For years there had been much public concern about chemical releases and the potential for dangers chemical releases from chemical processors and manufacturers.Those fears were realized in 1984 when several thousand people were killed and many more injured from a methyl isocyanate release in Bhopal, India.Soon after this accident legislation was introduced to address public safety near chemical manufacturing facilities. In 1985 the Comm. RtK Act, part of Sara Title III, became law. This legislation requires employers to prepare chemical inventories and make them available to public and fire depts.Next came the Haz. Comm. standard or Worker RtK. This required employers to have chemical inventories, MSDS’s, container labeling, and worker training in safe use of hazardous chemicals.Labs originally covered by Hazcomm. until Multiple. requests were received by OSHA from chemical community that needed a standard that fit what they were doing. That led to the promulgation or the Lab Safety Standard which became law in 1991.
13Occupational Safety and Health OSHA has tailored this standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories referred to as the Laboratory Standard which is found in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910, Subpart Z, Section 1450 (29 CFR ).
14Occupational Safety and Health The goal of laboratory safety is to keep exposures to hazardous materials or risks from physical hazards to a minimum while making every effort to be informed about the risks and hazards.Achieving a zero-risk environment in the laboratory is an impossible task, however, it is possible to approach an accident free workplace by setting a goal of zero incidents and excuses. Safe practice by laboratory workers requires continuing attention, training, and education.
15Occupational Safety and Health What is a Laboratory?A laboratory is defined by OSHA as a “facility where the use of hazardous chemicals occurs”. It includes workplaces where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a non-production basis.
16Occupational Safety and Health OSHA further defines “the use of hazardous chemicals” as the handling or use of such chemicals in which all of the following conditions are met:chemical manipulations are carried out on a laboratory scalemultiple chemical procedures or chemicals are usedthe procedures involved are not part of the production process, nor in any way simulate a production process, and“protective laboratory practices and equipment” are available and in common use to minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals.
17Occupational Safety and Health The term “hazardous chemical” is a broad definition according to OSHA. If you use a chemical that has any sort of associated health hazard (carcinogens, irritants, sensitizers or anything that can irritate or damage the eyes, skin, or mucous membranes) in the process of working with a sample or product, then you have a laboratory. Common examples of OSHA regulated laboratories include laboratories that analyze commercial samples for the environmental or pharmaceutical industries, product testing laboratories, university; middle; and high school teaching laboratories, and in-house research laboratories.
18Occupational Safety and Health Hazardous chemical – the OSHA definition is a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees.The term "health hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes
19Employer Responsibilities Under the Laboratory Standard The School District has certain requirements they must meet as outlined in the Laboratory Standard to protect personnel and ensure a safe workplace. In general, SDOC is required to:determine, to the extent possible, which hazardous chemicals are present in the laboratory (this includes chemicals that are delivered to the laboratory and chemicals produced by the laboratory)monitor any employee exposure to regulated chemicals which may be reasonably expected to exceed the action levelwrite and implement a Chemical Hygiene Plan which is the program that addresses the specific hazards found in the lab and the lab's approach to dealing with the hazards
20Compliance with the Laboratory Standard The general employer responsibilities of the Laboratory Standard are quite broad in scope. The Laboratory Standard does detail specific requirements that you need to be familiar with so you can implement them in your laboratory. Listed below are the specific references and requirements found within the Laboratory Standard.
21Compliance with the Laboratory Standard c – that employers assure the laboratory employees’ exposures to OSHA regulated substances do not exceed permissible exposure limits.d - an employee exposure determination including both initial and periodic monitoring.e - a written Chemical Hygiene Planf – employee information and trainingg – medical consultation and medical examinationsh - hazard identificationi – use of respiratorsj – recordkeeping
22Occupational Safety and Health The Laboratory Standard is not the only standard that effects teachers in school lab classrooms.Another standard that impacts science teachers is the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard.This standard appears in CFR You can read the standard at OSHA.gov.The standard impacts laboratory classroom teachers since it will be their responsibility to render initial first aid when accidents occur and a student or teacher is cut or burned.
23Bloodborne Pathogens Standard 29 CFR , Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens was published in December 1991 and effective March It impacts all occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious material (OPIM). Some employees are significantly impacted such as nurses and paramedics. Others are peripherally affected because of certain actions they may take in the course of their work such as rendering first aid.The BBP Standard applies to all employers with employees with reasonably anticipated occupational exposure to blood or OPIM. It applies, not just in healthcare, but in general industry as well (e.g., first aiders). The BBP standard does not apply in construction, agriculture, or maritime; as those industries have adopted different standards.
24Bloodborne Pathogens Rules & Regulations OSHA regulations seek to minimize exposures though the use of the following protective measures:Universal Precautions - the process of treating any blood or OPIM as though is contained a pathogen capable of infecting the worker.Engineering and Work Practice Controls – managing through design tools and processes that minimize contact with BBPs.Personal protective equipment – such as latex or other protective gloves, protective eye wear, or gowns.Housekeeping – controlling how and what is done with waste and used products that may contain BBPs.Since paragraph (d) of the standard is exceptionally important in reducing and eliminating occupational exposure to blood and OPIM, it is important to note all of the major methods of compliance (indicated on this slide).Universal precautions is an approach to infection control where all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if they are known to be infected by HIV, HBV, HCV, and other bloodborne pathogens. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and local Departments of Health have numerous resources regarding proper infection control practices. Documents are available from the CDC atEngineering and work practice controls must be used to eliminate or minimize employee exposure. Where occupational exposure remains after the institution of these controls, personal protective equipment must also be used.Housekeeping ensures that a worksite is maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.
25Bloodborne Pathogens Rules & Regulations OSHA Standard - is 29 CFR Requirements - requires the school district to develop a bloodborne pathogens plan. Also requires training to all employees regularly. High risk employees such as nurses must be trained every year.Goal - the goal of the program and training is to reduce accidents involving bloodborne pathogens
26OSHA STANDARDS Protects employees Nurses Physicians Health Aids and TechniciansParamedicsLaboratory techniciansHousekeeping PersonnelAny individual who may have occupational exposure to BBP
27OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE A brief indoctrination is required at this point. Employees that may (in the performance of employee duties) be reasonably anticipated to come in contact with skin, eye, mucous membrane, or puncture wound (parenteral) contact with blood or Other Potentially Infectious Material (OPIM) are covered by the standard.
28BLOODBORNE PATHOGENSBBPs are pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood or OPIMs and can cause disease in humans.Examples include Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus.Human body fluids of concern include the following:Saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, unfixed tissues, any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood. Of greatest concern to classroom teachers would be blood.
29Florida DOE Requirements The DOE specifies a variety of design and process related elements of school laboratories. These are mostly in the construction and operation of school labs. Examples are:Exhaust and VentilationPowerChemical StorageSafetyEmergency Control of gases and liquids.
30Standards of CareA standard of care (SOC) is one which is created either by a regulatory body or in some cases by a nationally recognized standards writing organization. SOCs are not law (unless adopted by a governmental body) but they still impact how we do business. They do this by establishing a “right” way of doing something. It may not be the way we would prefer to do it but we must give serious consideration to these standards since anyone evaluating our performance in a post-accident setting certainly will.
31Standards of Care Some examples of SOCs include The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 45 The Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using ChemicalsNational Research Council Recommendations Concerning Chemical Hygiene in Laboratories.
32SummaryOSHA and other regulatory entities as well as nationally recognized standards writing organizations impact how school teachers in the laboratory setting perform their job. The goal of this regulation is to limit to number of accidents and their severity to the lowest level possible while still providing for meaningful student experience in the laboratory. It is all of our jobs to make sure that safety is part of everything we do in the lab.Go to the Quiz
34Florida DOE Requirements (4) Chemical Storage. Rooms used for the storage, handling, and disposal of chemicals used in school and community college laboratories shall comply with the following:(a) Rooms shall be lockable from the outside, but not from the inside.(b) Rooms shall be vented to the exterior.(c) The ventilation system shall not be connected to the air-conditioning return air system.(d) Rooms shall be kept at moderate temperatures.(e) Rooms shall be well illuminated.(f) Rooms shall have shelves with a one-half inch lip on the front.Back to Module
35Florida DOE Requirements Section (g) 2 Mechanical(g) Ventilation and Exhaust. Special provisions shall be made in the design of ventilation systems in the areas of high air contamination, such as chemistry labs, paint shops, auto repair shops, small engine repair shops, and cosmetology labs. Special ventilation system designs shall comply with the "Industrial Ventilation Manual." Laboratory and shop spaces shall be provided with appropriate exhaust systems as follows:1. Chemistry laboratories and science rooms equipped with fume hoods shall be designed with a high capacity emergency exhaust system providing twenty (20) air changes per hour and may be provided with positive ventilation via doors or windows to the exterior. Signs providing instructions shall be permanently installed at the emergency exhaust system fan switch and adjacent to the door or window to be opened.2. Chemistry labs shall be provided with fume hoods. Fume hood exhaust fans may be included in the air change rate calculations. Fume hood supply fans shall automatically shut down when the emergency exhaust fan is turned on.Back to Module
36Florida DOE Requirements Section 3.2 (a) SafetyScience, laboratory, and shop spaces must have labeled master control valves and switches for emergency cut-offs.Section 5.3 (11) (a) 2 Fire Extinguishers and Blanketsc. Class B extinguishers of at least 20-B:C capacity shall be installed in spaces where flammable liquids are stored, such as science labs, auto shops, boiler rooms, duplicating stations, and bulk storage of paints. Extinguishers shall be located so that the travel distance from any point in the space to an extinguisher shall not exceed fifty (50) feet. Alkaline dry chemical extinguishers, such as sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate, shall be installed within fifteen (15) feet of cooking equipment.Section 5.3 (11) (a) Fire Extinguishers and Blankets4. Fire blankets shall be located in each laboratory and each shop where a fire hazard may exist.Back to Module
37Florida DOE Requirements Section 5.3 (16) (f) Power 4. a.Every laboratory space which has electrical receptacles at student work stations shall have an emergency shut-off switch within fifteen (15) feet of the instructor's work station. The emergency shut-off switch shall be operable by a single motion and shall interrupt power to all receptacles in the room.Back to Module
38Florida DOE Requirements Section 5.5(p) Laboratories and Shops. Laboratories and shops comply with the general requirements found elsewhere in this section as well as the special safety provisions found herein.1. Each laboratory type space, such as chemistry, physics, and home economic labs, and each shop type space, such as automobile, wood working, and welding shops, equipped with unprotected gas cocks, compressed air valves, water service, and electric service, easily accessible to students, has master control valves or switches with permanently attached handles.a. The master control valves and switches are clearly labeled and located in a non- lockable place accessible at the instructor's station to allow for emergency cut-off of services, and valves completely shut-off with a one-quarter turn.Back to Module
39Florida DOE Requirements Section 5.5(p) (cont)b. The master control valves and switches are in addition to the regular main gas supply cut-off, and the main supply cut-off is shut down upon activation of the fire alarm system.2. Every science room, lab, or shop where students handle materials or chemicals potentially dangerous to human tissue is provided with a dousing shower, floor drain, and eye wash facilities.4. Laboratory and shop spaces, such as the following, are provided with exhaust systems:a. Chemistry laboratories have a high capacity emergency exhaust system and are provided with a source of positive ventilation and signs providing instructions are permanently installed at the emergency exhaust system fan switch.b. Chemistry labs are provided with fume hoods and fume hood supply fans automatically shut down when the emergency exhaust fan is turned on.Back to Module
40Florida DOE Requirements Section 5.3 (16) (f) Power 4. a.Every laboratory space which has electrical receptacles at student work stations shall have an emergency shut-off switch within fifteen (15) feet of the instructor's work station. The emergency shut-off switch shall be operable by a single motion and shall interrupt power to all receptacles in the room.Back to Module
42ReferencesASE (1996) Safeguards in the School Laboratory (10th ed..), Hatfield: ASE.Borrows, P. (1992) ‘Safety in secondary schools’, in Hull, R. (ed.), ASE Secondary Science Teachers’ Handbook, Hemel Hempstead: Simon & Shuster. (This highlights the common accidents in labs most of which involve chemicals in the eye or mouth or on the body; and describes five ‘main danger areas’ such as burns from alcohol fires and alkali metal explosions.) More recently Borrows has written: ‘Safety in science education’, in Ratcliffe, M. (ed.) (1998).DfEE (1996) Safety in Science Education, London: HMSO.Everett, K. and Jenkins, E. (1991) A Safety Handbook for Science Teachers, London: John Murray.The MSDS Hyperglossary at
43Glossary Back to Module 29 CFR – OSHA’s Laboratory Standard also known as Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910, Subpart Z, Section 1450Action Level – a concentration designated in 29 CFR part 1910 for a specific substance, calculated as an eight hour-time weighted average (TWA), which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance. Action levels are generally set at one half the PEL but the action level may vary from standard to standard.Acute toxicity – is the ability of a chemical to cause a harmful effect such as damage to a target organ or death after a single exposure or an exposure of short duration.American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) – a non-profit organization consisting of a community of professionals advancing worker health and safety through education and the development and dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. The ACGIH develops and publishes recommended occupational exposure limits each year called TLVs for hundreds of chemicals, physical agents and biological exposure indices.American National Standard Institute (ANSI) – a non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the US voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system.Biological Materials – Biological or biohazardous materials include all infectious organisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, etc.) that can cause disease in humans or cause significant environmental or agricultural impact.Carcinogen - A substance capable of causing cancer. Carcinogens are chronically toxic substances; that is, they cause damage after repeated or long-duration exposure, and their effects may become evident only after a long latency period.Back to Module
44Glossary Back to Module CAS # - Chemical Abstracts Number – a unique number assigned to a chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service.CFR – Code of Federal Regulations – contains the listings of all US Federal regulations. The CFR, compiled by the Office of the Federal Register, is divided into 50 titles, which cover broad areas subject to Federal regulation.Chemical Hygiene Officer – an employee designated by the employer who is qualified by training or experience to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. Note that these duties can be in addition to the other job functions the employee performs in the laboratory.Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) – a plan that addresses specific hazards in the laboratory and is required by OSHA’s Laboratory StandardCorrosive – a substance which causes damage to skin, eyes or other parts of the body on contact. Concentrated acids are examples of corrosive substances.Embryotoxin – a substance which retards the growth or affects the development of an unborn child up to and including deformities and death. Mercury compounds, certain heavy metals, aflatoxin, formamide, and radiation are known embryotoxins.Explosive – means a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.Face velocity – the average velocity of air drawn through the face of a chemical fume hood and generally calculated as the total volumetric exhaust flow rate for the hood divided by the area of the open face, less an adjustment for hood air leakage.Back to Module
45Glossary Back to Module Irritant – a chemical which may cause reversible inflammation upon contact.Laboratory -Any facility where the "laboratory use of potentially hazardous chemicals" occurs. It is a room where relatively small quantities of potentially hazardous chemicals are used during scientific experimentation.Flammable – means a chemical that falls into one of the following categories:aerosol flammable is an aerosol that when tested by the method in 16 CFR , yields a flame protection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve openinggas flammable is a gas that at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13% by volume or less or a gas that at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12% by volume, regardless of the lower limit.liquid flammable means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100°C or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.solid flammable means a solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in (a), that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. A chemical will be considered a flammable solid if, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR , it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis.Back to Module
46Glossary Back to Module FM 200 – a Halon replacement extinguishing agent which is a chemical blend (heptafluoropropane), stored as a liquid within the agent cylinder similar to that of Halon-type cylinders. It will not corrode sensitive electronic equipment, and contains no particulates or oily residues. In fact, it leaves very little residue and is a quite popular extinguishing agent in use today for the protection of computer rooms.Fume Hood - a laboratory device, enclosed on five sides with a moveable sash or fixed partial enclosure on the remaining side; constructed and maintained to draw air from the laboratory and to prevent or minimize the escape of air contaminants into the laboratory; and allows chemical manipulations to be conducted in the enclosure without insertion of any portion of the employee’s body other than hands and arms.Hazardous chemical – the OSHA definition is a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.Hazard Communication Standard – 29 CFR was first enacted on November 25, 1983, by the OSHA. It was later modified with minor changes and technical amendments to take effect March 11, The purpose of the standard is to ensure that chemical hazards in the workplace are identified and evaluated, and that information concerning these hazards is communicated through MSDSs and labels. This standard is also known as the Right-to-Know Law.Back to Module
47Glossary Back to Module HEPA - high efficiency particulate air filter – is a filter that is manufactured, tested and certified to meet applicable construction and efficiency standards for high-efficiency filters. The filters are manufactured from an ultra-fine glass-fiber medium designed to capture microscopic particles that can easily pass through most other filters by a combination of diffusion, interception, and inertial impaction.Health Hazard - means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees.Inergen - It is an inert gas used for fire extinguishment. It is a mixture of three naturally occurring atmospheric gases: 52% nitrogen, 40% argon, and 8% CO2. The Inergen gas curtails and extinguishes fire by lowering the oxygen content beneath the level that supports combustion. But it should be noted that due to the CO2 present in Inergen, the brain continues to receive the same amount of oxygen in an Inergen atmosphere as it would in a normal atmosphere, for reasonable periods of time.Laboratory Scale - Working with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person. Laboratory Standard – a standard (29 CFR ) issued by OSHA addressing occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals in the laboratory. All laboratories must comply with this standard.Back to Module
48Glossary Back to Module Laboratory use of Potentially Hazardous Chemicals - the handling or use of such chemicals in which all of the following conditions are met:1) Use of laboratory scale.2) Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals used.3) Protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and in common use to minimize the potential for student/teacher exposure to hazardous chemicals.LC50 or lethal concentration 50 – this is a measure of toxicity which corresponds to the concentration in air that kills 50% of the test population. Note that most estimates of human toxicity are based on animal studies, which may or may not relate to human toxicity.LD50 or lethal dose 50 – this is a measure of toxicity which corresponds to the dose required to kill 50% of the test population. Note that most estimates of human toxicity are based on animal studies, which may or may not relate to human toxicity. The LD50 is usually measured in milligrams of the material per kilogram of body weight of the test animal. To estimate a lethal dose for a human based on animal tests, the LD50 must be multiplied by the weight of an average person.Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) – is a well-established document for disseminating health and safety information about chemical products to employees, customers, emergency responders, and the public. Information contained in the MSDS includes potential health, safety, and environmental hazards, safe handling practices, and applicable regulatory information.Back to Module
49Glossary Back to Module National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) private non-profit organization, is the leading authoritative source of technical background, data, and consumer advice on fire protection, problems and preventionOrganic peroxide - an organic compound that contains the bivalent -OO- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical. Peroxides can be very dangerous materials and may be shock and thermal sensitive. They are also strong oxidizers. OSHA – Occupational Safety & Health Administration is part of the US Department of Labor. Its mission is to save lives, prevent injuries and protect the health of America's workers.Particularly hazardous substance – is defined by OSHA in the Laboratory Standard and includes “select carcinogens” (strongly indicative of causing cancer in humans), reproductive toxins, and substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity.Permissible exposure limit (PEL) - which represents the maximum amount or concentration of a substance that a worker may be exposed to under OSHA regulations. There are ceiling values (at no time should this value be exceeded) and 8-hour time weighted averages (an average value of exposure over the course of an 8 hour work shift)Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – is all clothing and other work accessories designed to create a barrier against workplace hazards. Examples include safety goggles, respirators, lab coats, etc.Back to Module
50Glossary Back to Module Pyrophoric – a pyrophoric material is one that ignites spontaneously in air and is derived from the Greek word meaning “fire-bearing”. Many of these materials will also react vigorously with water or high humidity and ignite upon contact.Physical Hazard – A hazard exhibited by certain chemicals due to their physical properties. These chemicals fall into the following classes: combustible liquids, compressed gases, explosives, flammable liquids or solids, organic peroxide, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, and unstable (reactive) or water reactive materials.Reproductive toxins – per OSHA any chemical that affects the reproductive chemicals which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage/mutations and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis).Select carcinogens – per OSHA any substance that meets one of the following criteria:regulated by OSHA as a carcinogenlisted under the category, “known to be carcinogens” in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published in the latest edition by the National Toxicology Program (NTP)listed under Group 1 (“carcinogenic to humans”) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC)listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category, “reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens” by NTP and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria: after inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m3, after repeated skin application of less than 300 mg/kg of body weight per week, or after oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day.Back to Module
51Glossary Back to Module Sensitizer – a chemical which may lead to the development of allergic reactions after repeated exposure.Short term exposure limit (STEL) - which is the concentration employees can be exposed to continuously for a short period of time without suffering from irritation, chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or narcosis of sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury, impair self-rescue or materially reduce work efficiency.Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) – is a document that describes the operations, analyses, or actions that are commonly accepted methods or the laboratory prescribed procedures for performing certain routine or repetitive tasks.Target Organ - indicate which bodily organs are most likely to be affected by exposure to a substance. Certain chemicals may bio-concentrate in the liver while other target the brain.Threshold Limit Values (TLV) – are airborne concentrations devised by the ACGIH that represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed day after day with no adverse effect. TLVs are advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards, that are based on evidence from industrial experience, animal studies, or human studies when they exist. There are three different types of TLV's: Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and Ceiling (TLV-C).Tort Law – is the law of liability and negligence. It involves that plaintiff who allegedly has been wronged and the defendant who is claimed to have perpetrated the injustice. Tort law deals with issues of property and personal injury law. Mass tort is the process of suing a major defendant on behalf of a large number of plaintiffs. Law suits involving drugs such as Vioxx are examples.Back to Module
52Glossary Back to Module Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) – is a procedure (Method 1311) performed on a sample within the laboratory to determine whether or not a waste is considered hazardous. A sample is extracted with a buffered acid and the resulting extraction fluid or leachate approximates the fluid that would leach from the sample if it were in a landfill.Toxicity Characteristic (TC) – regulatory limits established for 39 compounds. If a waste analyzed via the TCLP procedure detects any of these compounds above the regulatory limits then the waste is said to exhibit the toxicity characteristic.Water Reactive - these substances are dangerous when wet because they undergo a chemical reaction with water. This reaction may release a gas that is either flammable or presents a toxic health hazard. In addition, the heat generated when water contacts such materials is often enough for the item to spontaneously combust or explode.Back to Module
53Quiz TwoThe first comprehensive employee safety and health law in the history of the U.S. was the:Occupational Safety and Health Act.The Williams – Steigers Act.The 1970 Occupational Safety Hazards Act.A and b are correct.All of the above.Back to StartNext Question
54Quiz Two According the the OSH Law, employees have the right to: Work in a job free of hazards.Comply to OSHA regulations.Request a NIOSH investigation.File an anonymous complaint with OSHA.All of the above.Back to StartNext Question
55Quiz TwoThe law that made EPA a viable force in environmental protection is the:Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.Hazard Communications StandardComprehensive Environmental Resource and Liability Act.Back to StartNext Question
56Quiz TwoRequirements for signing and labels chemical containers are found in:Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.Hazard Communications StandardComprehensive Environmental Resource and Liability Act.Back to StartNext Question
57Quiz TwoA substance for which there is at least one study indicating that exposure may result in acute or chronic health effects is called:A controlled substance.A hazardous chemical.A health hazard.A teratogenNone of the aboveBack to StartNext Question
58Quiz TwoWhich of the following requirements must the District meet according to the Laboratory Standard?Write and implement a Chemical Hygiene PlanProvide vaccinations for Hepatitis B.Eliminate all known hazards in the laboratory.Document every accident in the laboratory.All of the above.Back to StartNext Question
59Quiz TwoThe process of treating any blood as though it contains a pathogen capable of infection is called:Universal precautions.Managing work practices.Using Personal Protective equipment.Hazard segregationBack to StartNext Question
60Quiz TwoWhich of the agencies below have regulations that affect school laboratories?Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationThe Florida Department of EducationThe Environmental Protection AgencyA and B are correct.All of the above.Back to StartNext Question
61Quiz Two Which of the following substances qualify as OPIMs? Saliva SemenCerebrospinal fluidA and B are correct.All of the above.Back to StartNext Question
62Quiz Two Which of the items below are covered by OSHA standards? Emergency exits procedures.Machine guarding.Bloodborne pathogensOccupational Noise ExposureAll of the aboveBack to StartFinish