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Biomass Energy Delivery through Pyrolysis Oil

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Presentation on theme: "Biomass Energy Delivery through Pyrolysis Oil"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomass Energy Delivery through Pyrolysis Oil
Anjan Ray UOP India Pvt Ltd Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers December 18, 2010 Gurgaon, India © 2010 UOP LLC. All rights reserved. UOP

2 UOP Overview Biofuels: Next in a Series of Sustainable Solutions
Leading supplier and licensor of processing technology, catalysts, adsorbents, process plants, and technical services to the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and gas processing industries. UOP Technology Furnishes: 60% of the world’s gasoline; 85% of the world’s biodegradable detergents; 60% of the world’s para-xylene. 3400 employees worldwide. Strong relationships with leading refining and petrochemical customers worldwide. UOP’s innovations enabled lead removal from gasoline, the production of biodegradable detergents, the first commercial catalytic converter for automobiles. 2003 National Medal of Technology Recipient Biofuels: Next in a Series of Sustainable Solutions

3 Macromarket Summary: Through 2020
Global energy demand is expected to grow at CAGR 1.6%. Primary Energy diversity will become increasingly important over this period with coal, natural gas & renewables playing bigger roles Fossil fuels will continue to supply ~80% of primary energy and 90 to 95% of liquid transportation needs Biofuels are expected to grow at 8-12%/year to ~3.0 MBPD Source: IEA, 2008 Can bio-based products replace petroleum’s… Physical properties? Versatile and high-performance Cost? $12/GJ Scale? 31,000,000,000 bbl/yr For which petroleum-based products can bio-based ones directly substitute? Can modifications of process or product improve indirect substitution? Can technological innovation lower the cost of individual steps? Can economies of scale lower the end cost to a competitive level? Is there sufficient land area? Is the land area productive enough? Source: Lux Research, Inc. 2010 Energy Security, GHG Abatement & Economics will Drive Investment UOP 3

4 Biofuels: Regional Drivers
SE ASIA/ S. AMERICA Agro sector focus EUROPE Energy Security: RED Global warming: RED/FQD AFRICA Rural development CHINA/INDIA Energy Security Rural development Employment N. America Energy Security: RFS Environment Agro sector subsidies Drivers Change Priority for Different Economies/Geographies

5 (Jatropha, Camelina & Algal)
Biofuels Overview: Technology Pathways Feedstocks = UOP Areas Products Ethanol Sugars Fermentation Dehydration C6 Sugars Distiller’s Grain C5 / C6 Sugars CO2 Renewable Energy Starches Enzyme Conversion Acid or Enzyme Hydrolysis Green Gasoline Direct Conversion Lignin, Cellulose & Hemicellulose Hydrotreating Pyrolysis/Thermal Depolymerization Bio-oil - Lights Fischer Tropsch H2O Syngas Gasification Green Diesel/Jet Alcohol Synthesis FCC Natural Oils Hydrotreating Glycerine Co-Feed 2nd Gen Feeds (Jatropha, Camelina & Algal) Transesterification FAME or FAEE Current biofuel market based on sugars & oils. Use bridging feedstocks to get to 2nd Generation Feeds: Algae & Lignocellulosics

6 Petroleum Refining Context
Product Treating Blending Fuel Gas Gasoline Jet Diesels Heating Oils Geases Fuel Oil LPG Solvents Fuels Lube Oils Asphalts Lube Oil Production Hydrogen Production/ Purification/Recovery Gas-to-Liquids Natural Gas Fuel, Wax Natural Gas, Fuel Oil H2 Plant Upgrades & Revamps Plant Maintenance/ Reliability/ Safety Energy Conservation & Management (Power Production) Environmental Controls Solvent Extraction & Deasphalting Gas Oil Hydrotreating Light Distillate Hydrotreating Heavy Distillate Hydrotreating Naphtha Hydrotreating Light Olefins Production Aromatics Production BTX Vacuum Distillation Visbreaking Vacuum Resid Diesel Gas Oil Heavy Fuel Oil Asphalt Syngas/Steam Electricity Coke Kerosene and Jet Fuels Diesel and Heating Oils Gasoline, Naphtha, Middle Distillates, Gasoline Distillates Reformate Diesel and Heating Oil Fluid Catalytic Cracking Hydrocracking Crude Oil Distillation (Topping) Heavy Distillate Light Distillates Naphtha Atmospheric Gas Oil Catalytic Reforming Etherification Gas Processing Unit Light Ends Light Naphtha Isomerate LPG Sulfur Plant Sulfur Iso-octane Production Gasification Iso-octane Crude Treating & Desalting Crude Oil Latest Refining Technology Development & Licensing Butane- Butylene Alcohol Isobutane Butane Alkylation Alkylate Flue Gas Isomerization Coking Refining: ~100 years ~750 refineries ~85M BBL of crude refined daily ~50M BBL transport fuels Complex but efficient conversion processes High quality transport fuels Massive Scale Technology Evolution Expected UOP I wd put the GHG pie chart into this slide if it can fit 6

7 Biofuels in Modern Refinery Context: Key Attributes
Supplement crude diet with locally sourced feeds Provides some insulation against price shock More secure supply chain Critical issue is creating a truly fungible product Use the same infrastructure as oil refining today Does not require modifications to transport platform Address the environmental pressures of fossil fuel combustion Life Cycle Analysis of biofuels shows dramatic benefits Sustainable feed and product chain to insure long term success Cost competitive technology offerings UOP

8 UOP Renewables Vision Oxygenated Biofuels Hydrocarbon Biofuels
Building on UOP technology and expertise Produce real fuels instead of fuel additives/blends Leverage existing refining/ transportation infrastructure to lower capital costs, minimize value chain disruptions, and reduce investment risk. Focus on path toward second generation feedstocks & chemicals Oxygenated Biofuels Biodiesel Ethanol Hydrocarbon Biofuels Diesel Jet Gasoline Inedible Oils: Camelina, Jatropha First Generation Natural oils from vegetables and greases Lignocellulosic biomass, algal oils Second Generation UOP strategy in biofuels technology development is captured in this slide. UOP approach is use the same biological feedstocks used to make ethanol and biodiesel, but convert them into gasoline and diesel molecules that are indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts using refining type processes. Equally important, UOP’s technology thrust is to develop processes that integrate well into existing transport fuel delivery infrastructure. UOP categorizes its developmental efforts two ways. Current generation 1 feedstocks will be used to develop technologies to convert veg oils, greases, animal fats and inedible oils to green gasoline, green diesel and green jet. We are concurrently engaged in developing techologies to enable the processing and conversion of the 2nd generation feedstocks, lignocelllulosic biomass and algal oils into green fuels. In the interim, in countries such as India and China, inedible oil sources such as jatropha and camelina, will serve as a key feedstocks, as soon as commercial scale plantations are developed. Then go to takeaway point UOP

9 Transition Option

10 UOP/ENI Ecofining™ Superior technology that produces a drop-in diesel
Uses existing refining infrastructure, can be transported via pipeline, and can be used in existing automotive fleet CFPP and Cloud Point can be controlled Excellent blending component, allowing refiners to expand diesel pool by mixing in “bottoms” Can be used as an approach to increase refinery diesel output Process Comparison vs. Biodiesel Natural Oil/ Grease + Methanol Biodiesel (FAME) + Glycerol Natural Oil/ Grease + Hydrogen Green Diesel + Propane Performance Comparison Petrodiesel Biodiesel Green Diesel NOx Baseline +10 -10 to 0 Cetane 40-55 50-65 75-90 Cold Flow Properties Poor Excellent Oxidative Stability

11 Ecofining: Implementation Options
4. Stand-alone Hydroprocessing/ Isomerization (Ecofining Unit) Feedstocks Rapeseed Tallow Jatropha Soybean Algal Oils Palm Oil 3. Integrate with new or existing DHT 2. Revamp existing DHT Now let’s look at how Ecofining technology might be implemented today in a refinery. Broadly speaking there are four options presented here in order of capital investment: UOP has tested all of these feedstocks on Ecofining technology. Product quality is independent of feedstock, thus a very interesting proposition for refiners who can access a wider feedstock market as they can still guarantee product quality to meet diesel pool specifications DHT = Distillate Hydrotreater 1. Co-Processed Hydroprocessing UOP

12 Green Diesel vs. Biodiesel (FAME)
Natural Oil/ Grease Methanol Hydrogen Biodiesel (FAME) Green Diesel + Glycerol + Propane Petroleum ULSD Biodiesel (FAME) Green Diesel Oxygen Content, % 11 Specific Gravity 0.84 0.88 0.78 Sulfur content, ppm <10 <1 Heating Value MJ/kg 43 38 44 Cloud Point, °C -5 -5 to +15 -30 to -10 Cetane 40 50-65 70-90 Lubricity Baseline Good Stability Poor Vegetable oil can produce biodiesel or green diesel Green diesel offers many advantages over bio diesel UOP’s first generation solution is Ecofining for the production of green diesel The primary advantage of green diesel over biodiesel and petro diesel is in its quality attributes. The highlighted rows capture the key advantages, Similar energy content, excellent cold flow properties and significantly higher cetane, along with excellent stability. Green diesel is blendable to any proportion with petro-diesel and more importantly is compatible with conventional diesel engines, i.e. no modifications are required. GD also meets all of the ASTM and EN590 specs UOP/ENI EcofiningTM Process to Produce Green Diesel Preferred Bio Derived Diesel of ACEA UOP

13 Breakeven Analysis: Sensitivity to Feed Oil Prices
Sensitivity to Vegetable Oil Price $400 $200 $0 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50 $55 $60 $65 $70 $75 $80 $85 $90 $95 $100 $105 $110 $115 $120 $125 -$200 -$400 NPV, $M -$600 -$800 $400/MT ($59/bbl) $600/MT ($88/bbl) $800/MT ($118/bbl) $1000/MT ($146/bbl) -$1,000 -$1,200 -$1,400 Crude Price, $/bbl Economics Driven by Relative Cost of Feedstocks

14 Economics of Oil Upgrading
Strongly dependent on price of starting oil Requires source of hydrogen to modify oil – expense Upgrading steps complimentary with traditional refinery operations Capital charge dependent on access to existing facilities

15 Second Generation Option

16 Lignocellulosic Biomass Processing Options
Direct Combustion Heat & Power Fast Pyrolysis Pyrolysis Oil Transport Fuels Upgrading Solid Biomass SynGas Hydro-cracking/Dewaxing Fischer Tropsch Gasification Envergent Route to Energy Fermentation/ Catalysis Bioethanol/ Biobutanol UOP

17 Pyrolysis Oil to Energy & Fuels Vision
Electricity Production Energy/ Fuels P Forest Fiber Available for Sale Fuel Oil Substitution Fast Pyrolysis Pyrolysis Oil Biomass Transport Fuels (Gasoline, Jet, Diesel) Commercially available in 2012 Ag Residue Phased Commercialization

18 Rapid Thermal Processing (RTPTM) Technology
Pyrolysis Oil Solid Biomass Commercially Proven Patented Technology UOP

19 RTP Operating History & Commercial Experience
Commercialized in the 1980’s 7 units designed and operated in the US & Canada Continuous process with >90% availability Plant Year Built Operating Capacity (Metric Tonnes Per Day) Location Manitowoc RTP – 1 1993 30 Manitowoc, WI, USA Rhinelander RTP – 1 1995 35 Rhinelander, WI, USA Rhinelander Chemical #2 2 Rhinelander RTP – 2 2001 45 Rhinelander Chemical #3 2003 1 Petroleum Demo # 1 2005 300 barrels per day Bakersfield, CA, USA Renfrew RTP – 1 (Owned and operated by Ensyn) 2007 100 Renfrew, Ontario, Canada Note: design basis for wood based plants assumes feedstocks with 6 wt% moisture content. Significant Commercial Experience

20 FCC Experience Enables Scale-up
UOP FCC Background FCC technology is key process in gasoline production UOP has been designing FCC units since the early 1940’s – one of the co-inventors Licensed over 250 units – more than 50% of world-wide capacity Unit sizes from 1,500 to 200,000 BPD capacity RTPTM UOP FCC FCC Experience Enables Scale-up UOP

21 RTPTM Unit Process Diagram
Quench & Separation Conversion Feed System Surge Bin Feed Bin Heat for Moisture Reduction Minimal Net Utilities – RTP Is Self sustaining Process With Reduced Carbon Footprint I would put some verbiage on the process flow scheme UOP

22 Feedstock Sources Cellulosic Feedstocks Widely Available
Forestry and Pulp and Paper Wood chips, sawdust, bark Lignin Agricultural Residues - straw, expended fruit bunches from palm (EFB), other Purpose-grown energy crops – miscanthus, elephant grass Post-consumer Construction and Demolition Waste, Categories 1 & 2 Municipal solid waste (future) USDA study > 1 billion ton per year available in United States alone Regional Technical Biomass Potentials in 2050 (Mtoe/yr) Source: VTT, 2007a Cellulosic Feedstocks Widely Available UOP For the paper, we can jsut use the verbiage and not the slide

23 Feed Handling / Preparation
Water is a heat sink Dried to 5-6 wt% moisture content for efficient RTPTM reactor operation Size impacts heat transfer Biomass sized to inch (3-6 mm) Capacity of unit expressed on bone dry feed basis BDMTPD Zero water content RTP is Self-Sustaining – Excess Heat Dries Raw Biomass

24 RTPTM Product Yields 400 TPD of Hardwood Feed, Wt% Hardwood Whitewood 100 Typical Product Yields, Wt% Dry Feed Pyrolysis Oil 72.9 By-Product Vapor 13.3 Char 13.8 Yields For Various Feeds Biomass Feedstock Type Typical Pyrolysis Oil Yield, Wt% of Dry Feedstock Hardwood 70 – 75 Softwood 70 – 80 Hardwood Bark 60 – 65 Softwood Bark 55 – 65 Corn Fiber 65 – 75 Bagasse Waste Paper 60 – 80 Cellulosic Feedstock Flexible with High Yields of Pyrolysis Oil UOP

25 Comparison of Heating Value of Pyrolysis Oil
RTPTM Pyrolysis Oil Properties Pourable, storable and transportable liquid fuel Energy densification relative to biomass Contains approximately 50-55% energy content of fossil fuel Stainless steel piping, tankage and equipment required due to acidity Requires separate storage from fossil fuels Comparison of Heating Value of Pyrolysis Oil and Typical Fuels Fuel MJ / Litre BTU / US Gallon Methanol 17.5 62,500 Pyrolysis Oil 19.9 71,500 Ethanol 23.5 84,000 Light Fuel Oil (#2) 38.9 139,400 Suitable for Energy Applications

26 Comparison of Cost of Selling PyOil vs. Making PyOil
Pyrolysis Oil: Alternate Revenue Stream Development of pyrolysis oil as a well-defined commodity critical to success Producer and consumer confidence ASTM standard specification for use of pyrolysis oil in industrial burners is a key first step ASTM D7544, Standard Specification for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuel PROPERTY VALUE TEST METHOD Gross Heat of Combustion, MJ/kg Point, oC 15 min ASTM D240 Pyrolysis Solids Content, wt% 2.5 max ASTM D7544, Annex I Water Content, wt% 30 max ASTM E203 pH report ASTM E70 Kinematic Viscosity, 40 °C 125 max ASTM D445 Density, 20 °C 1.1 – 1.3 ASTM D4052 Sulfur Content, wt% 0.05 max ASTM 4294 Ash Content, wt% 0.25 max ASTM 482 Flash Point, oC 45 min ASTM D93, Procedure B Pour Point, oC -9 max ASTM D97 Comparison of Cost of Selling PyOil vs. Making PyOil

27 Pyrolysis Oil Energy Applications
Compatible with specialized turbines Specialized burner tips improve flame/burning Convert to steam to use existing infrastructure Use as a blend in diesel engines Upgradable to hydrocarbon fuels Fuel Burner Heat RTP Unit Gas Turbine Electricity CHP Diesel Engine Green Gasoline, Green Diesel & Green Jet Optimized UOP Upgrading Technology Syngas Hydro- cracking/ Dewaxing Fischer- Tropsch Gasification Multiple Applications for Pyrolysis Oil, a Renewable Fuel Available Today UOP

28 Pyrolysis Oil: Replacement of Fossil Fuels to Generate Heat
Specialized burner tips improve flame/burning Low emissions (NOx, SOx) Fuel consistency - ASTM D7544 Flexibility to decouple pyrolysis oil production from energy generation (location and time) GHG emission reduction of 70-90% Low cost liquid biofuel ~40% cheaper to make and use pyrolysis oil than to purchase #2 fuel oil on an equivalent energy basis 400 BDMTPD RTP Unit Assumes 60 $US/bbl crude Includes RTP operating cost and 15-yr straight line depreciation of CAPEX 330 Days per Year Comparison of Cost of Buying #2 Fuel Oil vs. Making Pyrolysis Oil ~ 8 $US Million per Year Savings

29 RTPTM Economics – Fuel Oil Substitute
Comparison of Cost of RTP Operation to Purchasing Equivalent Amount of Fuel Oil Delivered &Dry Feedstock Cost, $US/Metric Tonne 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Crude Oil Price, $US/barrel Million $US/year 50 Cost of Buying Equivalent Amount of #2 Fuel Oil 40 $US/MT Feedstock Breaks ~28 $US/barrel Need verbiage here 400 BDMTPD RTP, hardwood whitewood feed; 330 days per year #2 Fuel Oil scaled from 28 Nov 08 WTI Spot, 55 $US/bbl, & 1.67 $US/USGal for #2 Fuel Oil, Source EIA Pyrolysis oil contains 55% of energy content of fuel oil, by volume. 15 year straight line depreciation included in cost of operation; $US 30 million RTP ISBL CAPEX Economic Solution for Fuel Oil Substitution

30 Pyrolysis Oil: Production of Green Electricity
Compatible with specialized turbines Green electricity production cost is 0.12 $US/kW-h Includes RTP operating cost and 15-yr straightline depreciation of CAPEX (including gas turbine) Experience in stationary diesel engine as blend with fossil fuel Operation with 100% pyrolysis oil under development Commercial application expected by 2Q2011

31 Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading
Fuel & Property Preliminary Value Gasoline Approximate Yield, % Boiling Range, °C Octane Number 54 IBP - 193 89 Diesel Cetane Number 35 193 – 325 31.5 Heavies 10 – 20 325+ Objectives Remove oxygen molecules Reduce acidity and viscosity Break up molecules to make high octane gasoline or diesel/jet precursors Commercialization expected in 2012 Solution Thermochemical upgrading; leverage existing hydroprocessing technologies Preliminary Results 30 Wt% hydrocarbon yield from dry biomass Preliminary Yields from Hydrocarbon Achieved in Lab, Working on Stability and Scale UOP For paper, slide can be replace by the verbiage

32 Light acids/ oxygenates may be used to supplement H2 generation
Integration into Commercial Refinery Light acids/ oxygenates may be used to supplement H2 generation Partial Deox PY Oil Stabilizer Integration at the commercial plant level: A number of options exist for integration of py oil into refinery processes: As stabilized py oil As partially or fully deoxygenated py oil For by-products (light acids, oxygenates) as H2 generation UOP

33 Integrated Biorefinery Demonstration
UOP has received a DOE grant to demonstrate fuels technology from conversion of second generation feedstocks Demonstration to be done at a refinery location, with commercial partners Fuel sourced from pyrolysis technology is based on renewable feedstocks Waste biomass On purpose energy crops C&D wastes Completely fungible fuels is the objective of the project Technology development that complements traditional refinery technology Demonstration Plant to Start up by 2014 UOP

34 Pyrolysis Oil vs. Fossil Fuel LCA
Carbon Dioxide Impact Canadian Scenario Sawmill Residues RTP unit located at sawmill site Feed Transportation Distance = 0 PyOil 88% lower GHG than Petroleum-derived heating oil LCA Result courtesy of Don O’Connor (S&T)2 Consultants Inc. 11657 Summit Crescent Delta, BC Canada, V4E 2Z2 Significant GHG Benefits With Biofuels UOP

35 Pyrolysis Oil vs. Fossil Fuel LCA
Pyrolysis Oil Production foot print similar to fossil energy alternatives Assumed biomass transport distances 200 km for logging residues 25 km for short rotation forest crops Pyrolysis Oil Life Cycle foot print Greener than other alternatives Carbon neutral combustion emission 70-88% lower GHG emissions SOx emissions similar to Natural Gas

36 RTPTM Project Benefits
Economics Economic solution for renewable energy Competitive relative to fossil fuels Leverages existing assets Provides alternate revenue stream Technical Proven application Feedstock flexibility Minimal net utilities Storable product allows decoupling from end user Environment & Social Reduction of greenhouse gases and emissions Waste disposal Minimum environmental Impact Agriculture development Employment Energy Security Energy diversification Reduction of fossil energy requirements Pyrolysis to Energy Now – Transport Fuels in 2012 UOP

37 Biofuels and Refining A Compatible Future
Several options exist to address the growing demand for renewable fuels Choice of option depends strongly on available feed Economics tied to feed supply and alternate feed uses Triglyceride oil starting points give immediate transport fuels solution Cellulosic materials provide an energy substitute Longer term transport solution RTP technology for conversion of biomass to an energy delivery intermediate Commercially proven technology: 8 units designed and operated Reliable operation with 90% on-line availability similar to refining operations Cost competitive with fossil fuel oil (depending on crude price and feedstock cost) 25-30% cheaper than #2 Fuel Oil on energy basis Transport fuels technology available soon DOE demo in progress Alternate fuel with secure supply chain Tangible environmental benefits UOP

38 UOP


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