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Biomass Energy Delivery through Pyrolysis Oil Anjan Ray UOP India Pvt Ltd Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers December 18, 2010 Gurgaon, India UOP 5363-01.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomass Energy Delivery through Pyrolysis Oil Anjan Ray UOP India Pvt Ltd Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers December 18, 2010 Gurgaon, India UOP 5363-01."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomass Energy Delivery through Pyrolysis Oil Anjan Ray UOP India Pvt Ltd Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers December 18, 2010 Gurgaon, India UOP © 2010 UOP LLC. All rights reserved.

2 UOP Overview Leading supplier and licensor of processing technology, catalysts, adsorbents, process plants, and technical services to the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and gas processing industries. UOP Technology Furnishes: 60% of the world’s gasoline; 85% of the world’s biodegradable detergents; 60% of the world’s para-xylene employees worldwide. Strong relationships with leading refining and petrochemical customers worldwide. UOP’s innovations enabled lead removal from gasoline, the production of biodegradable detergents, the first commercial catalytic converter for automobiles. Biofuels: Next in a Series of Sustainable Solutions 2003 National Medal of Technology Recipient

3 Source: IEA, 2008 Macromarket Summary: Through 2020  Global energy demand is expected to grow at CAGR 1.6%. –Primary Energy diversity will become increasingly important over this period with coal, natural gas & renewables playing bigger roles  Fossil fuels will continue to supply ~80% of primary energy and 90 to 95% of liquid transportation needs  Biofuels are expected to grow at 8-12%/year to ~3.0 MBPD Source: Lux Research, Inc Energy Security, GHG Abatement & Economics will Drive Investment Can bio-based products replace petroleum’s… Physical properties? Versatile and high-performance Cost? $12/GJ Scale? 31,000,000,000 bbl/yr For which petroleum- based products can bio-based ones directly substitute? Can modifications of process or product improve indirect substitution? Can technological innovation lower the cost of individual steps? Can economies of scale lower the end cost to a competitive level? Is there sufficient land area? Is the land area productive enough? UOP

4 Biofuels: Regional Drivers Drivers Change Priority for Different Economies/Geographies SE ASIA/ S. AMERICA Agro sector focus EUROPE Energy Security: RED Global warming: RED/FQD N. America Energy Security: RFS Environment Agro sector subsidies AFRICA Rural development CHINA/INDIA Energy Security Rural development Employment

5 Biofuels Overview: Technology Pathways Current biofuel market based on sugars & oils. Use bridging feedstocks to get to 2 nd Generation Feeds: Algae & Lignocellulosics Transesterification Enzyme Conversion Fermentation C 6 Sugars Dehydration Acid or Enzyme Hydrolysis Gasification Pyrolysis/Thermal Depolymerization Lights CO 2 Feedstocks Products Syngas Direct Conversion H2OH2O FCC Hydrotreating Bio-oil Hydrotreating Fischer Tropsch - Alcohol Synthesis Distiller’s Grain Glycerine Starches Natural Oils Green Gasoline Ethanol FAME or FAEE Green Diesel/Jet C 5 / C 6 Sugars Co-Feed Lignin, Cellulose & Hemicellulose Sugars 2 nd Gen Feeds (Jatropha, Camelina & Algal) Renewable Energy = UOP Areas

6 Petroleum Refining Context  Refining: ~100 years  ~750 refineries  ~85M BBL of crude refined daily  ~50M BBL transport fuels  Complex but efficient conversion processes  High quality transport fuels Massive Scale Technology Evolution Expected UOP

7 Biofuels in Modern Refinery Context: Key Attributes Supplement crude diet with locally sourced feeds Provides some insulation against price shock More secure supply chain Critical issue is creating a truly fungible product Use the same infrastructure as oil refining today Does not require modifications to transport platform Address the environmental pressures of fossil fuel combustion Life Cycle Analysis of biofuels shows dramatic benefits Sustainable feed and product chain to insure long term success Cost competitive technology offerings UOP

8 UOP Renewables Vision Building on UOP technology and expertise Produce real fuels instead of fuel additives/blends Leverage existing refining/ transportation infrastructure to lower capital costs, minimize value chain disruptions, and reduce investment risk. Focus on path toward second generation feedstocks & chemicals Inedible Oils: Camelina, Jatropha Lignocellulosic biomass, algal oils Second Generation Oxygenated Biofuels Biodiesel Ethanol Hydrocarbon Biofuels JetDiesel Gasoline First Generation Natural oils from vegetables and greases UOP

9 Transition Option

10 UOP/ENI Ecofining™  Superior technology that produces a drop-in diesel  Uses existing refining infrastructure, can be transported via pipeline, and can be used in existing automotive fleet  CFPP and Cloud Point can be controlled  Excellent blending component, allowing refiners to expand diesel pool by mixing in “bottoms”  Can be used as an approach to increase refinery diesel output PetrodieselBiodiesel Green Diesel NOx Baseline to 0 Cetane Cold Flow Properties BaselinePoorExcellent Oxidative Stability BaselinePoorExcellent Natural Oil/ Grease + Hydrogen Green Diesel + Propane + Glycerol Biodiesel (FAME) Natural Oil/ Grease + Methanol Performance Comparison Process Comparison vs. Biodiesel

11 Ecofining: Implementation Options Feedstocks  Rapeseed  Tallow  Jatropha  Soybean  Algal Oils  Palm Oil 2. Revamp existing DHT 4. Stand-alone Hydroprocessing/ Isomerization (Ecofining Unit) 1. Co-Processed Hydroprocessing 3. Integrate with new or existing DHT UOP

12 UOP/ENI Ecofining TM Process to Produce Green Diesel Preferred Bio Derived Diesel of ACEA Green Diesel vs. Biodiesel (FAME) Natural Oil/ Grease + Glycerol Biodiesel (FAME) Green Diesel + Propane Hydrogen Methanol Petroleum ULSD Biodiesel (FAME)Green Diesel Oxygen Content, %0110 Specific Gravity Sulfur content, ppm<10<1 Heating Value MJ/kg Cloud Point, °C-5-5 to to -10 Cetane LubricityBaselineGoodBaseline StabilityBaselinePoorBaseline UOP

13 -$1,400 -$1,200 -$1,000 -$800 -$600 -$400 -$200 $0 $200 $400 Crude Price, $/bbl $400/MT ($59/bbl) $600/MT ($88/bbl) $800/MT ($118/bbl) $1000/MT ($146/bbl) Sensitivity to Vegetable Oil Price NPV, $M $25$35 $45$55 $65 $85$95 $105 $115$125$75 $30 $40$50 $60 $70 $80$90 $100 $110$120 Economics Driven by Relative Cost of Feedstocks Breakeven Analysis: Sensitivity to Feed Oil Prices

14 Economics of Oil Upgrading Strongly dependent on price of starting oil Requires source of hydrogen to modify oil – expense Upgrading steps complimentary with traditional refinery operations Capital charge dependent on access to existing facilities

15 Second Generation Option

16 Lignocellulosic Biomass Processing Options Solid Biomass Direct Combustion Fast Pyrolysis Oil Gasification SynGas Heat & Power Transport Fuels Fischer Tropsch Upgrading Hydro- cracking/ Dewaxing Fermentation/ Catalysis Bioethanol/ Biobutanol Envergent Route to Energy UOP

17 Pyrolysis Oil to Energy & Fuels Vision Fast Pyrolysis Electricity Production Transport Fuels (Gasoline, Jet, Diesel) Fuel Oil Substitution Available for Sale Commercially available in 2012 Phased Commercialization Biomass Ag Residue Pyrolysis Oil Forest Fiber Energy/ Fuels P P P P

18 Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP TM ) Technology Pyrolysis Oil Solid Biomass Commercially Proven Patented Technology UOP

19 RTP Operating History & Commercial Experience Commercialized in the 1980’s 7 units designed and operated in the US & Canada Continuous process with >90% availability Significant Commercial Experience Plant Year Built Operating Capacity (Metric Tonnes Per Day) Location Manitowoc RTP – Manitowoc, WI, USA Rhinelander RTP – Rhinelander, WI, USA Rhinelander Chemical #219952Rhinelander, WI, USA Rhinelander RTP – Rhinelander, WI, USA Rhinelander Chemical #320031Rhinelander, WI, USA Petroleum Demo # barrels per dayBakersfield, CA, USA Renfrew RTP – 1 (Owned and operated by Ensyn) Renfrew, Ontario, Canada Note: design basis for wood based plants assumes feedstocks with 6 wt% moisture content.

20 FCC technology is key process in gasoline production UOP has been designing FCC units since the early 1940’s – one of the co-inventors Licensed over 250 units – more than 50% of world-wide capacity Unit sizes from 1,500 to 200,000 BPD capacity UOP RTP TM UOP FCC FCC Experience Enables Scale-up UOP FCC Background

21 RTP TM Unit Process Diagram Surge Bin Feed Bin Feed System Conversion Quench & Separation Heat for Moisture Reduction Minimal Net Utilities – RTP Is Self sustaining Process With Reduced Carbon Footprint UOP

22 Feedstock Sources Cellulosic Feedstocks Widely Available  Forestry and Pulp and Paper –Wood chips, sawdust, bark –Lignin  Agricultural –Residues - straw, expended fruit bunches from palm (EFB), other –Purpose-grown energy crops – miscanthus, elephant grass  Post-consumer –Construction and Demolition Waste, Categories 1 & 2 –Municipal solid waste (future)  USDA study > 1 billion ton per year available in United States alone Regional Technical Biomass Potentials in 2050 (Mtoe/yr) Source: VTT, 2007a UOP

23 Feed Handling / Preparation Water is a heat sink Dried to 5-6 wt% moisture content for efficient RTP TM reactor operation Size impacts heat transfer Biomass sized to inch (3-6 mm) Capacity of unit expressed on bone dry feed basis BDMTPD Zero water content RTP is Self-Sustaining – Excess Heat Dries Raw Biomass

24 RTP TM Product Yields Cellulosic Feedstock Flexible with High Yields of Pyrolysis Oil Feed, Wt% Hardwood Whitewood100 Typical Product Yields, Wt% Dry Feed Pyrolysis Oil72.9 By-Product Vapor13.3 Char13.8 Biomass Feedstock Type Typical Pyrolysis Oil Yield, Wt% of Dry Feedstock Hardwood70 – 75 Softwood70 – 80 Hardwood Bark60 – 65 Softwood Bark55 – 65 Corn Fiber65 – 75 Bagasse70 – 75 Waste Paper60 – TPD of Hardwood Yields For Various Feeds UOP

25 RTP TM Pyrolysis Oil Properties Suitable for Energy Applications FuelMJ / LitreBTU / US Gallon Methanol17.562,500 Pyrolysis Oil19.971,500 Ethanol23.584,000 Light Fuel Oil (#2) ,400 Comparison of Heating Value of Pyrolysis Oil and Typical Fuels Pourable, storable and transportable liquid fuel Energy densification relative to biomass Contains approximately 50-55% energy content of fossil fuel Stainless steel piping, tankage and equipment required due to acidity Requires separate storage from fossil fuels

26 Pyrolysis Oil: Alternate Revenue Stream Development of pyrolysis oil as a well-defined commodity critical to success Producer and consumer confidence ASTM standard specification for use of pyrolysis oil in industrial burners is a key first step PROPERTYVALUETEST METHOD Gross Heat of Combustion, MJ/kg Point, o C 15 minASTM D240 Pyrolysis Solids Content, wt% 2.5 maxASTM D7544, Annex I Water Content, wt% 30 maxASTM E203 pHreportASTM E70 Kinematic Viscosity, 40 °C 125 maxASTM D445 Density, kg/dm 20 °C 1.1 – 1.3ASTM D4052 Sulfur Content, wt% 0.05 maxASTM 4294 Ash Content, wt% 0.25 maxASTM 482 Flash Point, o C45 minASTM D93, Procedure B Pour Point, o C-9 maxASTM D97 ASTM D7544, Standard Specification for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuel Comparison of Cost of Selling PyOil vs. Making PyOil

27 Pyrolysis Oil Energy Applications  Compatible with specialized turbines  Specialized burner tips improve flame/burning  Convert to steam to use existing infrastructure  Use as a blend in diesel engines  Upgradable to hydrocarbon fuels Multiple Applications for Pyrolysis Oil, a Renewable Fuel Available Today Gas Turbine Diesel Engine Heat Electricity CHP Green Gasoline, Green Diesel & Green Jet Fischer- Tropsch Syngas Gasification Optimized UOP Upgrading Technology Fuel Burner Hydro- cracking/ Dewaxing RTP Unit UOP

28 Pyrolysis Oil: Replacement of Fossil Fuels to Generate Heat Specialized burner tips improve flame/burning Low emissions (NOx, SOx) Fuel consistency - ASTM D7544 Flexibility to decouple pyrolysis oil production from energy generation (location and time) GHG emission reduction of 70-90% Low cost liquid biofuel ~40% cheaper to make and use pyrolysis oil than to purchase #2 fuel oil on an equivalent energy basis 400 BDMTPD RTP Unit Assumes 60 $US/bbl crude Includes RTP operating cost and 15-yr straight line depreciation of CAPEX 330 Days per Year Comparison of Cost of Buying #2 Fuel Oil vs. Making Pyrolysis Oil ~ 8 $US Million per Year Savings

29 RTP TM Economics – Fuel Oil Substitute Comparison of Cost of RTP Operation to Purchasing Equivalent Amount of Fuel Oil 400 BDMTPD RTP, hardwood whitewood feed; 330 days per year #2 Fuel Oil scaled from 28 Nov 08 WTI Spot, 55 $US/bbl, & 1.67 $US/USGal for #2 Fuel Oil, Source EIA Pyrolysis oil contains 55% of energy content of fuel oil, by volume. 15 year straight line depreciation included in cost of operation; $US 30 million RTP ISBL CAPEX Delivered &Dry Feedstock Cost, $US/Metric Tonne Crude Oil Price, $US/barrel Million $US/year Cost of Buying Equivalent Amount of #2 Fuel Oil 40 $US/MT Feedstock Breaks ~28 $US/barrel Economic Solution for Fuel Oil Substitution

30 Pyrolysis Oil: Production of Green Electricity Compatible with specialized turbines Green electricity production cost is 0.12 $US/kW-h Includes RTP operating cost and 15-yr straightline depreciation of CAPEX (including gas turbine) Experience in stationary diesel engine as blend with fossil fuel Operation with 100% pyrolysis oil under development Commercial application expected by 2Q2011

31 Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading Objectives Remove oxygen molecules Reduce acidity and viscosity Break up molecules to make high octane gasoline or diesel/jet precursors Commercialization expected in 2012 Solution Thermochemical upgrading; leverage existing hydroprocessing technologies Preliminary Results 30 Wt% hydrocarbon yield from dry biomass Fuel & PropertyPreliminary Value Gasoline Approximate Yield, % Boiling Range, °C Octane Number 54 IBP Diesel Approximate Yield, % Boiling Range, °C Cetane Number – Heavies Approximate Yield, % Boiling Range, °C 10 – Achieved in Lab, Working on Stability and Scale Preliminary Yields from Hydrocarbon UOP

32 Partial Deox PY Oil Stabilizer Light acids/ oxygenates may be used to supplement H 2 generation Integration at the commercial plant level:  A number of options exist for integration of py oil into refinery processes: –As stabilized py oil –As partially or fully deoxygenated py oil –For by-products (light acids, oxygenates) as H 2 generation Integration into Commercial Refinery UOP

33 Integrated Biorefinery Demonstration UOP has received a DOE grant to demonstrate fuels technology from conversion of second generation feedstocks Demonstration to be done at a refinery location, with commercial partners Fuel sourced from pyrolysis technology is based on renewable feedstocks Waste biomass On purpose energy crops C&D wastes Completely fungible fuels is the objective of the project Technology development that complements traditional refinery technology Demonstration Plant to Start up by 2014 UOP

34 Pyrolysis Oil vs. Fossil Fuel LCA Canadian Scenario Sawmill Residues RTP unit located at sawmill site Feed Transportation Distance = 0 PyOil 88% lower GHG than Petroleum-derived heating oil LCA Result courtesy of Don O’Connor (S&T) 2 Consultants Inc Summit Crescent Delta, BC Canada, V4E 2Z2 Significant GHG Benefits With Biofuels Carbon Dioxide Impact UOP

35 Pyrolysis Oil vs. Fossil Fuel LCA Pyrolysis Oil Production foot print similar to fossil energy alternatives Assumed biomass transport distances  200 km for logging residues  25 km for short rotation forest crops Pyrolysis Oil Life Cycle foot print Greener than other alternatives  Carbon neutral combustion emission  70-88% lower GHG emissions  SO x emissions similar to Natural Gas

36 RTP TM Project Benefits Pyrolysis to Energy Now – Transport Fuels in 2012 Environment & Social  Reduction of greenhouse gases and emissions  Waste disposal  Minimum environmental Impact  Agriculture development  Employment Technical  Proven application  Feedstock flexibility  Minimal net utilities  Storable product allows decoupling from end user Energy Security  Energy diversification  Reduction of fossil energy requirements Economics  Economic solution for renewable energy  Competitive relative to fossil fuels  Leverages existing assets  Provides alternate revenue stream UOP

37 Biofuels and Refining A Compatible Future Several options exist to address the growing demand for renewable fuels Choice of option depends strongly on available feed Economics tied to feed supply and alternate feed uses Triglyceride oil starting points give immediate transport fuels solution Cellulosic materials provide an energy substitute Longer term transport solution RTP technology for conversion of biomass to an energy delivery intermediate Commercially proven technology: 8 units designed and operated Reliable operation with 90% on-line availability similar to refining operations Cost competitive with fossil fuel oil (depending on crude price and feedstock cost) 25-30% cheaper than #2 Fuel Oil on energy basis Transport fuels technology available soon DOE demo in progress Alternate fuel with secure supply chain Tangible environmental benefits UOP

38 UOP


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