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1 Clean Development Mechanism & Agriculture Sector Shalin Shah – Sr. Manager (Environment) Mundra Port & SEZ, Adani Group Honorary Joint Secretary - NCCSD.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Clean Development Mechanism & Agriculture Sector Shalin Shah – Sr. Manager (Environment) Mundra Port & SEZ, Adani Group Honorary Joint Secretary - NCCSD."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Clean Development Mechanism & Agriculture Sector Shalin Shah – Sr. Manager (Environment) Mundra Port & SEZ, Adani Group Honorary Joint Secretary - NCCSD

3 Background for presentation Climate Change, Global Warming are well known terms world over. So I will not discuss anything on the basics of Climate Change.

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6 5 Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how? The CDM project Cycle India’s Position Types of CDM projects Outline

7 6 Mitigation of Global Warming To tackle the challenges posed by global warming (climate change), United Nations made an agreement at the ‘ United Nations Conference on Environment and Development’ in 1992 in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil – a conference popularly known as the “Rio Earth Summit”. That agreement was “The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” (UNFCCC).

8 IPCC constituted IPCC GHG inventory report Rio Earth Summit & birth of UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol adopted Kyoto Protocol comes into force First commitment period starts First commitment period ends ……24 year story

9 UNFCCC Signed by 154 states (plus the EU) in 1992 foundation of global efforts to combat global warming. Objective: “ The stabilisation of greenhouse gas (GHGs) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous man made interference with the natural climate system. ”

10 UNFCCC Members

11 10 Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Protocol Amendment to the UNFCCC outlined in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Commitment for 38 developed countries to reduce GHG emissions by 5.2% relative to 1990 levels It must be achieved by 2008 – 2012 – first commitment period Developed countries – bound with targets – Annex I countries – Such as: UK, Europe, Australia etc. Developing countries – no targets – non annex I countries – Such as: India; Pakistan; China; Thailand; Malaysia; Mexico; Brazil etc.

12 Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how? The CDM project Cycle India’s position Types of CDM projects Outline

13 12 Kyoto Gases & GWP There are over 30 atmospheric greenhouse gases…But only 6 attract CC, so called ”Kyoto Gases” Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) Relevant to bio- carbon & industrial projects Relevant to industrial projects Perfluorocarbons (C X F X ) Hydrofluorocarbons (C X H X F X ) Sulphur Hexaflouride (SF 6 ) Each of these gases has a different warming potential

14 13 Each of these gases has a different ‘radiative forcing’ capability and a different atmospheric residence time Need for a ‘common currency’, so that all such Kyoto gases are denominated in the same way Solution: develop a relative scale, using CO 2 as a reference gas Kyoto Gases & GWP

15 14 Relative scale – everything is measured relative to CO 2 e.g. Methane is 21 times more potent as a Green House Gas than CO 2 e.g. Sulphur Hexafluoride is 23,900 times more potent! Kyoto Gas (Green House Gas) Global Warming Potential (GWP) CO 2 1 CH 4 23 N2ON2ON2ON2O310 PFC 6500 – 9200 HFC 140 – SF Kyoto Gases & GWP

16 Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how? The CDM project Cycle India’s Position Types of CDM projects Outline

17 16 Clean Development Mechanism ‘ Flexibility Mechanisms’ of Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism (Achieving part of reduction obligations of developed countries through projects in developing countries that reduce GHG emissions) It is defined under Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol Emission Trading (Trading of emission allowances between developed countries) Joint implementation (Transferring emission allowances between developed nations, linked to specific emission reduction projects)

18 17 Developed countries can reduce emissions anywhere in the world They can count these reductions towards their own targets CDM allows developed countries to generate CC (Certified Emission Reductions, CERs) in developing countries Advantages for developed countries: relatively low-cost & politically acceptable Advantages for developing countries: inward investment, environmental & technology benefits Clean Development Mechanism Purposes of CDM – two primary goals

19 18 Generation of CC GHG emissions Historical Trend Project start Carbon credits (CERs) Time Clean Development Mechanism Carbon credits (CERs) CERs from a CDM project are calculated as: CER = BE – PE The Baseline Emissions (BE) is the amount of GHG that would have been emitted to the atmosphere in the absence of the CDM project activity. PE is the Project Emissions

20 What is Carbon Credit ? Carbon credits are reduction in emission of GHGs caused by a project 1 CER = 1 tonne of CO2 equivalent (e) reduction 1 CER = 1 tonne of CO2 equivalent (e) reduction 1 CER = 1 Carbon Credit 1 VER = 1 Carbon Credit ( Earned Through Voluntary Route ) ( Earned Through Voluntary Route )_____________________________ CER – Certified Emission Reduction CER – Certified Emission Reduction VER – Voluntary Emission Reduction VER – Voluntary Emission Reduction

21 20 Five major criteria a) GHG reduction - real and measurable a) GHG reduction - real and measurable b) Contribution to the sustainable development of the host country b) Contribution to the sustainable development of the host country c) No “diversion” of official development assistance c) No “diversion” of official development assistance d) Demonstration of Additionality d) Demonstration of Additionality e) Project after 2 August 2008 – Inform UNFCCC within Six months e) Project after 2 August 2008 – Inform UNFCCC within Six months Clean Development Mechanism Qualification for CDM Project

22 21 Additional incentives provided by emission reduction credits, is a concept known as "additionality". It is the most significant requirement for a project to qualify for the CDM benefits. Emission Additionality – Net decrease in GHG emission is called Emission Additionality. Financial Additionality – Project funding should not be counted towards the financial obligations of the host country Technological Additionality – CDM project activities should lead to transfer of environmentally safe & sound technologies. If the industry is legally mandated (bound to do any of the above by law) to undertake the project activity (e.g. use of CNG for public transport in Delhi), such a project is generally not eligible for CDM benefits. Clean Development Mechanism Demonstration of Additionality

23 Additionality – benchmark analysis Project without carbon revenue is profitable – but not sufficiently profitable compared with alternatives Project without carbon element Project with carbon element Carbon revenue makes the project attractive relative to investment alternatives Investment threshold Revenue / NPV / IRR Choose an appropriate financial indicator and compare it with a relevant benchmark value: e.g. required return on capital or internal company benchmark

24 Some examples of additionality Capturing methane from an urban landfill and flaring it —Carbon credits represent the only source of income for undertaking this activity Capturing methane from an urban landfill and utilizing it to generate electricity —Project developer would have to demonstrate that the electricity revenue alone would not make this project attractive Building a large hydro project for the grid in Ethiopia —Questionable additionality: there is already plenty of hydro activity in Ethiopia  ?

25 CDM – Cancun outcome Issue - Continuation of CDM Post 2012 Progress / Decisions - Indications CDM will be part of new post-2012 scheme, despite on-going uncertainty over the future of the Kyoto Protocol Remarks Cancun conference decided that next year (at the next Climate Change Conference in South Africa), one or more new market based mechanism will be established. Any such new mechanism will maintain and build upon existing mechanisms, including those established under the Kyoto Protocol (like CDM)

26 Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how? The CDM project Cycle India’s position Types of CDM projects Outline

27 26 CDM Approval Stages ResponsiblePartiesDuration A Project Design  Project screening  Development of PIN, PDD & PCN PP 2 – 6 Months 2 – 6 Months B Host Country Approval (HCA)  Submission of PCN & PDD to NCDMA/DNA  Presentation by PP during NCDMA meeting PPDNA 2 Months 2 Months C Validation  Submission of PDD & HCA approval letter to DOE DOE 1 Month D Registration  Submission of validation report & PDD to CDM EB CDM EB 2 Months E Project Implementation and Monitoring  Implementation of project  Monitoring and recording of emissions PPContinuous F Verification and Certification  Verification of emission reduction  Certification of emission reduction DOE Once every year G Issuance of CER  Submission of certificate given by DOE to CDM EB  Issuance of CER to Project Proponent DOE CDM EB 10 or 21 Years (variable) CDM Project Cycle

28 Activities in CDM Cycle Time Needed (Weeks) Average Time Taken (Weeks) Reason for Delay Preparation of PIN, PCN, PDD 816Resource Constraint, Lack of Knowledge, procedural changes etc. Host Country Approval 610Delay in submission of required documents Validation1424Delay in appointment of DOE, Amendment of frequent changes in methodology, Guidelines, Tool etc. Registration Delay in web-hosting by EB, Req. for Review, Under Review, Corrections Requested etc. Monitoring & Verification 5270Delay in appointment of DOE, Delay in web- hosting by EB etc. Issuance of CER412Req. for Review, Under Review, Corrections Requested etc. CER Transaction48Delay in identifying buyers, ERPA signing, Buyer DNA approval etc. Total (Approx.)96164 CDM - Time Needed Vs. Time Taken

29 6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting period Project Developer DNA DOE CDM Executive Board Project feasibility assessme nt / PIN CDM project developme nt / PDD Host country approval Project validation Project registration CER issuance Project verification The CDM project cycle

30 6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting period Project Developer DNA DOE CDM Executive Board Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD Host country approval Project validation Project registration CER issuance Project verification The CDM project cycle

31 6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting period Project Developer DNA DOE CDM Executive Board Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD Host country approval Project validation Project registration CER issuance Project verification The CDM project cycle

32 6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting period Project Developer DNA DOE CDM Executive Board Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD Host country approval Project validation Project registration CER issuance Project verification The CDM project cycle

33 6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting period Project Developer DNA DOE CDM Executive Board Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD Host country approval Project validation Project registration CER issuance Project verification The CDM project cycle

34 6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting period Project Developer DNA DOE CDM Executive Board Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD Host country approval Project validation Project registration CER issuance Project verification The CDM project cycle

35 6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting period Project Developer DNA DOE CDM Executive Board Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD Host country approval Project validation Project registration CER issuance Project verification The CDM project cycle

36 6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting period Project Developer DNA DOE CDM Executive Board Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD Host country approval Project validation Project registration CER issuance Project verification The CDM project cycle

37 36 Three major credentials  Project Idea Note (PIN): It includes the basic information and basic calculations to check the viability of the proposed project. It is not a mandatory document.  Project Concept Note (PCN): It includes basic information about project and project developers, technology, finance, sustainable development criteria, project risks, baseline methodology etc. Mandatory document required for HCA  Project Design Document (PDD): It is a project specific document which included expected emission reduction calculations and monitoring plan along with the elaborated information provided in the PCN. Mandatory document required by NCDMA; DOE and CDM EB CDM Project Cycle A) Project Design

38 37 B) Host Country Approval

39 38 B.Validation: Once the PDD has been completed and the HCA has been received, all documents along with HCA letter have to be submitted to DOE (Designated Operational Entity) for review and approval (Validation). C.Registration: The DOE submits the validation report, validation opinion and a request for registration to the CDM EB. Registration of project by the CDM EB is an act of formal acceptance of the validated project. D.Project Implementation & Monitoring: Once the project has been registered, it can be implemented. From the point of implementation on, the project developer needs to monitor the project performance, according to the procedures laid out in validated monitoring plan of PDD. D.Verification & certification: The DOE verifies the data collected by the project developers according to the monitoring plan and certifies the total emission reductions actually occurred during the specified time period. E.Issuance of CERs: Based on the DOE certification, CDM EB issues the CERs to the project proponent. CDM Project Cycle

40 Crediting period CDM mitigation projects Project developers have two crediting period options: –A maximum of 7 years, which can be renewed up to 2 times (i.e. a potential total crediting period of 21 years) –A maximum of 10 years, with no option for renewal CDM sequestration projects (forestry) Project developers have two crediting period options: –A maximum of 20 years, which can be renewed up to 2 times (i.e. a potential total crediting period of 60 years) –A maximum of 30 years, with no option for renewal

41 Crediting period Greenhouse gas emissions Emissions under the baseline scenario Emissions under the project scenario Starting date of the crediting period 10 years No renewal A maximum of 10 years with no option of renewal

42 Why not maximise the crediting period? Greenhouse gas emissions 7 years Baseline must be reassessed by DOE at each renewal

43 Why not maximise the crediting period? Greenhouse gas emissions Emissions under the baseline scenario Emissions under the project scenario 7 years Baseline must be reassessed by DOE at each renewal The baseline scenario may become less favourable

44 Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how? The CDM project Cycle India’s position Types of CDM projects Outline

45 Per Capita CO 2 Emissions IndiaChinaGermanyJapanU.S.A Source: EIA

46 CountryTotal Emissions (MMtCO2)Per Capita Emissions (Tons/Capita) 1.China United States Russia India Japan Germany Canada United Kingdom Korea, South Iran Saudi Arabia Italy South Africa Mexico Australia Indonesia Brazil France Spain Ukraine Source: EIA 2008 TOP 20 Emitters of the World

47 46 First registration: 8 th March, 2005 First CER issued: 21st August, 2005 Registered projects: 513 projects (as of July, 2010) HCA projects: 1704 projects (as of July, 2010) Estimated CER volume: 441 million CERs (39690 Crore INR, till 2012) if they are successfully registered by CDM-EB CERs issued: ~79.11 million CERs India’s Position The majority of registered project in India are renewable energy project focusing on hydropower, and wind energy

48 The CDM project pipeline Hydro 26% Biomass energy 16% Wind 12% Energy efficiency (own generation) 9% Landfill gas, 8% Biogas, 7% Agriculture, 6% Energy efficiency (industry), 4% Fossil fuel switch 3% N 2 O 2% Other 7%

49 India offers vast untapped market for Carbon Trading India today manufactures >25 million tons of steel. Installed capacity of electrical power generation of >110,000 MW Produces over >200 million tons of food- grains With GDP growth of 8.5% against the energy consumption growth rate of 7.5%

50 India offers…..cont. Leading sectors, having GHG Mitigation potential include energy efficiency (45%), renewable energy (35%), methane emissions abatement (15%), and improvements in the thermal energy generation sector (5%). In India, total C02-e emissions in 1990 were 10,01,352 Gg, which was approx. 3% of global emissions. The Power sector was the largest emitter of C02, contributing 55% of national emissions. India would be requiring an additional 100,000 MW of power by 2012.

51 50 India’s Position

52 51 Gujarat Fluoro Chemicals Limited: Registered on 8 th March, 2005 Claims ~ 3 million CERs (270 Crore INR) every year for reducing GHG by thermal oxidation of HFC23 (GWP = 11700) Recent monitoring report (01/08/08 to 30/09/08) claimed ~ 1.4 million CERs (126 Crore INR) Tamilnadu Spinning Mills Association (TASMA): Registered on 10 th June, 2007 Claims ~ 0.69 million CERs (62 Crore INR) every year for reducing GHG by bundled wind power project in Tamilnadu Recent monitoring report (01/01/08 to 31/08/08) claimed ~ 0.6 million CERs (48.6 Crore INR) India’s Position Case Study

53 Sector Estimated Potential (MW) Installed Capacity (MW) Untapped Potential (MW) Wind45,1957, , Small Hydro (<25 MW) 15,0002, , Biomass16, ,275.2 Solar Power Plant Cogeneration bagasse 5, , Waste to Energy 2, , Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India (As on 31 st December 2007) Energy Efficiency: 23,000 MW (Assessed by World Bank, Source: FICCI) RE & EE Potential in India

54 Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how? The CDM project Cycle India’s position Types of CDM projects Outline

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56 55 Types of CDM Projects TypeExample Process Change Changing over from HF process to catalytic conversion for LAB production Continuous digester (Pulp & Paper) Energy Efficiency High efficiency equipment & lighting Replacement of old electro mechanical drives with Invertors Waste heat recovery programmes Fuel substitution Switching over to cleaner fuels Biogas recovery from UASB – use instead of flare Renewable Energy Wind Power Hydro Power Solar Energy Forestry Afforestation Reforestation

57 56 Apart from such obvious projects to claim CDM benefits, there are a few peculiar projects as well with significant CDM potentials  Reducing the amount of energy required to deliver a unit of water to end-users in municipal water utilities; Methodology AM0020  Leak reduction from natural gas pipeline compressor or gas stations; Methodology AM0023  Project activities that reduce emissions through the construction and operation of a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system for urban road based transport; Methodology AM0031  Project activities that enhance energy-efficient lighting in households by replacing conventional FTL and bulbs by CFLs; Methodology AM0046 Types of CDM Projects

58 57  Small-scale projects can use simplified procedures.  The following types of projects are considered small-scale. Renewable energy projects: up to 15MW capacity Energy efficiency projects: up to 60 GWh/yr reduction in energy consumption Other projects: up to 60 KtCO 2 equivalent (60,000 CER) emission reduction oCH 4 recovery in wastewater treatment oSwitching fossil fuels oLandfill CH 4 recovery Small Scale CDM Projects Types of CDM Projects

59 Programmatic CDM offers new Opportunities Installation / unit size Number of installations / units Regular CDM Single site, stand-alone projects ‘Carbon upgrades’ Regular CDM Single site, stand-alone projects ‘Carbon upgrades’ Bundled CDM Bundling several projects under a single PDD All projects must be identified ex ante, and must start at the same time Bundled CDM Bundling several projects under a single PDD All projects must be identified ex ante, and must start at the same time Programmatic CDM Addresses the ‘long tail’ of small units Permits sector-wide transition to low-carbon economy Particular relevance to Africa Programmatic CDM Addresses the ‘long tail’ of small units Permits sector-wide transition to low-carbon economy Particular relevance to Africa Size-Distribution of Potential CDM Project Sites smalllargemedium

60 CDM Projects in Agriculture Sector Improved manure management Reduced enteric fermentation Improved/reduced chemical agri-inputs use (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, etc.) Reduced machinery use (and/or lower fossil fuel intensity of conservation agriculture practices) Agronomic planning (selection of seeds and species with low chemical agri-inputs demand and water requirements) Energy from dedicated crops Energy from agricultural residues, animal waste, and other on-farm organic waste Water management (water saving from improved water retention, reduced evaporation, ect.) Improved irrigation techniques/technologies (i.e. drip and sprayer irrigation) Improved water management in rice cultivation

61 Global contribution of agriculture to greenhouse gas emissions. 1 Pg (Peta gram) = 1 Gt (Giga tonne) = 1000 million tonnes. Source: Cool Farming Climate Impacts of Agriculture & Mitigation potential GREENPEACE 2008

62 Sources of agriculture GHG CO2-eq Million tonnes Nitrous oxide from soils 2128 Methane from cattle enteric fermentation 1792 Biomass burning 672 Rice production 616 Manure 413 Fertiliser production 410 Irrigation 369 Farm machinery (seeding, tilling, spraying, harvest) 158 Pesticide production 72 Land conversion to agriculture 5900 Sources of direct and indirect agriculture greenhouse gases

63 sources of agricultural greenhouse gases, excluding land use change Mt CO2-eq CH 4 CH 4 + N 2 O N2ON2O CH 4 CO 2

64 GHG emissions from fossil fuel and energy use in farm operations and production of chemicals for agriculture. kg CO2-eq km-2 Pg CO2-eq Tillage440 – – Application of agrochemicals 180 – – Drilling or seeding 810 – – Combine harvesting 2210 – – Use of farm machinery Subtotal – Pesticides (production) 220 – – 0.14 Irrigation 3440 – – Fertiliser (production) – – Total – 1.656

65 Energy requirement and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the production of different fertilisers Fertiliser Energy requirement Carbon dioxide emissions in in MJ kg-1 N kg (CO2)/kg produced* Nitrogen 65 – – Phosporus – Potassium – Lime – Manure – N as manure 0.6 – 2.9

66 Global carbon stocks in vegetation and top one metre of soils Biome Area Carbon Stocks Carbon stock (Pg CO2-eq) concentration (Pg CO2-eq M km-2) M km2 Vegetation Soils Total Tropical forests Temperate forests Boreal forests Tropical savannas Temperate grasslands Deserts and Semi deserts Tundra Wetlands Croplands Total Source: IPCC 2001, Land use, land use change and forestry.

67 Technical mitigation potential by 2030 of each agricultural management practice Source: IPCC (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change: Mitigation of Climate Change.

68 Total technical mitigation potentials (all practices, all GHGs: MtCO2-eq/yr) for each region by 2030, Source: IPCC (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change: Mitigation of Climate Change.

69 Economic potential for GHG Agricultural mitigation by 2030

70 Simplified methodologies Aspect 1: Technology/measure: What would be specific examples for new sustainable technologies, management practice etc. (avail)able to reduce GHG emissions (e.g. reduced mechanization, low-tillage practices, or use of lighter machinery)?

71 Simplified methodologies Aspect 2: Baselines Could you think of clear, logical and quantifiable procedures for the identification of baseline emissions, i.e. the scenario for GHG emissions in absence of the proposed activity/project?

72 Simplified methodologies Aspect 3: Monitoring plan What would be simple, straight-forward monitoring measures /plans/indicators to verify GHG reductions throughout the life time of each respective activity/project?

73 Simplified methodologies Aspect 4: Project boundary What is your idea of reasonable project boundaries (e.g. the physical, geographical boundaries of the agricultural field, including machinery used on the field but maybe excluding machinery used for processing or transportation) for quantifying GHG emission reductions?

74 Simplified methodologies Aspect 5: Leakage Does the project/activity (indirectly) cause an increase in GHG emissions outside its project boundaries?

75 Two Chinese Case Examples Rural Household Biogas Conservation Tillage

76 Approved CDM methodologies For Biogas Digesters

77 Emission inventory per household under the baseline scenario and the project scenario respectively (tCO2e/year/household) Manure management or CH4 emissions from biogas digester leakage CO2 emissions from coal burning Emissions per household Baseline Project Emission Reduction 2.14

78 Conservation Tillage Conservation tillage is an integrated tillage system in which large amounts of crop straws are used to cover the soil and minimize all the possible tillage activities. Conservation tillage, which employs the technologies such as no tillage or minimum tillage, micro-terrain rebuilding, land covering, and controlling weeds with herbicides, is aimed to reduce the disturbance and increase the straw coverage to soil (Gao HW, 2005; Gao WS, 2007; Li HW, 2008). It is composed of four essential components (Di Y, 2008): Planting techniques without tillage; Covering soil with straws or plant residues; Deeply loosing the soil; and Integrated control techniques on weeds and pests.

79 Conservation Tillage – Increase in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) reduce the disturbance on soils to protect soil organic matter from oxidization and mineralization Straw coverage adds more soil organic carbon, which means conservation tillage may increase soil organic carbon in different degrees affects soil temperature and moisture status, which in turn affects soil carbon stock indirectly. Soil temperature affects micro organisms’ activity, and determines the decomposing speed of soil organic matter Different tillage practices may have different effects on micro organisms’ activity, which may lead to varying accumulation of organic matter in soils.

80 The area of conservation tillage and its percentage of sowing area and other farming methods in the USA ( ), unit Mha, % Source: United States Conservation Tillage Information Centre (CTIC) and Reports of Crop Stubble Management (2004).

81 Chinese case example 7-year (2003–2009) field experiment was conducted near in Shandong province Soil at the site was a loam soil, per cent organic matter and pH of 7.1. Mean annual air temperature and precipitation in the area is 13.0°C and 621 mm, respectively The cropping system is winter wheat-maize rotation. All straw of wheat and maize was returned to the soil after harvest.

82 Information on application amount of straw amendment and nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen in the straw

83 Total GHG emissions under baseline

84 Total GHG emissions under project activity

85 Complete scenario – Emission Reduction

86 Shri Sharad Pawar said during 4th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture on 4 th Feb, 2009 New Delhi Conservation tillage or no-tillage is now being practised on almost 100 million ha area worldwide with the major countries being USA, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and Australia. In India alone, the area under conservation tillage has increased to more than 2 million ha.

87 But At present, the international climate change agreement post is still under negotiation. It is still uncertain if cropland management, including conservation tillage practice, can become an eligible project activity under CDM post Therefore, considering the effects of conservation tillage of enhancing the soil carbon stock, incentives for farmers to take actions of enhancing carbon sequestration, as well as providing technical support for reaching an international climate change agreement and associated implementation post-2012, it is necessary to conduct a feasibility study of conservation tillage as an eligible project activity under CDM and methodology guidelines.

88 Summary India has a very big role to play More opportunities even after 2012 Demand for CERs is likely to increase Market based instruments will play a key role Government and trade organizations have to put more efforts to create strong awareness of CDM specifically for SMEs

89 88 Secondly, the CDM project developers need to have certain capabilities such as: Analytical thinking Mathematical ability Understanding of chemical processes and operations Creative opinion Why all these to you?? You have these qualities – Meaning YOU CAN DO IT !! The audience I am addressing consists of Agriculture Specialists The mother Earth needs our attention

90 Some Important Reference unfccc.int cdmindia.in cdmindia.com UNEP Risoe Centre

91 C DM oppenhagen exico urban Magic of

92 Let’s make the world a better place to live in Shalin Shah Environmental Engineer Mobile:


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