5Outline Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how?The CDM project CycleIndia’s PositionTypes of CDM projects5
6Mitigation of Global Warming To tackle the challenges posed by global warming (climate change), United Nations made an agreement at the ‘ United Nations Conference on Environment and Development’ in 1992 in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil – a conference popularly known as the “Rio Earth Summit”. That agreement was “The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” (UNFCCC).6
7……24 year story Rio Earth Summit & birth of UNFCCC 1992 1997 Kyoto Protocol adoptedIPCC GHG inventory report1990IPCC constituted1988Kyoto Protocol comes into force20052008First commitment period starts2012First commitment period ends……24 year story
8UNFCCCSigned by 154 states (plus the EU) in 1992 foundation of global efforts to combat global warming.Objective: “ The stabilisation of greenhouse gas (GHGs) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous man made interference with the natural climate system. ”
10Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto ProtocolAmendment to the UNFCCC outlined in 1997 in Kyoto, JapanCommitment for 38 developed countries to reduce GHG emissions by 5.2% relative to 1990 levelsIt must be achieved by – 2012 – first commitment periodDeveloped countries – bound with targets – Annex I countries – Such as: UK, Europe, Australia etc.Developing countries – no targets – non annex I countries – Such as: India; Pakistan; China; Thailand; Malaysia; Mexico; Brazil etc.10
11Outline Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how?The CDM project CycleIndia’s positionTypes of CDM projects
12Kyoto Gases & GWPThere are over 30 atmospheric greenhouse gases…But only 6 attract CC, so called ”Kyoto Gases”Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Methane (CH4)Nitrous Oxide (N2O)Relevant to bio-carbon & industrial projectsRelevant to industrial projectsPerfluorocarbons (CXFX)Hydrofluorocarbons (CXHXFX)Sulphur Hexaflouride (SF6)Each of these gases has a different warming potential12
13Solution: develop a relative scale, using CO2 as a reference gas Kyoto Gases & GWPEach of these gases has a different ‘radiative forcing’ capability and a different atmospheric residence timeNeed for a ‘common currency’, so that all such Kyoto gases are denominated in the same waySolution: develop a relative scale, using CO2 as a reference gas1313
14Kyoto Gases & GWP Kyoto Gas (Green House Gas) Relative scale – everything is measured relative to CO2e.g. Methane is 21 times more potent as a Green House Gas than CO2e.g. Sulphur Hexafluoride is 23,900 times more potent!Kyoto Gas(Green House Gas)Global Warming Potential (GWP)CO21CH423N2O310PFC6500 – 9200HFC140 – 11700SF6239001414
15Outline Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how?The CDM project CycleIndia’s PositionTypes of CDM projects
16Clean Development Mechanism ‘Flexibility Mechanisms’ of Kyoto ProtocolClean Development Mechanism(Achieving part of reduction obligations of developed countries through projects in developing countries that reduce GHG emissions) It is defined under Article 12 of the Kyoto ProtocolEmission Trading(Trading of emission allowances between developed countries)Joint implementation(Transferring emission allowances between developed nations, linked to specific emission reduction projects)16
17Clean Development Mechanism Purposes of CDM – two primary goalsAdvantages for developed countries:relatively low-cost & politically acceptableDeveloped countries can reduce emissions anywhere in the worldThey can count these reductions towards their own targetsCDM allows developed countries to generate CC (Certified Emission Reductions, CERs) in developing countriesAdvantages for developing countries:inward investment, environmental & technology benefits1717
18Clean Development Mechanism Generation of CCGHG emissionsHistorical TrendProject startCarbon credits (CERs)Carbon credits (CERs)Carbon credits (CERs)Carbon credits (CERs)CERs from a CDM project are calculated as:CER = BE – PEThe Baseline Emissions (BE) is the amount of GHG that would have been emitted to the atmosphere in the absence of the CDM project activity.PE is the Project Emissions18Time18
19What is Carbon Credit ?Carbon credits are reduction in emission of GHGs caused by a project1 CER = 1 tonne of CO2 equivalent (e) reduction1 CER = 1 Carbon Credit1 VER = 1 Carbon Credit( Earned Through Voluntary Route )_____________________________CER – Certified Emission ReductionVER – Voluntary Emission Reduction
20Clean Development Mechanism Qualification for CDM ProjectFive major criteriaa) GHG reduction - real and measurableb) Contribution to the sustainable development of the host countryc) No “diversion” of official development assistanced) Demonstration of Additionalitye) Project after 2 August 2008 – Inform UNFCCC within Six months2020
21Clean Development Mechanism Demonstration of AdditionalityAdditional incentives provided by emission reduction credits, is a concept known as "additionality". It is the most significant requirement for a project to qualify for the CDM benefits.Emission Additionality – Net decrease in GHG emission is called Emission Additionality.Financial Additionality – Project funding should not be counted towards the financial obligations of the host countryTechnological Additionality – CDM project activities should lead to transfer of environmentally safe & sound technologies.If the industry is legally mandated (bound to do any of the above by law) to undertake the project activity (e.g. use of CNG for public transport in Delhi), such a project is generally not eligible for CDM benefits.21
22Project with carbon element Project without carbon element Additionality – benchmark analysisChoose an appropriate financial indicator and compare it with a relevant benchmark value: e.g. required return on capital or internal company benchmarkCarbon revenue makes the project attractive relative to investment alternativesInvestment thresholdRevenue / NPV / IRRProject with carbon elementProject without carbon elementProject without carbon revenue is profitable – but not sufficiently profitable compared with alternatives
23Some examples of additionality Capturing methane from an urban landfill and flaring itCarbon credits represent the only source of income for undertaking this activityCapturing methane from an urban landfill and utilizing it to generate electricityProject developer would have to demonstrate that the electricity revenue alone would not make this project attractive?Building a large hydro project for the grid in EthiopiaQuestionable additionality: there is already plenty of hydro activity in Ethiopia
24CDM – Cancun outcome Issue - Continuation of CDM Post 2012 Progress / Decisions - Indications CDM will be part of new post-2012 scheme, despiteon-going uncertainty over thefuture of the Kyoto ProtocolRemarksCancun conference decided thatnext year (at the next ClimateChange Conference in South Africa),one or more new market basedmechanism will be established.Any such new mechanism will maintain and build upon existing mechanisms, including those established under the Kyoto Protocol (like CDM)
25Outline Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how?The CDM project CycleIndia’s positionTypes of CDM projects
26CDM Project Cycle Project Design Project screening CDM Approval StagesResponsiblePartiesDurationAProject DesignProject screeningDevelopment of PIN, PDD & PCNPP2 – 6 MonthsBHost Country Approval (HCA)Submission of PCN & PDD to NCDMA/DNAPresentation by PP during NCDMA meetingDNA2 MonthsCValidationSubmission of PDD & HCA approval letter to DOEDOE1 MonthDRegistrationSubmission of validation report & PDD to CDM EBCDM EBEProject Implementation and MonitoringImplementation of projectMonitoring and recording of emissionsContinuousFVerification and CertificationVerification of emission reductionCertification of emission reductionOnce every yearGIssuance of CERSubmission of certificate given by DOE to CDM EBIssuance of CER to Project Proponent10 or 21 Years (variable)26
27Activities in CDM Cycle Average Time Taken (Weeks) CDM - Time Needed Vs. Time TakenActivities in CDM CycleTime Needed (Weeks)Average Time Taken (Weeks)Reason for DelayPreparation of PIN, PCN, PDD816Resource Constraint, Lack of Knowledge, procedural changes etc.Host Country Approval610Delay in submission of required documentsValidation1424Delay in appointment of DOE, Amendment of frequent changes in methodology, Guidelines, Tool etc.Registration4 - 8Delay in web-hosting by EB, Req. for Review, Under Review, Corrections Requested etc.Monitoring & Verification5270Delay in appointment of DOE, Delay in web-hosting by EB etc.Issuance of CER412Req. for Review, Under Review, Corrections Requested etc.CER TransactionDelay in identifying buyers, ERPA signing, Buyer DNA approval etc.Total (Approx.)96164
28Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD The CDM project cycle6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting periodProject DeveloperProject feasibility assessment / PINCDM project development / PDDHost country approvalDNAProject validationProject verificationDOECDM Executive BoardProject registrationCER issuance
29Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD The CDM project cycle6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting periodProject DeveloperProject feasibility assessment / PINCDM project development / PDDHost country approvalDNAProject validationProject verificationDOECDM Executive BoardProject registrationCER issuance
30Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD The CDM project cycle6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting periodProject DeveloperProject feasibility assessment / PINCDM project development / PDDHost country approvalDNAProject validationProject verificationDOECDM Executive BoardProject registrationCER issuance
31Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD The CDM project cycle6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting periodProject DeveloperProject feasibility assessment / PINCDM project development / PDDHost country approvalDNAProject validationProject verificationDOECDM Executive BoardProject registrationCER issuance
32Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD The CDM project cycle6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting periodProject DeveloperProject feasibility assessment / PINCDM project development / PDDHost country approvalDNAProject validationProject verificationDOECDM Executive BoardProject registrationCER issuance
33Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD The CDM project cycle6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting periodProject DeveloperProject feasibility assessment / PINCDM project development / PDDHost country approvalDNAProject validationProject verificationDOECDM Executive BoardProject registrationCER issuance
34Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD The CDM project cycle6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting periodProject DeveloperProject feasibility assessment / PINCDM project development / PDDHost country approvalDNAProject validationProject verificationDOECDM Executive BoardProject registrationCER issuance
35Project feasibility assessment / PIN CDM project development / PDD The CDM project cycle6 to 12 months1.5 monthsCrediting periodProject DeveloperProject feasibility assessment / PINCDM project development / PDDHost country approvalDNAProject validationProject verificationDOECDM Executive BoardProject registrationCER issuance
36CDM Project Cycle A) Project Design Three major credentials Project Idea Note (PIN): It includes the basic information and basic calculations to check the viability of the proposed project. It is not a mandatory document.Project Concept Note (PCN): It includes basic information about project and project developers, technology, finance, sustainable development criteria, project risks, baseline methodology etc. Mandatory document required for HCAProject Design Document (PDD): It is a project specific document which included expected emission reduction calculations and monitoring plan along with the elaborated information provided in the PCN. Mandatory document required by NCDMA; DOE and CDM EB3636
38CDM Project CycleB. Validation: Once the PDD has been completed and the HCA has been received, all documents along with HCA letter have to be submitted to DOE (Designated Operational Entity) for review and approval (Validation).C. Registration: The DOE submits the validation report, validation opinion and a request for registration to the CDM EB. Registration of project by the CDM EB is an act of formal acceptance of the validated project.D. Project Implementation & Monitoring: Once the project has been registered, it can be implemented. From the point of implementation on, the project developer needs to monitor the project performance, according to the procedures laid out in validated monitoring plan of PDD.D. Verification & certification: The DOE verifies the data collected by the project developers according to the monitoring plan and certifies the total emission reductions actually occurred during the specified time period.E. Issuance of CERs: Based on the DOE certification, CDM EB issues the CERs to the project proponent.3838
39Crediting period CDM mitigation projects Project developers have two crediting period options:A maximum of 7 years, which can be renewed up to 2 times (i.e. a potential total crediting period of 21 years)A maximum of 10 years, with no option for renewalCDM sequestration projects (forestry)Project developers have two crediting period options:A maximum of 20 years, which can be renewed up to 2 times (i.e. a potential total crediting period of 60 years)A maximum of 30 years, with no option for renewal
40Crediting period A maximum of 10 years with no option of renewal Emissions under the baseline scenarioGreenhouse gas emissionsEmissions under the project scenarioStarting date of the crediting periodNo renewal10 years
41Baseline must be reassessed by DOE at each renewal Why not maximise the crediting period?Baseline must be reassessed by DOE at each renewalGreenhouse gas emissions7 years
42Why not maximise the crediting period? Baseline must be reassessed by DOE at each renewalThe baseline scenario may become less favourableEmissions under the baseline scenarioGreenhouse gas emissionsEmissions under the project scenario7 years7 years7 years
43Outline Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how?The CDM project CycleIndia’s positionTypes of CDM projects
44Per Capita CO2 Emissions 2519.1819.18201510.0610.0610.0610.069.549.549.54104.914.914.914.914.9151.311.311.311.311.31IndiaChinaGermanyJapanU.S.A.Source: EIA 2008
45Per Capita Emissions (Tons/Capita) TOP 20 Emitters of the WorldCountryTotal Emissions (MMtCO2)Per Capita Emissions (Tons/Capita)1.China65344.912.United States583319.183.Russia172912.294.India14951.315.Japan12149.546.Germany82910.067.Canada57417.278.United Kingdom5729.389.Korea, South54211.2110.Iran5117.7611.Saudi Arabia46616.5612.Italy4557.8213.South Africa4519.2514.Mexico4454.0415.Australia43720.8216.Indonesia4341.8317.Brazil4282.1818.France4156.4819.Spain3598.8620.Ukraine3507.61Source: EIA 2008
46India’s Position First registration: 8th March, 2005 First CER issued: 21st August, 2005Registered projects: 513 projects (as of July, 2010)HCA projects: 1704 projects (as of July, 2010)Estimated CER volume: 441 million CERs (39690 Crore INR, till 2012) if they are successfully registered by CDM-EBCERs issued: ~79.11 million CERsThe majority of registered project in India are renewable energy project focusing on hydropower, and wind energy4646
48India offers vast untapped market for Carbon Trading India today manufactures >25 million tons of steel.Installed capacity of electrical power generation of >110,000 MWProduces over >200 million tons of food-grainsWith GDP growth of 8.5% against the energy consumption growth rate of 7.5%
49India offers…..cont.Leading sectors, having GHG Mitigation potential include energy efficiency (45%), renewable energy (35%), methane emissions abatement (15%), and improvements in the thermal energy generation sector (5%).In India, total C02-e emissions in 1990 were 10,01,352 Gg, which was approx. 3% of global emissions. The Power sector was the largest emitter of C02, contributing 55% of national emissions.India would be requiring an additional 100,000 MW of power by 2012.
51India’s Position Case Study Gujarat Fluoro Chemicals Limited: Registered on 8th March, 2005Claims ~ 3 million CERs (270 Crore INR) every year for reducing GHG by thermal oxidation of HFC23 (GWP = 11700)Recent monitoring report (01/08/08 to 30/09/08) claimed ~ 1.4 million CERs (126 Crore INR)Tamilnadu Spinning Mills Association (TASMA):Registered on 10th June, 2007Claims ~ 0.69 million CERs (62 Crore INR) every year for reducing GHG by bundled wind power project in TamilnaduRecent monitoring report (01/01/08 to 31/08/08) claimed ~ 0.6 million CERs (48.6 Crore INR)5151
52RE & EE Potential in India SectorEstimated Potential (MW)Installed Capacity (MW)Untapped Potential (MW)Wind45,1957,844.5237,350.48Small Hydro(<25 MW)15,0002,045.6112,954.39Biomass16,881605.816,275.2Solar Power Plant---2.18Cogeneration bagasse5,000719.834,280.17Waste to Energy2,70055.252,644.75Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India (As on 31st December 2007)Energy Efficiency: 23,000 MW (Assessed by World Bank, Source: FICCI)
53Outline Mitigation of Global Warming Kyoto Gases & GWP The CDM – what & how?The CDM project CycleIndia’s positionTypes of CDM projects
55Types of CDM Projects Type Example Process Change Changing over from HF process to catalytic conversion for LAB productionContinuous digester (Pulp & Paper)Energy EfficiencyHigh efficiency equipment & lightingReplacement of old electro mechanical drives with InvertorsWaste heat recovery programmesFuel substitutionSwitching over to cleaner fuelsBiogas recovery from UASB – use instead of flareRenewable EnergyWind PowerHydro PowerSolar EnergyForestryAfforestationReforestation55
56Types of CDM ProjectsApart from such obvious projects to claim CDM benefits, there are a few peculiar projects as well with significant CDM potentialsReducing the amount of energy required to deliver a unit of water to end-users in municipal water utilities; Methodology AM0020Leak reduction from natural gas pipeline compressor or gas stations; Methodology AM0023Project activities that reduce emissions through the construction and operation of a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system for urban road based transport; Methodology AM0031Project activities that enhance energy-efficient lighting in households by replacing conventional FTL and bulbs by CFLs; Methodology AM004656
57Types of CDM Projects Small Scale CDM Projects Small-scale projects can use simplified procedures.The following types of projects are considered small-scale.Renewable energy projects: up to 15MW capacityEnergy efficiency projects: up to 60 GWh/yr reduction in energy consumptionOther projects: up to 60 KtCO2 equivalent (60,000 CER) emission reductionCH4 recovery in wastewater treatmentSwitching fossil fuelsLandfill CH4 recovery57
58Programmatic CDM offers new Opportunities Regular CDMSingle site, stand-alone projects‘Carbon upgrades’Size-Distribution of Potential CDM Project SitesBundled CDMBundling several projects under a single PDDAll projects must be identified ex ante, and must start at the same timeNumber of installations / unitsProgrammatic CDMAddresses the ‘long tail’ of small unitsPermits sector-wide transition to low-carbon economyParticular relevance to AfricalargemediumsmallInstallation / unit size
59CDM Projects in Agriculture Sector Improved manure managementReduced enteric fermentationImproved/reduced chemical agri-inputs use (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, etc.)Reduced machinery use (and/or lower fossil fuel intensity of conservation agriculture practices)Agronomic planning (selection of seeds and species with low chemical agri-inputs demand and water requirements)Energy from dedicated cropsEnergy from agricultural residues, animal waste, and other on-farm organic wasteWater management (water saving from improved water retention, reduced evaporation, ect.)Improved irrigation techniques/technologies (i.e. drip and sprayer irrigation)Improved water management in rice cultivation
60Global contribution of agriculture to greenhouse gas emissions. 1 Pg (Peta gram)= 1 Gt (Giga tonne)= 1000 million tonnes.Source: Cool FarmingClimate Impacts of Agriculture &Mitigation potentialGREENPEACE 2008
61Sources of direct and indirect agriculture greenhouse gases Sources of agriculture GHG CO2-eqMillion tonnesNitrous oxide from soilsMethane from cattle enteric fermentationBiomass burningRice productionManureFertiliser productionIrrigationFarm machinery (seeding, tilling, spraying, harvest) 158Pesticide productionLand conversion to agriculture
62Mt CO2-eqCO2CO2CH4+ N2OCH4CH4+ N2ON2OCH4CH4+ N2Osources of agricultural greenhouse gases, excluding land use change
63GHG emissions from fossil fuel and energy use in farm operations and production of chemicals for agriculture.kg CO2-eq km-2 Pg CO2-eqTillage – – 0.113Application of agrochemicals 180 – – 0.057Drilling or seeding – – 0.022Combine harvesting – – 0.065Use of farm machinery Subtotal – 0.257Pesticides (production) – – 0.14Irrigation – – 0.684Fertiliser (production) – – 0.575Total – 1.656
64Energy requirement and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the production of different fertilisersFertiliser Energy requirement Carbon dioxide emissions in in MJ kg-1 N kg (CO2)/kg produced*Nitrogen 65 – – 6.588Phosporus – 1.098Potassium – 0.732Lime – 0.842Manure – 0.029N as manure – 2.9
65Global carbon stocks in vegetation and top one metre of soils Biome Area Carbon Stocks Carbon stock(Pg CO2-eq) concentration(Pg CO2-eq M km-2)M km2 Vegetation Soils TotalTropical forestsTemperate forestsBoreal forestsTropical savannasTemperate grasslandsDeserts and Semi desertsTundraWetlandsCroplandsTotalSource: IPCC 2001, Land use, land use change and forestry.
66Technical mitigation potential by 2030 of each agricultural management practiceSource: IPCC (2007):IPCC Fourth Assessment Report:Climate Change: Mitigation of Climate Change.
67Total technical mitigation potentials (all practices, all GHGs: MtCO2-eq/yr) for each region by 2030,Source: IPCC (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report:Climate Change: Mitigation of Climate Change.
68Economic potential for GHG Agricultural mitigation by 2030
69Simplified methodologies Aspect 1: Technology/measure:What would be specific examples for new sustainable technologies, management practice etc. (avail)able to reduce GHG emissions (e.g. reduced mechanization, low-tillage practices, or use of lighter machinery)?
70Simplified methodologies Aspect 2: BaselinesCould you think of clear, logical and quantifiable procedures for the identification of baseline emissions, i.e. the scenario for GHG emissions in absence of the proposed activity/project?
71Simplified methodologies Aspect 3: Monitoring planWhat would be simple, straight-forward monitoring measures /plans/indicators to verify GHG reductions throughout the life time of each respective activity/project?
72Simplified methodologies Aspect 4: Project boundaryWhat is your idea of reasonable project boundaries (e.g. the physical, geographical boundaries of the agricultural field, including machinery used on the field but maybe excluding machinery used for processing or transportation) for quantifying GHG emission reductions?
73Simplified methodologies Aspect 5: LeakageDoes the project/activity (indirectly) cause an increase in GHG emissions outside its project boundaries?
74Two Chinese Case Examples Rural Household BiogasConservation Tillage
76Emission inventory per household under the baseline scenario and the project scenario respectively (tCO2e/year/household)Manure management or CH4 emissions from biogas digester leakageCO2 emissionsfrom coal burningEmissions perhouseholdBaseline0.661.952.61Project0.200.270.47Emission Reduction2.14
77Conservation TillageConservation tillage is an integrated tillage system in which large amounts of crop straws are used to cover the soil and minimize all the possible tillage activities.Conservation tillage, which employs the technologies such as no tillage or minimum tillage, micro-terrain rebuilding, land covering, and controlling weeds with herbicides, is aimed to reduce the disturbance and increase the straw coverage to soil (Gao HW, 2005; Gao WS, 2007; Li HW, 2008).It is composed of four essential components (Di Y, 2008):Planting techniques without tillage;Covering soil with straws or plant residues;Deeply loosing the soil; andIntegrated control techniques on weeds and pests.
78Conservation Tillage – Increase in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) reduce the disturbance on soils to protect soil organic matter from oxidization and mineralizationStraw coverage adds more soil organic carbon, which means conservation tillage may increase soil organic carbon in different degreesaffects soil temperature and moisture status, which in turn affects soil carbon stock indirectly. Soil temperature affects micro organisms’ activity, and determines the decomposing speed of soil organic matterDifferent tillage practices may have different effects on micro organisms’ activity, which may lead to varying accumulation of organic matter in soils.
79The area of conservation tillage and its percentage of sowing area and other farming methods in the USA ( ), unit Mha, %Source: United States Conservation Tillage Information Centre (CTIC) and Reports of Crop Stubble Management (2004).
80Chinese case example7-year (2003–2009) field experiment was conducted near in Shandong provinceSoil at the site was a loam soil, per cent organic matter and pH of 7.1. Mean annual air temperature and precipitation in the area is 13.0°C and 621 mm, respectivelyThe cropping system is winter wheat-maize rotation. All straw of wheat and maize was returned to the soil after harvest.
81Information on application amount of straw amendment and nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen in the straw
85Shri Sharad Pawar said during 4th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture on 4th Feb, 2009 New DelhiConservation tillage or no-tillage is now being practised on almost 100 million ha area worldwide with the major countries being USA, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and Australia.In India alone, the area under conservation tillage has increased to more than 2 million ha.
86ButAt present, the international climate change agreement post-2012 is still under negotiation. It is still uncertain if cropland management, including conservation tillage practice, can become an eligible project activity under CDM post-2012.Therefore, considering the effects of conservation tillage of enhancing the soil carbon stock, incentives for farmers to take actions of enhancing carbon sequestration, as well as providing technical support for reaching an international climate change agreement and associated implementation post-2012, it is necessary to conduct a feasibility study of conservation tillage as an eligible project activity under CDM and methodology guidelines.
87Summary India has a very big role to play More opportunities even after 2012Demand for CERs is likely to increaseMarket based instruments will play a key roleGovernment and trade organizations have to put moreefforts to create strong awareness of CDM specificallyfor SMEs
88You have these qualities – Meaning Why all these to you??The audience I am addressing consists of Agriculture SpecialistsSecondly, the CDM project developers need to have certain capabilities such as:Analytical thinkingMathematical abilityUnderstanding of chemical processes and operationsCreative opinionThe mother Earth needs our attentionYou have these qualities – MeaningYOU CAN DO IT !!88
89Some Important Reference unfccc.intcdmindia.incdmindia.comUNEP Risoe Centre