Presentation on theme: "Howard Wolfman, PE Lumispec Consulting"— Presentation transcript:
1 Howard Wolfman, PE Lumispec Consulting email@example.com 847 656 5753 Cx Energy Conference . High Performance Lighting: Lamp Source & Energy UsageHoward Wolfman, PELumispec Consulting
2 By the end of this hour you should Learning ObjectivesBy the end of this hour you shouldUnderstand the different efficiency or efficacies in light source systems and plan for maximum lighting efficiency for each applicationRecognize the important performance characteristics of light source systems and select those that are needed for a specific applicationUnderstand the relative cost implications of different light source systems and make an educated decision as to which system to utilizeLearn about the impact of mandatory and voluntary lighting regulations and standards, and their impact on lighting system selectionTo personalize this slide, please insert your four learning objectives in the purple area on this slide. You may change the color used in the text. Be sure that these four learning objectives are identical to the ones that were submitted on the course registration. Please remove the “sample slide” lingo from the upper right hand corner of the page.
3 DisclaimerAlthough I list a number of manufacturers and models, these are examples and none are endorsed. There are other manufactures with similar productsAlso, I do not have any financial arrangement or consulting agreements with any of these manufacturers (friendships with some – yes)
4 Energy Use and Cost for Lighting Systems in Commercial Buildings Cost of lamps (bulbs & tubes) and labor cost to replace them is small percentage of total operating costs.Electricity to operate lighting systems far outweighs lamp and labor costs.The higher purchase price of efficient lamps is quickly recovered through lower electricity costs.
5 GOAL: To safely place the correct amount and type of light where it is needed, when it is needed, and for the lowest life cycle cost Need:Consistency in productsCost-effective productsQuality in productsReliability in productsThen products will:Allow interchangeability of system componentsProvide “superior” lighting
6 User Lighting Goal Save money Provide “proper” level of illumination Reduce power consumptionReduce maintenanceProvide “proper” level of illuminationSafeAdequate light levelBe environmentally friendly
10 CCT (Correlated Color Temperature) - Kelvin (K) - TerminologyCCT (Correlated Color Temperature) - Kelvin (K)Color temperature – a measure of the “warmth” or “coolness” provided by the lamp, expressed in Kelvin (K).Generally, sources below 3200K are considered “warm” while those above 4000K are considered “cool.”The higher the color temperature, the “cooler” or bluer the light.Also called “Chromaticity”
11 Color Temperature by Application - TerminologyColor Temperature by ApplicationSSLSSLSSLSSLSSLNew area: Human Centric Lighting
12 CRI (Color Rendering Index) - TerminologyCRI (Color Rendering Index)Color Rendering Index (CRI) - a scale from 0-100, is a measure of how well a lamp renders color.A lamp with a CRI of 100 makes objects appear as they do in sunlight.CRI can only be compared for lamps of similar color temperature.A low CRI rating suggests that the colors of objects under that particular light source will appear unnatural.
14 Light Source Color Summary CRI CCT (°K)Natural daylight o – 8500oMercury vapor o – 6000oMetal halide 65 – o – 6500oFluorescent o – 8000oIncandescent o – 3000oInduction o – 5000oStandard HPS oLED o – 8000oLow pressure sodium oSource: BOC
15 Lamp Characteristics: LPW & Average Rated Life Lumens Per Watt (LPW)light output (lumens)LPW =power input (watts)Average Rated Life for Incandescent, HID, and Fluorescent is the point in time at which 50% of a large group of lamps have failed.Ratings in catalogs are result of standard lab tests.(Ex: Fluorescent lamps 20,000 3 hrs./start)Rated life for LED is when lumen output has dropped to 70%, or L70Source: BOC
18 Efficacy of Light Sources DOE SSL R&D Multi-Year Program Plan ( ,
19 Lamp Characteristics: Lumen Maintenance (lumen light depreciation) Most lamps lose ability to produce light after burning for some timeLumen maintenance measures the rate of depreciation and indicates the remaining light outputLLD = mean lumens**initial lumens*Ex: 32-W T8 Fluorescent2,775LLD = =2,900*Initial lumens measured at 100 hrs**Mean lumens measured at 40% rated lifeSource: BOC
20 Comfort Issues Adequate Illumination Lake of Glare Color Recognition - Human NeedsComfort IssuesAdequate IlluminationLake of GlareColor RecognitionEyestrain relief from the ability to change focus from close (computer screen) to distance (wall/window)
21 Light Levels: Considerations Proper light levels required ■ IESNA recommendations ■ State/local standards Where light levels are correct, visual tasks are easier. Too little is bad - cannot see, eye strain too much is bad – glare, wastes energySource: BOC
22 High Intensity Discharge (HID) - Lighting TypesHigh Intensity Discharge (HID)An HID lamp relies on light emitted by a gas or vapor that has been excited by an electric currentLong life, high efficacy, and small in physical sizeWarm up (2-6 minutes) and “restrike” (up to 20 minutes)Point source -glareHID lamps include mercury vapor, metal halide and high pressure sodium.
23 High Intensity Discharge (HID) - Lighting TypesHigh Intensity Discharge (HID)The most common types of HID lamps areMercury Vapor,Metal HalideHigh Pressure SodiumLow Pressure Sodium.Various metal halide lamps, clockwise starting from the left, ED28, PAR38, BT56, T6. This is not an exhaustive list.
26 Collectively, what have we learned so far and what do we need going forward?
27 Why SSL Rapid ongoing improvements DOE SSL R&D Multi-Year Program Plan ( ,
28 SSL Penetration - future That being said, the future appears to belong to this light source, with the potential to reduce U.S. Lighting consumption by nearly half and reduce carbon emissions by 1.8 billion metric tons, according to DOE. DOE further predicts that LED will achieve a market share, expressed as demand for lumen-hours, of 10% by 2015, with the smallest gain being in the commercial building sector (5%) and the largest in outdoor stationary sector (29%). LED share is expected to increase to about 36% in 2020, 59% in 2025 and 74% in 2030, with the biggest long-term gains being in outdoor and residential lighting.Shown here in this graphic is the resulting change to the installed base of lamps in the country, with LED expected to represent 50% of all installed lighting in the U.S. by 2030.Source: DOE
29 LED luminaire efficacy This growth is based on expectations that LED lighting will continue to improve in efficacy, service life and cost. Efficacy is expected to improve to 145 lumens/W by 2015, and then plateau at the technology’s theoretical limit of efficiency of about 200 lumens/W.Source: DOE
30 Performance Drives LED Cost Roadmap ($/lm) Working on both numerator and denominator!!$/lm, normalized(Cool White, 6500K)Efficacy (LPW)Annual Improvement in 100 LPW43%45%35%29%40%27%Source: Cree
31 Driving LPW Makes Systems Cheaper. A Lot Cheaper.Fewer LEDs & optics for the same system(Hypothetical Example)Source: Cree
32 A Real Example 3 2 2011 2007 8 LEDs 650 lm 10.5W $49.97 Retail 3 $39.97$19.97>$100 CommercialWholesaleSource: Cree
33 LED Cost ConclusionsLED costs have been coming down rapidly over the last 3 years – typical semiconductor learning curveLuminous Flux and therefore LPW efficacy have also been improving dramatically – 200 LPW is now in productionSince cost is measured in lumens per dollar, working on both the numerator and denominator simultaneously have yielded over 40% year-on-year gains for the past several yearsEvery time LEDs are made 10% brighter they also become 10% cheaper because you need 10% fewer LEDs per luminaire systemTaking LEDs out of a system is a much stronger lever on cost than simply reducing the cost of LEDs because 10% fewer LEDs also means 10% fewer optics, smaller and cheaper housings and PWB assemblies, etc.Increasing efficacy reduces the size, weight, cost of heat sinks
34 HeatStated very simply, heat is death to electronics and LEDs are electronics – transistorsFor every 10°C increase in temperature over a component’s rated temperature, the component’s life is reduced by half
35 Dimming of LEDs Bad News Good News LEDs love dimming Dimming reduces the LED junction temperatureSaves additional power/energyShould increase LED life and color stabilityBad NewsNot all LED systems are compatible with all dimmersNeed to get compatibility assurance from luminaire/dimmer manufacturer
36 Warranties 10 years @ 24 X 7 X 365 = 87,600 hours What is covered 10 24 X 7 X 365 = 87,600 hoursWhat is covered“Limited” warrantyWhat is not coveredSource: Stephen Naor Leapfrog Lighting
40 Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires Version 1 Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires Version 1.0 October 2011This document is intended to be used as a model or template specification.It should be customized as needed to meet the needs of each owner,The template is composed of two separate documents:The body of the specification and appendixThe Editor may choose ONE of two versions of Appendix A, depending on available informationSystem Specification (application efficacy), which characterizes luminaire performance based on site characteristics such as mounting height, pole spacing, number of drive lanes, input power, and required light levels and uniformity.Material Specification (luminaire efficacy), which characterizes luminaire performance without consideration of site characteristics.
41 BUG RATINGS – Backlight, Uplight, and Glare IES-TM-15 and addenda) An attempt to define, measure, and control unwanted light
42 Focused vs. spread lighting - Uniformity Minimize the number of metrics usedAvoid using metrics and criteria which may overlap and conflictFor example, if a minimum lumens value is specified for a parking lot luminaire, high-performance products which improve uniformity (thereby needing fewer lumens) might be inadvertently excluded from consideration424242
43 What we don’t want!!!!! Complete luminaire Failures Driver Spot LED failuresComplete luminaire FailuresDriver
44 Retrofit 400 MH to T8 Fluorescent Example BeforeAfterHigh-bay fixtures e/w 400-w metal halide (458-watts/fixture) FCCRI = 65Industrial fixtures e/w 6 – F32T8 lamps(224-watts/fixture) FCCRI = 85Source: BOC
47 FLICKERIEEE working on P1789, "Recommending practices for modulating current in High Brightness LEDs for mitigating health risks to viewers" grouper.ieee.org/groups/1789/DOE - PNNL has been working on this and is continuing to work on thisTesting methodsMetricsGood webinarswww1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/webcasts.htmlledsmagazine.com/features/9/10/5
48 ANSI C82.377This standard specifies the range of chromaticities recommended for general indoor lighting with SSL products, as well as to ensure that the white light chromaticities of the products can be communicated to consumersThis standard applies to LED-based SSL products with control electronics and heat sinks incorporated--that is, those devices that require only AC mains power or a DC voltage power supply to operateThis document does not cover products that require external operating circuits or additional external heat sinks.The chromaticity requirement in this standard is for general indoor lighting applications. For other applications, chromaticities of light broader than the range specified in this standard are often acceptable
49 NEMA SSL – 1, ELECTRONIC DRIVERS FOR LED DEVICES, ARRAYS, OR SYSTEMS Provides specifications for and operating characteristics of non-integral electronic drivers (power supplies) for LED devices, arrays, or systemsHowever, the driver generally is or contains the weakest link in the luminaire system – electronic components and the electrolytic capacitor.Electronic components and heat+10º C = life/2Weakest part of a LED product
50 IEEE P Recommended Practice of Modulating Current in High Brightness LED’s for Mitigating Health Risks to ViewersUnder development – estimate late 2014 publish dateThere are no standards on safe modulating frequencies for LEDs. Driving frequencies suggested by vendors, range from very low to high frequencies. Past work has shown that modulation at low frequencies can cause health related problems, such as headaches, eye strain and epileptic seizure.The detrimental effects depend on factors such as brightness, angle of viewing, wavelength, depth of modulation, among others. The purpose of this standard is to1) describe some possible health risks, such as headaches, eye strain and epileptic seizure, associated with low frequency modulation of LEDs in different applications and2) provide recommended practices to aid design of LED driving systems to modulate at safe frequencies for their particular applications in order to protect against the described health risks.
52 UL 8750 Light Emitting Diode (LED) Equipment for Use in Lighting Products (Canada C250.13) “Voluntary” Safety requirements for LED equipment that is an integral part of a luminaire or other lighting equipment and which operates in the visible light spectrum between 400 – 700 nmRequirements also cover the component parts of light emitting diode (LED) equipment, including LED drivers, controllers, arrays, modules, and packages as defined within this standardRequirements in this standard are intended to supplement those in 12 other UL end-product standards including UL1598
53 UL 1598 “Voluntary” Standard for Safety for Luminaires – 304 pages This Standard applies to luminaires for use in non-hazardous locations and that are intended for installation on branch circuits of 600 V nominal or less between conductorsCovers Incandescent, HID, Fluorescent, and SSL luminairesSimilar to IEC 598
54 UL 1598(C)These requirements apply to light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit luminaire conversion kits intended to replace existing light sources and systems in previously installed luminaires that already comply with requirements in UL The kits are intended for use on:LED retrofit kits covered by these requirements include but are not limited to LED lamps and arrays, LED control modules, LED drivers, LED power supplies, wiring, lampholders, brackets, wire connectors, reflectors, diffusers, and other associated mechanical, electrical, or optical devices.This standard does not cover luminaire conversion lamps intended to replace existing lamps without any modification in the luminaire other than replacement of the lamp using the existing lampholder. Requirements for these direct replacement lamps specified in the Standard for Self-Ballasted Lamps and Lamp Adapters, UL 1993.
55 FCC Part 15/ICES 003 Mandatory per US and Canadian governments Covers conducted and radiated EMI and EMCSomewhat similar to CISPR 15 (IEC and Europe)FCC practice faster and less costly than IEC
60 Twelve questions you need to ask when specifying LED products 1) Is your LED supplier a reliable company? How do you know?2) Has your supplier provided an IES LM-80 test report from an accredited laboratory?3) What is the operating temperature range specification and what is the maximum junction temperature4) What is the expected L70 lifetime of the fixture? How was it calculated – TM 21 or?5) Can the manufacturer supply an IES LM-79 test report from an accredited laboratory as well as an .ies data file?6) What are the delivered lumens and lumens per watt (LPW) of the fixture?
61 Twelve questions you need to ask when specifying LED products 7) What is the chromaticity of the fixture in the ANSI C78.377A color space and is it stable over time? How do you know?8) Does the color of the light output vary from fixture to fixture or in different spatial locations for a single fixture?9) What is the power factor of the fixture? How much power does it consume in the “off” state?10) Do you have or have you applied for the EPA Energy Star or Design Lights Consortium listing?11) Is the fixture lead-free, mercury-free and RoHS compliant?12) What is the warranty and do you have the means to stand behind it?
62 Learning Objectives Have we helped you to Understand the different efficiency or efficacies in light source systems and plan for maximum lighting efficiency for each applicationRecognize the important performance characteristics of light source systems and select those that are needed for a specific applicationUnderstand the relative cost implications of different light source systems and make an educated decision as to which system to utilizeLearn about the impact of mandatory and voluntary lighting regulations and standards, and their impact on lighting system selectionTo personalize this slide, please insert your four learning objectives in the purple area on this slide. You may change the color used in the text. Be sure that these four learning objectives are identical to the ones that were submitted on the course registration. Please remove the “sample slide” lingo from the upper right hand corner of the page.
63 Thank You Are there any questions? Howard Wolfman, PELumispec ConsultingO:C: