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Howard Wolfman, PE Lumispec Consulting

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1 Howard Wolfman, PE Lumispec Consulting h.wolfman@ieee.org 847 656 5753
Cx Energy Conference . High Performance Lighting: Lamp Source & Energy Usage Howard Wolfman, PE Lumispec Consulting

2 By the end of this hour you should
Learning Objectives By the end of this hour you should Understand the different efficiency or efficacies in light source systems and plan for maximum lighting efficiency for each application Recognize the important performance characteristics of light source systems and select those that are needed for a specific application Understand the relative cost implications of different light source systems and make an educated decision as to which system to utilize Learn about the impact of mandatory and voluntary lighting regulations and standards, and their impact on lighting system selection To personalize this slide, please insert your four learning objectives in the purple area on this slide. You may change the color used in the text. Be sure that these four learning objectives are identical to the ones that were submitted on the course registration. Please remove the “sample slide” lingo from the upper right hand corner of the page.

3 Disclaimer Although I list a number of manufacturers and models, these are examples and none are endorsed. There are other manufactures with similar products Also, I do not have any financial arrangement or consulting agreements with any of these manufacturers (friendships with some – yes)

4 Energy Use and Cost for Lighting Systems in Commercial Buildings
Cost of lamps (bulbs & tubes) and labor cost to replace them is small percentage of total operating costs. Electricity to operate lighting systems far outweighs lamp and labor costs. The higher purchase price of efficient lamps is quickly recovered through lower electricity costs.

5 GOAL: To safely place the correct amount and type of light where it is needed, when it is needed, and for the lowest life cycle cost  Need: Consistency in products Cost-effective products Quality in products Reliability in products Then products will: Allow interchangeability of system components Provide “superior” lighting

6 User Lighting Goal Save money Provide “proper” level of illumination
Reduce power consumption Reduce maintenance Provide “proper” level of illumination Safe Adequate light level Be environmentally friendly

7 Definitions

8 Definitions Light Sources CCT (Correlated Color Temperature)
CRI (Color Rendering Index) Efficacy Lamp life Lumen Depreciation/Lumen Maintenance

9 Light Sources Incandescent HID Fluorescent CFL LED

10 CCT (Correlated Color Temperature) - Kelvin (K)
- Terminology CCT (Correlated Color Temperature) - Kelvin (K) Color temperature – a measure of the “warmth” or “coolness” provided by the lamp, expressed in Kelvin (K). Generally, sources below 3200K are considered “warm” while those above 4000K are considered “cool.” The higher the color temperature, the “cooler” or bluer the light. Also called “Chromaticity”

11 Color Temperature by Application
- Terminology Color Temperature by Application SSL SSL SSL SSL SSL New area: Human Centric Lighting

12 CRI (Color Rendering Index)
- Terminology CRI (Color Rendering Index) Color Rendering Index (CRI) - a scale from 0-100, is a measure of how well a lamp renders color. A lamp with a CRI of 100 makes objects appear as they do in sunlight. CRI can only be compared for lamps of similar color temperature. A low CRI rating suggests that the colors of objects under that particular light source will appear unnatural.

13 Source: IES

14 Light Source Color Summary
CRI CCT (°K) Natural daylight o – 8500o Mercury vapor o – 6000o Metal halide 65 – o – 6500o Fluorescent o – 8000o Incandescent o – 3000o Induction o – 5000o Standard HPS o LED o – 8000o Low pressure sodium o Source: BOC

15 Lamp Characteristics: LPW & Average Rated Life
Lumens Per Watt (LPW) light output (lumens) LPW = power input (watts) Average Rated Life for Incandescent, HID, and Fluorescent is the point in time at which 50% of a large group of lamps have failed. Ratings in catalogs are result of standard lab tests. (Ex: Fluorescent lamps 20,000 3 hrs./start) Rated life for LED is when lumen output has dropped to 70%, or L70 Source: BOC

16 Definition of life-traditional light sources
Source: IES Lighting Handbook, 10th Edition

17 Light Source Lifetimes

18 Efficacy of Light Sources
DOE SSL R&D Multi-Year Program Plan ( ,

19 Lamp Characteristics: Lumen Maintenance (lumen light depreciation)
Most lamps lose ability to produce light after burning for some time Lumen maintenance measures the rate of depreciation and indicates the remaining light output LLD = mean lumens** initial lumens* Ex: 32-W T8 Fluorescent 2,775 LLD = = 2,900 *Initial lumens measured at 100 hrs **Mean lumens measured at 40% rated life Source: BOC

20 Comfort Issues Adequate Illumination Lake of Glare Color Recognition
- Human Needs Comfort Issues Adequate Illumination Lake of Glare Color Recognition Eyestrain relief from the ability to change focus from close (computer screen) to distance (wall/window)

21 Light Levels: Considerations
Proper light levels required ■ IESNA recommendations ■ State/local standards Where light levels are correct, visual tasks are easier. Too little is bad - cannot see, eye strain too much is bad – glare, wastes energy Source: BOC

22 High Intensity Discharge (HID)
- Lighting Types High Intensity Discharge (HID) An HID lamp relies on light emitted by a gas or vapor that has been excited by an electric current Long life, high efficacy, and small in physical size Warm up (2-6 minutes) and “restrike” (up to 20 minutes) Point source -glare HID lamps include mercury vapor, metal halide and high pressure sodium.

23 High Intensity Discharge (HID)
- Lighting Types High Intensity Discharge (HID) The most common types of HID lamps are Mercury Vapor, Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Low Pressure Sodium. Various metal halide lamps, clockwise starting from the left, ED28, PAR38, BT56, T6. This is not an exhaustive list.

24 Lumen Depreciation-HID Lamps
Source: IES Lighting Handbook, 10th Edition

25 Solid State Lighting SSL - LED

26 Collectively, what have we learned so far and what do we need going forward?

27 Why SSL Rapid ongoing improvements
DOE SSL R&D Multi-Year Program Plan ( ,

28 SSL Penetration - future
That being said, the future appears to belong to this light source, with the potential to reduce U.S. Lighting consumption by nearly half and reduce carbon emissions by 1.8 billion metric tons, according to DOE. DOE further predicts that LED will achieve a market share, expressed as demand for lumen-hours, of 10% by 2015, with the smallest gain being in the commercial building sector (5%) and the largest in outdoor stationary sector (29%). LED share is expected to increase to about 36% in 2020, 59% in 2025 and 74% in 2030, with the biggest long-term gains being in outdoor and residential lighting. Shown here in this graphic is the resulting change to the installed base of lamps in the country, with LED expected to represent 50% of all installed lighting in the U.S. by 2030. Source: DOE

29 LED luminaire efficacy
This growth is based on expectations that LED lighting will continue to improve in efficacy, service life and cost. Efficacy is expected to improve to 145 lumens/W by 2015, and then plateau at the technology’s theoretical limit of efficiency of about 200 lumens/W. Source: DOE

30 Performance Drives LED Cost Roadmap ($/lm)
Working on both numerator and denominator!! $/lm, normalized (Cool White, 6500K) Efficacy (LPW) Annual Improvement in 100 LPW 43% 45% 35% 29% 40% 27% Source: Cree

31 Driving LPW Makes Systems Cheaper.
A Lot Cheaper. Fewer LEDs & optics for the same system (Hypothetical Example) Source: Cree

32 A Real Example 3 2 2011 2007 8 LEDs 650 lm 10.5W $49.97 Retail 3
$39.97 $19.97 >$100 Commercial Wholesale Source: Cree

33 LED Cost Conclusions LED costs have been coming down rapidly over the last 3 years – typical semiconductor learning curve Luminous Flux and therefore LPW efficacy have also been improving dramatically – 200 LPW is now in production Since cost is measured in lumens per dollar, working on both the numerator and denominator simultaneously have yielded over 40% year-on-year gains for the past several years Every time LEDs are made 10% brighter they also become 10% cheaper because you need 10% fewer LEDs per luminaire system Taking LEDs out of a system is a much stronger lever on cost than simply reducing the cost of LEDs because 10% fewer LEDs also means 10% fewer optics, smaller and cheaper housings and PWB assemblies, etc. Increasing efficacy reduces the size, weight, cost of heat sinks

34 Heat Stated very simply, heat is death to electronics and LEDs are electronics – transistors For every 10°C increase in temperature over a component’s rated temperature, the component’s life is reduced by half

35 Dimming of LEDs Bad News Good News LEDs love dimming
Dimming reduces the LED junction temperature Saves additional power/energy Should increase LED life and color stability Bad News Not all LED systems are compatible with all dimmers Need to get compatibility assurance from luminaire/dimmer manufacturer

36 Warranties 10 years @ 24 X 7 X 365 = 87,600 hours What is covered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     10 24 X 7 X 365 = 87,600 hours What is covered “Limited” warranty What is not covered Source: Stephen Naor Leapfrog Lighting

37 Glare

38 Glare Incandescent/HID/LED - point light source Proper defusing
Proper focusing Control Curfew

39 Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO)

40 Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires Version 1
Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires Version 1.0 October 2011 This document is intended to be used as a model or template specification. It should be customized as needed to meet the needs of each owner, The template is composed of two separate documents: The body of the specification and appendix The Editor may choose ONE of two versions of Appendix A, depending on available information System Specification (application efficacy), which characterizes luminaire performance based on site characteristics such as mounting height, pole spacing, number of drive lanes, input power, and required light levels and uniformity. Material Specification (luminaire efficacy), which characterizes luminaire performance without consideration of site characteristics.

41 BUG RATINGS – Backlight, Uplight, and Glare IES-TM-15 and addenda)
An attempt to define, measure, and control unwanted light

42 Focused vs. spread lighting - Uniformity
Minimize the number of metrics used Avoid using metrics and criteria which may overlap and conflict For example, if a minimum lumens value is specified for a parking lot luminaire, high-performance products which improve uniformity (thereby needing fewer lumens) might be inadvertently excluded from consideration 42 42 42

43 What we don’t want!!!!! Complete luminaire Failures Driver
Spot LED failures Complete luminaire Failures Driver

44 Retrofit 400 MH to T8 Fluorescent Example
Before After High-bay fixtures e/w 400-w metal halide (458-watts/fixture) FC CRI = 65 Industrial fixtures e/w 6 – F32T8 lamps (224-watts/fixture) FC CRI = 85 Source: BOC

45 42, 4-lamp T5HO fixtures 234-w 4, 6-lamp T5HO fixtures 351-w
HID & Incandescent to T5HO Fluorescent Before After 54, 400-w HPS HB fixtures 465-w , 400-w MH HB fixtures 458-w , 500-w Incand fixtures 500-w 29,859 W 42, 4-lamp T5HO fixtures 234-w , 6-lamp T5HO fixtures 351-w (all e/w wire grills) 11,932 W Source: BOC

46 Standards and Specifications

47 FLICKER IEEE working on P1789, "Recommending practices for modulating current in High Brightness LEDs for mitigating health risks to viewers"  grouper.ieee.org/groups/1789/ DOE - PNNL has been working on this and is continuing to work on this Testing methods Metrics Good webinars www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/webcasts.html ledsmagazine.com/features/9/10/5

48 ANSI C82.377 This standard specifies the range of chromaticities recommended for general indoor lighting with SSL products, as well as to ensure that the white light chromaticities of the products can be communicated to consumers This standard applies to LED-based SSL products with control electronics and heat sinks incorporated--that is, those devices that require only AC mains power or a DC voltage power supply to operate This document does not cover products that require external operating circuits or additional external heat sinks. The chromaticity requirement in this standard is for general indoor lighting applications. For other applications, chromaticities of light broader than the range specified in this standard are often acceptable

49 NEMA SSL – 1, ELECTRONIC DRIVERS FOR LED DEVICES, ARRAYS, OR SYSTEMS
Provides specifications for and operating characteristics of non-integral electronic drivers (power supplies) for LED devices, arrays, or systems However, the driver generally is or contains the weakest link in the luminaire system – electronic components and the electrolytic capacitor. Electronic components and heat +10º C = life/2 Weakest part of a LED product

50 IEEE P Recommended Practice of Modulating Current in High Brightness LED’s for Mitigating Health Risks to Viewers Under development – estimate late 2014 publish date There are no standards on safe modulating frequencies for LEDs. Driving frequencies suggested by vendors, range from very low to high frequencies. Past work has shown that modulation at low frequencies can cause health related problems, such as headaches, eye strain and epileptic seizure. The detrimental effects depend on factors such as brightness, angle of viewing, wavelength, depth of modulation, among others. The purpose of this standard is to 1) describe some possible health risks, such as headaches, eye strain and epileptic seizure, associated with low frequency modulation of LEDs in different applications and 2) provide recommended practices to aid design of LED driving systems to modulate at safe frequencies for their particular applications in order to protect against the described health risks.

51 US Safety standards UL 8750 UL 1598 FCC part 15

52 UL 8750 Light Emitting Diode (LED) Equipment for Use in Lighting Products (Canada C250.13)
“Voluntary” Safety requirements for LED equipment that is an integral part of a luminaire or other lighting equipment and which operates in the visible light spectrum between 400 – 700 nm Requirements also cover the component parts of light emitting diode (LED) equipment, including LED drivers, controllers, arrays, modules, and packages as defined within this standard Requirements in this standard are intended to supplement those in 12 other UL end-product standards including UL1598

53 UL 1598 “Voluntary” Standard for Safety for Luminaires – 304 pages
This Standard applies to luminaires for use in non-hazardous locations and that are intended for installation on branch circuits of 600 V nominal or less between conductors Covers Incandescent, HID, Fluorescent, and SSL luminaires Similar to IEC 598

54 UL 1598(C) These requirements apply to light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit luminaire conversion kits intended to replace existing light sources and systems in previously installed luminaires that already comply with requirements in UL The kits are intended for use on: LED retrofit kits covered by these requirements include but are not limited to LED lamps and arrays, LED control modules, LED drivers, LED power supplies, wiring, lampholders, brackets, wire connectors, reflectors, diffusers, and other associated mechanical, electrical, or optical devices. This standard does not cover luminaire conversion lamps intended to replace existing lamps without any modification in the luminaire other than replacement of the lamp using the existing lampholder. Requirements for these direct replacement lamps specified in the Standard for Self-Ballasted Lamps and Lamp Adapters, UL 1993.

55 FCC Part 15/ICES 003 Mandatory per US and Canadian governments
Covers conducted and radiated EMI and EMC Somewhat similar to CISPR 15 (IEC and Europe) FCC practice faster and less costly than IEC

56 Zhaga standard Lighting industry used to standardized light sources, but LED engines are not Zhaga promotes interchangeability of LED light engines by specifying interfaces Zhaga specs to be limited to mechanical, thermal, photometric, electrical interfaces Initially voluntary, but will submit spec to IEC for standardization Both US and Europe expected to adopt as standards Most LED luminaires are highly engineered, integrated devices. When the light source fails, the luminaire fails. If the light source becomes obsolete, the owner would have to replace the luminaire to take advantage of more beneficial light source technology. This is a radical departure from what the industry is used to, which is luminaires built around standardized components that connect using standard interfaces. The Zhaga consortium was formed in Europe to develop standards that promote interchangeability of LED light sources for general lighting. The specifications will be limited to these interfaces, allowing manufacturers to develop components and luminaires for competitive advantage. While the program will be voluntary, with Zhaga promoting products that utilize their specifications, the organization ultimately plans for these specs to become an international standard. ©Copywrite 2012 H Wolfman all rights reserved

57 EPA Energy Star Standards
ENERGY STAR Product Specification for Luminaires Voluntary – 36 pages Photometric Performance Requirements. Electrical Performance Rqrmnts Thermal Performance Rqrmnts Safety Requirements Product Labeling & Packaging Requirements Lighting Toxics Reduction Requirements: Directional and Non-Directional Luminaires Warranty Requirements: Directional and Non-Directional Luminaires ENERGY STAR Product Specification for Lamps - Voluntary - 53 pages Contains lamp requirements for Beam spread Color Life Lumen depreciation Efficacy Stress testing Electrical Dimming Labeling Warranty

58 DLC Qualified Products List
Produced by DesignLights Consortium Specifications and list of qualified products for utility incentive programs January 1, 2014, v.2.1 update updated specs for 37 LED product categories Over 16,000 products listed Another resource is the Design Lights Consortium, which maintains a Qualified Products List on behalf of a group of utilities and regional energy efficiency organizations offering product rebate programs. To get on the list, an LED product must satisfy or surpass rigorous criteria. In July 2011, the DLC announced new and updated categories and specifications for commercial SSL luminaires, resulting in a new and improved Qualified Products List, providing electrical distributors an important source of quality LED products. The complete list includes more than 7,000 products. See product list at ©Copywrite 2012 H Wolfman all rights reserved

59 Light Source Costs Source relative cost cost trend Incandescent 100 level HID 400 level Fluorescent 200 level CFL 150 level LED 400 decreasing

60 Twelve questions you need to ask when specifying LED products
1) Is your LED supplier a reliable company? How do you know? 2) Has your supplier provided an IES LM-80 test report from an accredited laboratory? 3) What is the operating temperature range specification and what is the maximum junction temperature 4) What is the expected L70 lifetime of the fixture? How was it calculated – TM 21 or? 5) Can the manufacturer supply an IES LM-79 test report from an accredited laboratory as well as an .ies data file? 6) What are the delivered lumens and lumens per watt (LPW) of the fixture?

61 Twelve questions you need to ask when specifying LED products
7) What is the chromaticity of the fixture in the ANSI C78.377A color space and is it stable over time? How do you know? 8) Does the color of the light output vary from fixture to fixture or in different spatial locations for a single fixture? 9) What is the power factor of the fixture? How much power does it consume in the “off” state? 10) Do you have or have you applied for the EPA Energy Star or Design Lights Consortium listing? 11) Is the fixture lead-free, mercury-free and RoHS compliant? 12) What is the warranty and do you have the means to stand behind it?

62 Learning Objectives Have we helped you to
Understand the different efficiency or efficacies in light source systems and plan for maximum lighting efficiency for each application Recognize the important performance characteristics of light source systems and select those that are needed for a specific application Understand the relative cost implications of different light source systems and make an educated decision as to which system to utilize Learn about the impact of mandatory and voluntary lighting regulations and standards, and their impact on lighting system selection To personalize this slide, please insert your four learning objectives in the purple area on this slide. You may change the color used in the text. Be sure that these four learning objectives are identical to the ones that were submitted on the course registration. Please remove the “sample slide” lingo from the upper right hand corner of the page.

63 Thank You Are there any questions?
Howard Wolfman, PE Lumispec Consulting O: C:


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