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Biomass Fundamentals Module 2: Definitions of Biomass A capstone course for BioSUCCEED: Bio products S ustainability: a U niversity C ooperative C enter.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomass Fundamentals Module 2: Definitions of Biomass A capstone course for BioSUCCEED: Bio products S ustainability: a U niversity C ooperative C enter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomass Fundamentals Module 2: Definitions of Biomass A capstone course for BioSUCCEED: Bio products S ustainability: a U niversity C ooperative C enter of E xcellence in ED ucation The USDA Higher Education Challenge Grants program gratefully acknowledged for support

2 This course would not be possible without support from: USDA Higher Education Challenge (HEC) Grants Program

3 What is biomass? According to the US Department of Energy: Biomass is any organic material made from plants or animals. Domestic biomass resources include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, and terrestrial and aquatic crops grown solely for energy purposes. In general, it is a carbon- containing substance or material that has a biological origin, is renewable, has little to no impact on green house gases, and is degradable Quiz M Which of the following cannot be considered biomass according to the DOE definition: (a) corn stover; (b) poultry; feathers; (c) clay; (d) human hair 2. Which of the following can be considered a biomass according to the general definition: (a) petroleum; (b) carbon dioxide; (c) diamond; (d) none of the above 3. What can potentially be another name for biomass: (a) biomaterial; (b) biochemical; (c) bioenergy; (d) all of the above 1. Which of the following cannot be considered biomass according to the DOE definition: (a) corn stover; (b) poultry; feathers; (c) clay; (d) human hair 2. Which of the following can be considered a biomass according to the general definition: (a) petroleum; (b) carbon dioxide; (c) diamond; (d) none of the above 3. What can potentially be another name for biomass: (a) biomaterial; (b) biochemical; (c) bioenergy; (d) all of the above

4 Origins of biomass Where does it come from? Biomass comes from plants and animals – Generally a whole component byproduct of their metabolism, or some modification – It has been useful for the development of civilization It is part of a cycle of biosynthesis (manufacture) and biodegradability (death) Amber is fossilized tree resin; resin is the semi-solid, amorphous biomass secreted in wood cells.

5 Why is it important? Quiz M2.2 Biomass is a source of materials (food, wood, paper, rubber, leather) Biomass is a source of fuel (ethanol, wood, biodiesel, oil) Biomass is a source of chemicals (rosins, detergents, sugars, terpenes) 1. Which of the following aspects of civilization did not benefit in some way from biomass? (a) housing construction; (b) food cultivation; (c) clothing; (d) all of the above 2. Where does ethanol come from? (a) wood; (b) wheat; (c) corn; (d) all of the above 3. Does biomass contribute to green house gas accumulation? (a) yes; (b) no 1. Which of the following aspects of civilization did not benefit in some way from biomass? (a) housing construction; (b) food cultivation; (c) clothing; (d) all of the above 2. Where does ethanol come from? (a) wood; (b) wheat; (c) corn; (d) all of the above 3. Does biomass contribute to green house gas accumulation? (a) yes; (b) no

6 What is petroleum? FUEL & MATERIALS!!! Thought to be the decomposition product of animal and/or plant matter after protracted periods of time Needs to be “refined” to obtain usable chemicals for energy and materials (plastics, resins, composites, tars, asphalts, waxes, etc.) However, difficult to ascertain exactly how formed US uses 25% or more of world supply to support its infrastructure Drilling for fuel

7 What are the similarities between biomass and petroleum? Petro-economy vs. bio-economy Petroleum is believed to be the result of biomass being compressed under high pressure and a long time in an anoxic environment However, petroleum is richer in energy by approximately 40% on a gal/gal basis, it is not renewable, and contributes to green house gas pollution Quiz M For which of the following does petroleum not contribute in a petro-economy: (a) gasoline; (b) candles; (c) PVC piping (d) cotton 2. Where does ethanol come from? (a) wood; (b) wheat; (c) corn; (d) all of the above 3. Does biomass contribute to green house gas accumulation? (a) yes; (b) no 1. For which of the following does petroleum not contribute in a petro-economy: (a) gasoline; (b) candles; (c) PVC piping (d) cotton 2. Where does ethanol come from? (a) wood; (b) wheat; (c) corn; (d) all of the above 3. Does biomass contribute to green house gas accumulation? (a) yes; (b) no

8 What is bioenergy? You and me are bioenergy! It is a natural form of energy that does not depend on non- renewable sources, like petroleum; referred to as a biofuel Ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and butanol are typical bioenergy stock fuels We consider solar, wind, ocean currents, geothermals, nuclear, and others are alternative energy sources not to be confused as bioenergy ESSAY At this point, describe in a page or less, how bioenergy contributes to your lifestyle or how you would like it to. Or if that is too difficult, discuss how alternative fuels are incorporated into your life or how you would like to include them.

9 Bioethanol The second simplest alcohol on the planet (C 2 H 6 OH); also known as grain alcohol (primary origin) as opposed to methanol, simplest alcohol (wood alcohol) Ethanol or ethyl alcohol as we have known it for thousands of glorious, fun-filled years! It has within the last 10 years been mandated as a fuel additive to replace MTBEs (methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenation chemical) to continue clean burning of fuel and thus improve air quality It currently supplies about 3% of our total liquid fuel needs We consider solar, wind, ocean currents, geothermals, nuclear, and others are alternative energy sources not to be confused as bioenergy Ethanol-producing corn plants in the Midwest of the USA (the bread basket).

10 Biodiesel Another incredibly useful form of liquid fuel However, it is a vegetable oil and fatty acid product (an ester) Made from the transesterification of vegetable oil using an alcohol such as methanol (most common): the three fatty acids on the glycerol residue are esterified to 3 molecules of methanol leaving behind glycerin (a tri-alcohol) Prof. Chavanne of Belgium invented biodiesel in 1937 Generally used ast B99 blends (1% petrodiesel is added) to avoid molding of fuel 1. Which has a higher energy value: (a) gasoline; (b) methanol; (c) ethanol; (d) butanol 2. What common oils can make biodiesel: (a) soybean; (b) corn; (c) rapseed; (d) all of the above 3. What is an ester: (a) a female’s name; (b) an organic product also known as an ether; (c) an alcohol-fatty acid compound; (d) all of the above 1. Which has a higher energy value: (a) gasoline; (b) methanol; (c) ethanol; (d) butanol 2. What common oils can make biodiesel: (a) soybean; (b) corn; (c) rapseed; (d) all of the above 3. What is an ester: (a) a female’s name; (b) an organic product also known as an ether; (c) an alcohol-fatty acid compound; (d) all of the above Quiz M2.4

11 What are the uses of biomass? Housing/Shelter Food Clothing Plastics/Composites Drugs/Medicines Books/Media Carbon sequestration Carbon credits

12 Examples of biomaterials Typical Dental implants Artificial joint Mammary gland implants Artificial skin False eye Prosthetic joint Cadaver implant Renewable-based Wood & associated biopolymers Plants & extractives Forest residues Modified wood/agro- biopolymers Renewable natural material for specific function

13 Photosynthesis  Biomass R = CHO Chlorophyll a R = CH 3 Chlorophyll b 1g fixedabsorbed

14 Mark A. Paisley, “Biomass Energy”, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2002) CO 2 Emissions One Driver for New Economy

15 Alternate Feedstock: Biomass Biomass: Organic matter available on a renewable basis. Advantages: – Naturally abundant – Sustainable – Reduce dependence on petroleum – Productive use of wastes – Lower emissions – Growth in rural communities

16 The Composition of Biomass Starch (Glucose) Lignocellulosic Biomass Oils and Proteins

17 Lignocellulosic Biomass Cellulose Hemicelluloses Lignin

18 Cellulose

19 Lignin Anselme Payen 1838: Reacts wood with nitric acid and then sodium hydroxide. Remaining material he names Cellulose. Schulze 1857: Names dissolved material Lignin from the latin lignum meaning wood. Phenolic Polymer - The Glue that Holds the Fibers Together 3 Dimensional Crolinked Network Branched Polymer/Polydisperse (Large and Small Polymers)

20 Hemicelluloses Gymnosperm hemicelluloses Galactoglucomannans Approximately 20% of the total carbohydrate content Alternating Glucose & Mannose along the main chain; Galactose branches off; Random acetates at C5 & C3 of main chain

21 Chitin 2 nd most plentiful polysaccharide on earth Can form chitosan – Usually not fully deacetylated. – Deactylation value has striking effect upon solubility and crystallinity – Can form cationic site (as ammonium salt) Rare in nature This is the “acetyl” group (CH 3 C=O) that characterizes chitin; once removed, it makes chitosan, the de-acetylated by-product

22 Biorefinery


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