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Hydrogen Safety and Permitting Hydrogen Fueling Stations Jim Ohi National Renewable Energy Laboratory International Conference on Hydrogen Safety San Sebastian,

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Presentation on theme: "Hydrogen Safety and Permitting Hydrogen Fueling Stations Jim Ohi National Renewable Energy Laboratory International Conference on Hydrogen Safety San Sebastian,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydrogen Safety and Permitting Hydrogen Fueling Stations Jim Ohi National Renewable Energy Laboratory International Conference on Hydrogen Safety San Sebastian, Spain September 13, 2007

2 Insufficient technical data available to set requirements in standards, codes, and regulations –non-hydrogen or industrial codes often referenced –difficult to trace origins and scientific foundations of requirements Voluntary, consensus system of Codes and Standards development –many standards development organizations (SDOs) and model code development organizations (CDOs) –harmonization of requirements between SDOs and CDOs, between domestic and international standards Approximately 44,000 governmental jurisdictions in U.S. with authority to regulate hydrogen applications –most jurisdictions have limited hydrogen experience, training, funding –permitting process and requirements may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction –permitting process can be time-consuming and expensive Challenges and Barriers

3 DOE Program Structure: Focus of Talk

4 Technology Roadmap First Version: Completed 2004 Living document, annual updates planned Tech Team Update in September 2006 Details Needs and Gaps in each Target Area

5 Roadmap – Target Research Areas 1.Hydrogen Behavior (physical/chemical, combustion/flammability, materials properties, sensing/mitigation) 2.Vehicles (fuel storage system, components, sensors, whole vehicle, failure modes) 3.Infrastructure (production, terminals/distribution/delivery, refueling stations) 4.Interface (fuel quality, feedback strategies, refueling components) Roadmap details Information Needs or Gaps for each Target Area to ensure RD&D efforts are properly directed

6 National Template: Vehicle Systems and Refueling Facilities Fuel Specs: SAE ASTM, API Wts/Measures: NIST, API, ASME Fueling: SAE, CSA Sensors/Detectors: UL, NFPA, SAE, CSA Connectors: SAE, CSA Communications : SAE UL, CSA, API, IEEE Controlling Authority: DOT/PHMSA (Over-road Transport, Pipeline Safety) Standards Development: Composite Containers ASME CSA, CGA, NFPA Pipelines ASME, API, CGA, AGA Equipment ASME, API, CGA, AGA Fuel Transfer NFPA, API Controlling Authority: State, Local Govt. Zoning, Building Permits Standards Development: Storage Tanks: ASME, CSA, CGA, NFPA, API Piping ASME, CSA, CGA, NFPA Dispensers CSA, UL, NFPA, On-site H2 Production: CSA, UL, CGA, API Codes for the Environment: ICC, NFPA Controlling Authority: DOT/NHTSA (Crashworthiness) EPA (Emissions) Standards Development: General FC Vehicle Safety: SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle Systems: SAE Fuel System Components: CSA Containers: SAE Reformers: SAE Emissions: SAE Recycling SAE Service/Repair: SAE Vehicles Fuel Delivery, Storage Fueling, ServiceParking Facility Lead SDO underlined Interface

7 Research Community SAFETY Industry Public Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development Consumer Education, Product Information Risk Assessment, Risk Informed Standards, Risk Management Risk Information, Education and Training Source: adapted from Thomas Jordan, HySafe

8 H 2 Behavior R&D H 2 Fueling Station Safety Setback Distances Model Codes Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development Consumer Education, Product Information Risk Assessment, Risk Informed Standards, Risk Management Risk Information, Education and Training Source: adapted from Thomas Jordan, HySafe

9 Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development Hydrogen Behavior/Separation Distances (from RD&D Roadmap) Properties Flammable Vapor Cloud Formation Flammability Limit Hydrogen Jets and Flames Liquid Hydrogen Releases Materials Compatibility Advanced Storage Materials, Behavior Hydrogen Sensors Source: Sandia National Laboratories

10 Hydrogen Combustion & Release Scenarios Turbulent Non-Premixed Flame Length Experimental Heat Flux Measurement Thermal Radiation Models Flammability Limits for Hydrogen Jet Ignition Probability Flame Impingement on a Barrier Wall Preliminary Comparisons of Natural Gas and Hydrogen Overpressure Measurements Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development Hydrogen Behavior/Separation Distances (Examples of Relevant R&D at Sandia National Laboratories)

11 Clearly defined risk metrics are required for QRA implementation. Assume “no greater risk” principle where hydrogen fueling should be no riskier than other fueling alternatives. H2 RA Considerations Fueling history and Lessons learned Equipment spacing & Mitigation Risk benchmark and Fuels comparison Lifecycle analysis of hydrogen economy Hydrogen behavior & Consequence analysis Design architectures High Risk Acceptable Risk Risk Reduction No Harmful Effect ALARP Unacceptable Baseline “acceptable” risk might be defined as the risk of everyday life. Beyond baseline, reduce risk using ALARP –Consequences above the risk threshold require mitigation strategies or engineering solutions to drive them below the acceptable level. –Consequences below the threshold can still be driven downwards by reducing exposure. Source: Sandia National Laboratories Quantitative Risk Assessment Approach for Separation Distances

12 H 2 Behavior R&D H 2 Fueling Station Safety Setback Distances Model Codes Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development Consumer Education, Product Information Risk Assessment, Risk Informed Standards, Risk Management Risk Information, Education and Training Source: adapted from Thomas Jordan, HySafe

13 Different timetables –R&D does not (cannot) follow a set timetable –Codes and standards development process has set timetables and deadlines for public notice, public hearings/comment, publication Different purposes and perspectives –R&D addresses scientific problems, e.g., hydrogen behavior under given release, confinement, ignition conditions –C&S development requires interpretation of scientific findings to help set requirements that improve safety of general class of applications, uses, situations Long-term interaction between researchers and C&S technical committee members essential –Cannot be limited to one-time presentations, “testimony” –Researchers must be integrated into technical committees –C&S technical committee members must become familiar with R&D objectives, process, limitations (uncertainty, error bars) Challenges and Barriers Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development:

14 NFPA 2, Hydrogen Technologies Compilation of all NFPA hydrogen provisions into one model code –Scheduled publication date: July 2010 –Technical Committee of stakeholder experts (ANSI consensus process) chaired by Marty Gresho, Fire Marshall, Sandia National Laboratories, California –Task Groups formed to address specific key topics and augment Technical Committee Task Group 6: Separation Distances –define approach to identify, assess, and select set of measures and criteria to specify separation distances for HRS based on foundation of scientific and technical data, analysis, modeling, QRA –joint effort with NFPA technical committee to integrate effort with technical experts responsible for establishing separation distances for hydrogen storage –storage pressure and leak size key factors to determining separation distances separate tables for different pressure regimes leak size defined in terms of the flow area as a percentage of the pipe diameter –for given pressure and leak size, hazard distances considered for different exposure categories air intakes for HVAC systems, lot lines, openings in buildings, structures, equipment requiring protection from potential hazard scenarios

15 Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development: NFPA 2, Hydrogen Technologies Task Group 6: Separation Distances –hazard scenarios defined hydrogen gas release and subsequent entrainment or accumulation fire spreading to or from adjacent equipment or structures ignition of unignited release or venting of hydrogen –exposures categories matched with hazard scenarios against which exposure must be protected –consequence parameters identified for each exposure category and its accompanying hazard scenario or scenarios to provide measurable criteria for separation distances decay distance of an unignited plume of hydrogen to 4% volume fraction in air radiative heat flux level of ignited hydrogen jet flame length of ignited jet parameters will vary with pressure, leak size, physical and environmental conditions at site when event occurs –example using radiative heat flux as consequence parameter 1.6kW/m 2 : “no-harm” level equivalent to exposure to the sun on a clear day 4 to 5 kW/m 2 : second-degree burns within 20 sec. exposure 25 kW/m 2 : structural damage, significant injury within 10 sec., death within 60 sec.

16 Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development: NFPA 2, Hydrogen Technologies Task Group 6: Separation Distances –if level of radiative heat flux is most appropriate consequence parameter to measure degree of protection provided by separation distance for given exposure category and hazard scenario, distance at which heat flux subsides to that level will be equivalent to separation distance at lot lines heat flux should not harm people and should be set no higher than 1.6 kW/m 2 for buildings and structures of noncombustible materials, heat flux as high as 25 kW/m 2 could be allowed –for exposure category of air intakes, decay distance of unignited hydrogen plume to 4% volume fraction is most appropriate consequence parameter –separation distances for aboveground gaseous hydrogen systems based solely on consequence parameters can be reduced through mitigation measures barrier walls noncombustible enclosures –evaluate effects of mitigation measures through experiments, modeling, and analysis –apply QRA techniques to define risk informed requirements ensemble of events evaluated (LaChance, et al., paper)

17 Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development: NFPA 2, Hydrogen Technologies Conclusions –timeline to develop and publish NFPA 2 set from beginning to allow sufficient time for supporting R&D, modeling, and analysis to be performed R&D and code development better synchronized than when R&D has to fit into code revision cycle already underway –creation of task groups composed of technical committee members and outside experts to address key issues allows better interaction between researchers and code development experts Task Group 6 formed joint effort with NFPA 55technical committee members –DOE supported critical R&D for safety codes and standards and work of key SDOs such as NFPA for many years support has fostered good working relationships at both institutional and personal levels among researchers and codes and standards experts

18 H 2 Behavior R&D H 2 Fueling Station Safety Setback Distances Model Codes Linking R&D and Codes and Standards Development Consumer Education, Product Information Risk Assessment, Risk Informed Standards, Risk Management Risk Information, Education and Training Source: adapted from Thomas Jordan, HySafe

19 Create and maintain a comprehensive, user-friendly, one- stop information source for permitting HFS –Assist permitting officials to review HFS applications and take informed and expeditious action –Facilitate interaction of permitting officials and HFS developers enable joint “navigation” of permitting process –Post critical information HFS technologies and associated safety considerations pertinent sections of codes and standards –Provide links to other sources of information Focal audiences: local permitting officials, HFS developers Additional audiences: state and local officials, other stakeholders Permitting Hydrogen Fueling Stations: Objectives

20 Key Capability Users can obtain information on permitting procedures and requirements, hydrogen technologies, and pertinent standards and model code provisions

21 Auxiliary Information Case studies of HFS permitting and construction Examples of best practices for permitting advanced technologies Fact sheets on HFS technologies Network chart of code officials who have addressed HFS permitting cases

22 Three Interlinked Main Modules –HFS Permitting Process describes major steps in typical permitting process highlights key information and issues involved with each step –includes generic requirements for FMEA and QRA (with SNL) –Retail Hydrogen Fueling Station Structure fact sheets on and links to information on hydrogen production, delivery, storage, and dispensing technologies information on related safety issues and requirements in pertinent codes and standards –Codes and Standards Finder and Database identifies and provides specific sections of standards and model codes for permitting hydrogen fueling stations Web Site Structure

23 HFS Web Site Concept Permitting ProcessRetail Hydrogen Station Codes and Standards Addition to Existing StationStand Alone Station On-site ProductionH2 Delivery Storage Compression Dispensing LH2 CGH2 SMRATR Gasoline Diesel CNGH2 Application for Permit Site Plan Buildings Equipment ConstructionInspection Operation Operation, Maintenance Underground (LH2) At-grade Canopy Top (CGH) Process Flowchart Case Studies Fact Sheets IFC 2209 NFPA 52 Level of Detail Timetable Etc. Elect. Pathway: Behind Fence to Retail Best Practices

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25 Hydrogen Safety and Permitting Hydrogen Fueling Stations: Summary Availability and consistent application of codes and standards whose requirements are founded on RD&D, modeling, and analysis are key barrier to widespread market entry of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies –DOE supports critical RD&D to help establish this foundation –DOE also supports key SDOs to help accelerate development of critical codes and standards –DOE now addressing intersection of these two efforts in general and permitting of HFS in particular RD&D accommodated in organizational structure and timetable of NFPA 2 code development cycle –potential to succeed and become template for integration of two distinct but complementary elements of safe hydrogen use DOE will facilitate permitting process for HFS to be less time consuming and more efficient –work with HFS developers and fire and building code communities to develop Web-based information repository –conduct workshops to review structure, content, and usefulness of repository

26 Thank You! DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program www. hydrogen.energy.gov National Renewable Energy Laboratory


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