Presentation on theme: "Wave propagation via laser ultrasound IR laser focused on 19 mm line Laser line source."— Presentation transcript:
wave propagation via laser ultrasound IR laser focused on 19 mm line Laser line source
Transmitted EM phase image of granite at 150 GHz
Measuring electrical and mechanical properties of rocks on the submillimeter scale JS, M. Batzle, M. Prasad, N. Greeney & A. Yuffa Colorado School of Mines Collaboration between Physics, Geophsysics and Petroleum Engineering
All data and software will be available Common Ground free database of rock properties
High spatial resolution techniques now available Laser ultrasound millimeter/submillimeter wave EM Strain microscopy Acoustic microscopy (Prasad) Micro-CT scan (Batzle)
Motivation Complimentary measurements Submillimeter waves sample on same length scale as ultrasound. measurements fully noncontacting and can be done on same samples without other preparation.
Length scale of measurement easily controlled optically 'low' frequency normal mode
Laser spot size measured in microns 'high' frequency normal mode
But how to get local elastic properties from waveforms?
Electrical properties at sub-mm resolution CSM submillimeter system covers from microwaves (8-10 GHz) to 1 THz (1000 GHz) Allows us to do bulk dielectric spectroscopy And now, near-field scanning
ABMillimetre submm VNA Funded by NSF MRI
Unique instrument measure amplitude and phase of the electric field over broad range of millimeter to submillimeter wave frequencies In free-space or in waveguide Produces linearly polarized Gaussian beams of high optical quality: quasi-optics Allows 'easy optics'
Dielectric spectroscopy Fit E field with 1D Fabry-Perot model to get complex permittivity
Measuring water content
Measuring anisotropy in shale
MMW rock physics applications Scales and Batzle APL papers Measure organic content in rocks and oil/water emulsions Resolve sedimentation at the 100 micron level (implications for climate models) Check mixing models (such as Maxwell- Garnett)
Recent: cavity perturbation Have recently built ultra-high-Q millimeter wave cavity for measuring (e.g.,) conductivity of thin films. Use ultrasonic cavity perturbation to measure minute changes in samples
Getting high-resolution EM results
First work at 150 GHz Greeney & JS, Appl. Phys. Letts. Bare teflon probes Later, went to higher frequency, 260 GHz Clad teflon in aluminum Small hole at tip to prevent leakage Weiss et al, J. Appl. Phys. Finite element modeling of tip surface coupling
Transmitted phase image of granite at 150 GHz
Transmitted phase image of shale at 150 GHz
Seeing inside dielectrics: rfid 260 GHz
Seeing vascular structure
True near-field scanning Tip-sample distance.2mm Wavelength about 1 mm
Can see standing waves in the shadow (backside of dime)
Circular drum modes Tip-sample distance.6mm
small scale effects of Pyrolisis McEvoy et al, 2009 oil shale conf.
Comparison with acoustic microscopy (M. Prasad's lab)
Laser ultrasound analog
Pulsed laser sources Pulses from 10 ns to 100 fs Looking at first arriving energy as we scan across the sample. Scanning resolution measured in nm
Measuring spatial strain in real time at video frame rates Illuminate a surface with laser speckle Take a picture of the speckle Apply a strain Take another picture Subtract the two The result is an interferogram Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry
ESPI through a microscope
Speckle interferograms of concrete Are grains floating?
Trick is in the image processing
Skeletonization by nonlinear pde filtering
conclusion Are acquiring independent high-spatial resolution data sets for relevant rocks Expect to have high-res mechanical properties soon. Batzle now has micro-CT scanner. Again, no rock prep required. Have a high-speed video camera for the ESPI