Presentation on theme: "Energy Independence --The “moonshot” for this generation. Lonnie Ingram*, S. Zhou, K.T. Shanmugam, B.E. Wood, & T. B. Causey Florida Center for Renewable."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Independence --The “moonshot” for this generation. Lonnie Ingram*, S. Zhou, K.T. Shanmugam, B.E. Wood, & T. B. Causey Florida Center for Renewable Chemicals and Fuel The University of Florida Replacing Imported Petroleum with Renewable Fuel Ethanol
The US currently needs 200 billion gallons of automotive fuel. This represents half of the total petroleum needed in the US. Over half of the petroleum used in the US is imported. Therefore – Each year, the equivalent of all US automotive fuel is imported. Corn-based renewable fuel ethanol is produced in 19 states, providing jobs and contributing to national energy security. Corn can do more!
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 195019551960196519701975198019851990199520002005201020152020 Million Barrels per Day Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration; modified U.S. Crude Oil Imports ~ Automotive Fuel (>200 billion gal in 2004; >$200 billion in 2005)
Corn Ethanol 2005 Cellulosic Ethanol lagging Total Ethanol Projected Ethanol Usage as Automotive Fuel Benefits from corn and cellulosic ethanol: u Renewable, reduction in oil imports u Oxygenate/Octane enhancer (MTBE replacement) u Agricultural residues (corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw) u New manufacturing -- jobs and rural economic development (Modified from DOE, 2002) Predicted Corn Ethanol
LATEST STUDY: ETHANOL HAS POSITIVE, GROWING ENERGY BALANCE The U.S. Department of Agriculture released a new study of the energy efficiency of ethanol which concludes ethanol production yields 34% more energy than is used in growing, harvesting and distilling grain into ethanol – an increase of 10% over its 1995 energy balance study. The report can be accessed on USDA's web site at: www.usda.gov/oce/oepnu/aer-813.pdf. www.usda.gov/oce/oepnu/aer-813.pdf Co-utilization of corn stover could double ethanol production per acre, cutting average fossil energy use per gallon by half. (LOI) Stover can be used as a feedstock for ethanol and residues burned as boiler fuel for energy to operate the plant. Current technology can produce 60-80 gal/dry ton cellulosics. www.usda.gov/oce/oepnu/aer-813.pdf
Residues from corn fermentation (15% wt) are loaded for processing into animal feed. Could be used to produce fuel ethanol. At 60-80 gallons per dry ton, 4.5 billion 5.2 billion gal/yr Current corn stover (cobs, stems, and leaves) could be used to produce over 25 billion gallons of ethanol/year.
March 2005 Draft Report by USDA and DOE A Billion-Ton Feedstock Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry Technical Feasibility of Supplying 1 Billion Dry Tons of Biomass
> 70% LIGNOCELLULOSE > 70% LIGNOCELLULOSE YardWastes17.9% Paper & Paperboard37.5% Plastics 8.3% 8.3% Glass and Metals 14.4% 14.4% Food and wood 13 % 13 %
U.S. Feedstocks Available by Biomass Type Forest Residues 84 MdT Agricultural Crop Residues 156 MdT Sludge 50 MdT Primary Mill Residues 2 MdT Biogas 11 MdT Potential Energy Crops 159 MdT Other Wastes 161 MdT Source: DOE, Biobased Products and Bioenergy Roadmap, July 2001 Draft (manure and biosolids) (primarily switchgrass, also hybrid poplar and willow) (landfill, digester, and sewage gas) (unused organic fraction of municipal solid waste, construction and demolition waste wood, urban tree residues) (corn stover, wheat and rice straw, cotton stalks) (excludes portion currently used for fuel wood, fiber, and misc. by-product) Total Feedstocks Available: 623 Million dry Tons (MdT) per year Energy Equivalent: 16 quadrillion Btu Landfill MSW MSW Mdt = million dry tons -$ ~$ +$ US 2005 Potential for >1 Billion dry tons/yr (~100 billion gallons ethanol/yr)
Composition of Lignocellulosic Biomass Glucose polymer Xylose and other sugars Nature’s plastic glue Primarily pentoses, 5-carbon sugars. Homopolymer of glucose, hexose, a 6-carbon sugar. Black thermoplastic containing lots of energy for burning.
E. coli – The Workhorse of Modern Biotechnology 1. This organism can metabolize all of the sugar components (hexose and pentose) of plant carbohydrates but makes a worthless mixtures of fermentation products. 2. Universally present bacterium in gut of all people and all mammals. 3. Best understood living organism in terms of functions and genes. 4. Currently used in industry -- robust, dependable and predictable. 5. Currently used to make amino acids as nutritional supplements and animal feed ingredients (phenylalanine, tyrosine, lysine, threonine, etc.). 6. Currently used to manufacture Nutrisweet (phenylalanine half of aspartame). 7. Currently used to make insulin and a large variety of medical and veterinary products.
E. coli producing ethanol from all biomass sugars – 1987 E. coli producing ethanol from all biomass sugars – 1987 Dept. of Commerce selected as Landmark Patent 5,000,000, issued 1991 Over 20 additional patents issued and pending Over 20 additional patents issued and pending 1. Created jobs -- UF licensed to BC International, Dedham, MA 1. Created jobs -- UF licensed to BC International, Dedham, MA Wood to ethanol plant -- Marubeni-led Japanese consortium Wood to ethanol plant -- Marubeni-led Japanese consortium 2-ton per day Pilot Plants in Jennings, LA and in Tokyo 2-ton per day Pilot Plants in Jennings, LA and in Tokyo 2. Stimulated academic research 2. Stimulated academic research 3. Stimulated research for competing biocatalysts by: 3. Stimulated research for competing biocatalysts by: DOE – NREL and academic/industry groups DOE – NREL and academic/industry groups (US, Germany, Australia, UK, France, Sweden, Denmark, Japan, China, Korea, Russia) (US, Germany, Australia, UK, France, Sweden, Denmark, Japan, China, Korea, Russia) 4. Stimulated industrial research and development 4. Stimulated industrial research and development But now full scale ethanol plant But now full scale ethanol plant using cellulosic biomass. using cellulosic biomass.
How can we reduce our need for 200 billion gal of gasoline? 1. Increase efficiency – each 1% increase in average vehicle mileage reduces the need for 2 billon gallons of fuel. Increase mileage requirements and encourage US automakers to become more competitive with the rest of the world. 2. Near Term Expansion of Renewable Fuel Ethanol (current US production -- 4.5 billion gal/yr primarily from corn starch) Additional corn to ethanol projected to exceed 6 billion gal/yr (~20% of total corn) + 1.5 billion gal Additional 1 billion gal/yr from grain residues + 1.0 billion gal Additional 30 billion gal/yr could be made from corn (cellulosic corn cobs, stalks, stems, leaves) + 30 billion gal 3. USDA/DOE - Potential for > 1 billion tons ~ 100 billion gal (approximately half of imported petroleum)
March 2005 Draft Report by USDA and DOE A Billion-Ton Feedstock Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry Technical Feasibility of Supplying 1 Billion Dry Tons of Biomass This represents half of our automotive fuel and half of imported petroleum. Together with other alternative fuels and Improvements in efficiency, we should be able to eliminate our dependence on imported oil. We need significant Federal R&D&D Investment to reach US Energy Independence. If we had dedicated 1/2 cent per gallon toward the renewable fuel goal after the first oil crisis, we would not be in our current position today.
Office of Science, Energy Biosciences Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program National Research Initiative Biobased Products and Bioenergy Research Joint USDA-DOE Biomass Initiative
Dependence on petroleum remains as the remains as the single most important factor affecting the world distribution of wealth, global conflict, human health, and environmental quality. Reversing this dependence would increase employment, preserve our environment, and facilitate investments to improve the health and living conditions for all. 1989 - Professor Ohta conducting fermentation studies at Univ. Fla.
A 10-yr plan for US independence from imported oil should be a National Goal equivalent to the program that placed man on the moon. A billion dollars/yr could be provided to support renewable fuels and chemicals by assigning ½ cent per gallon of current gasoline tax.
Florida Center for Renewable Florida Center for Renewable Chemicals and Fuels (FCRC) Chemicals and Fuels (FCRC) GOAL: To reduce national dependence on imported petroleum & improve the environmental quality through the development of biocatalysts for renewable chemicals and fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Established: July, 2001 Director: Dr. Lonnie O. Ingram Members: 17 active members across the campus
BioDiesel (B20) 15% Ethanol Gasoline 10% Ethanol Gasoline DOE, 2005 Brazil currently burns E85 in many vehicles. There are no technology barriers to expanding the level of ethanol in automotive fuel.