Presentation on theme: "Inertial Navigation Advantages"— Presentation transcript:
1 Inertial Navigation Advantages instantaneous output of position and velocitycompletely self containedall weather global operationvery accurate azimuth and vertical vector measurementerror characteristics are known and can be modeled quite wellworks well in hybrid systems
2 Inertial Navigation Disadvantages Position/velocity information degrade with time (1-2NM/hour).Equipment is expensive ($250,000/system) - older systems had relatively high failure rates and were expensive to maintainnewer systems are much more reliable but still expensive to repairInitial alignment is necessary - not much of a disadvantage for commercial airline operations (12-20 minutes)
3 Inertial Navigation – Basic Principle If we can measure the acceleration of a vehicle we canintegrate the acceleration to get velocityintegrate the velocity to get positionThen, assuming that we know the initial position and velocity we can determine the position of the vehicle at ant time t.
4 Inertial Navigation – The Fly in the Ointment The main problem is that the accelerometer can not tell the difference between vehicle acceleration and gravityWe therefore have to find a way of separating the effect of gravity and the effect of acceleration
5 Inertial Navigation – The Fly in the Ointment This problem is solved in one of two waysKeep the accelerometers horizontal so that they do not sense the gravity vector This is the STABLE PLATFORM MECHANIZATIONSomehow keep track of the angle between the accelrometer axis and the gravity vector and subtract out the gravity component This is the STRAPDOWN MECHANIZATION
6 Inertial Navigation – STABLE PLATFORM The original inertial navigation systems (INS) were implemented using the STABLE PLATFORM mechanization but all new systems use the STRAPDOWN systemWe shall consider the stable platform first because it is the easier to understand
7 Inertial Navigation – STABLE PLATFORM There are three main problems to be solved:The accelerator platform has to be mechanically isolated from the rotation of the aircraftThe aircraft travels over a spherical surface and thus the direction of the gravity vector changes with positionThe earth rotates on its axis and thus the direction of the gravity vector changes with time
8 Inertial Navigation – Aircraft Axes Definition The three axes of the aircraft are:The roll axis which is roughly parallel to the line joining the nose and the tail Positive angle: right wing downThe pitch axis which is roughly parallel to the line joining the wingtips Positive angle: nose upThe yaw axis is vertical Positive angle: nose to the right
10 Inertial Navigation – Platform Isolation The platform is isolated from the aircraft rotation by means of a gimbal systemThe platform is connected to the first (inner) gimbal by two pivots along the vertical (yaw) axis. This isolates it in the yaw axisThe inner gimbal is the connected to the second gimbal by means of two pivots along the roll axis. This isolates the platform in the roll axis.The second gimbal is connected to the INU (Inertial Navigation Unit) chassis by means of two pivots along the pitch axis. This isolates it in the pitch axis.
11 Inertial Navigation – Platform Isolation Now the platform can be completely isolated from the aircraft rotations
12 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes To keep the platform level we must be able to:Sense platform rotation andCorrect for itTo do this we mount gyroscopes on the stable platform and install small motors at each of the gimbal pivots.The gyroscopes sense platform rotation in any of the three axes and then send a correction signal to the pivot motors which then rotates the relevant gimbal to maintain the platform at the correct attitude
13 Inertial Navigation – Alignment Before the INS can navigate it must do two things:Orient the platform perpendicular to the gravity vectorDetermine the direction of True NorthAlso it must be given:Initial Position: Input by the Pilot (or navigation computer)Velocity: This is always zero for commercial systems
14 Inertial Navigation – Orientation In the alignment mode the INU uses the accelerometers to send commands to the pivot motors to orient the platform so that the output of the accelerometers is zero.Note that the earth (and therefore the INU) is rotating so that it will be necessary to rotate the platform in order to keep it level.
15 Inertial Navigation – Gyrocompassing The rotation of the platform to keep it level is used to determine the direction of True North relative to the platform heading.
17 Inertial Navigation – Gyrocompassing The platform is being rotated around the X and Y axes at measured rates:RX=ΩcosΦcosαRY=ΩcosΦsinαSince Ω is known ( º/hour) we have two equations in two unknowns and can calculateΦ (Latitude) and α (platform heading)
18 Inertial Navigation – Gyrocompassing The platform is being rotated around the X and Y axes at measured rates:RX=ΩcosΦcosαRY=ΩcosΦsinαSince Ω is known ( º/hour) we have two equations in two unknowns and can calculateΦ (Latitude) and α (platform heading)
19 Inertial Navigation – Navigation Once the INU has been aligned it can be put into NAVIGATE mode .In navigate mode, the outputs of the accelerometers are used to determine the vehicle’s position and the gyroscopes are used to keep the platform level.This involvescompensating for the earth’s rotationcompensating for travel over the earth’s (somewhat) spherical surface
20 Inertial Navigation – Schuler Oscillation To compensate for the travel over the surface of the earth the platform must be rotated by an amount d/R where d is the distance travelled and R is the radius of curvature of the earthRsθ
21 Inertial Navigation – Schuler Oscillation This leads to a phenomenon know as Schuler oscillationAt the end of the alignment procedure the accelerometers are almost never perfectly level.
22 Inertial Navigation – Schuler Oscillation Assume for now that the aircraft remains at restThe measured acceleration causes the INU to compute a velocity and hence a change in position.This in turn causes the gyros to rotate the platform
23 Inertial Navigation – Schuler Oscillation Assume for now that the aircraft remains at restThe measured acceleration causes the INU to think that it is moving an it computes a velocity and hence a change in position.This in turn causes the gyros to rotate the platform
24 Inertial Navigation – Schuler Oscillation The direction of the rotation tends to level the accelerometer but when it is level, the computer has built up a considerable speed and thus overshoots. (this is like pulling a pendulum off centre and letting it go)
25 Inertial Navigation – Schuler Oscillation Characteristics of the oscillation:a=-gsinθ or –gθ for small anglesθ = s/R where R is the radius of curvaturedifferentiating twice
26 Inertial Navigation – Schuler Oscillation This is a second order differential equation whose solution is:θ = θ0cos(ωt)where θ0 is the initial tilt angle andThe period of this oscillation is 84 minutes
27 Inertial Navigation – Accelerometers Requirements:high dynamic range (10-4 g to 10g)low cross couplinggood linearitylittle or no asymmetryExacting requirements dictate the use of Force-Rebalance type of devices
33 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Three main types:Spinning MassRing LaserMEMS
34 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Spinning Mass:Rigidity in Space:A spinning mass has a tendency to maintain its orientation in INERTIAL spaceIts rigidity (or resistance to change) depends on its moment of inertia and its angular velocity about the spin axis (INU gyros spin at around 25,000 RPM)Precession;If a torque τ is applied perpendicular to the spinning mass it will respond by rotating around an axis 90 degrees to the applied torque. I.e. ω× τ
36 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Spinning Mass Gyros:Disadvantages:sensitive to shock during installation and handling (Pivots can be damaged)requires several minutes to get up to speed and temperatureexpensive
37 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Ring Laser Gyro: (RLG) in service since 1986Advantages over spinning mass gyros:more ruggedinherently digital outputlarge dynamic rangegood linearityshort warm up time
38 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Ring Laser Gyro: (RLG) in service since 1986General Principle:
39 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Ring Laser Gyro: (RLG) in service since 1986General Principle:
40 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Ring Laser GyroProblems:Lock-in at low rotation rates due to weak coupling between the two resonant systems (coupling due to mirror backscatter)Analagous to static friction (stiction) in mechanical systemsCauses a dead zoneAlleviated by “dithering” the gyro at a few hundred HzRandom loss of pulses at the output ( causes “drift”)
41 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Fibre Optic GyroSimilar concept to RLG except that amplification is not usesdTwo strands of optical fibre are wound in opposite directions on a coil formLaser light is sent from a single source down both fibresThe outputs of the two fibres are combined at a photodiodeRotation of the coil around its axis causes the two paths to have different lengths and the output of the photodiode provides a light dark pattern. Each cycle indicates an increment of angular rotation
42 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes Fibre Optic GyroHas the advantage of being rugged and relatively cheapSensitivity increases with length of fibreUnfortunately, the longer the fibre, the lower the output signal.Used on low performance systems
43 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes MEMS GyroAll gyros to date have been quite largein fact the sensitivity of spinning mass gyros and RLGs are a direct function of their size.Efforts are being made to apply MEMS technology to gyros as well as to accelerometers
44 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes MEMS GyroThe MEMS gyro uses the Coriolis EffectIn a rotating system (such as the earth) moving objects appear to deflected perpendicular to their direction of travel.The effect is a function of the velocity if the object and the rate of rotation
45 Inertial Navigation – Gyroscopes MEMS GyroIn a MEMS gyro the times of a tuning fork are the moving objectMEMS gyros exhibit high drift rates and thus are not suitable for commercial aviation useThey are used in conjunction with GPS in “coupled” systems which use the best characteristics of each
46 Inertial Navigation – Strapdown Systems The main problem for an INS is to separate the vehicle acceleration from the effect of gravity on the accelerometersIn the stable platform, this is done by maintaining the accelerometers perpedicular to the gravity vector which allows us to ignore the effect of gravityAnother approach is to keep track of the gravity vector and subtract its effect from the outputs of the accelerometersThis is an analytical or computational implementation
47 Inertial Navigation – Strapdown Systems As the name implies, the accelerometers are fixed or “strapped down” to the chassis of the INU and hence to the aircraft.Since the gravity vector is three dimensional, three accelerometers are required to keep track of it.In addition, three RLGs are mounted with their axes aligned with the x,y, and z axes (roll, pitch and yaw) of the aircraft respectively.
48 Inertial Navigation – Strapdown Systems Alignment:During the alignment procedure, the INS measures the direction of the gravity vector. Notice that the outputs of the accelerometers are proportional to the Direction Cosines of the gravity vector
49 Inertial Navigation – Strapdown Systems Example:If the outputs of the accelerometers are:ax =ay =az =What are the roll and pitch angles?
50 Inertial Navigation – Strapdown Systems Example:If the roll and pitch angles are Φ and Θ respectivelyaX = gsin Θ Note:aY = gsin Φcos ΘaZ = gcos Φcos ΘTherefore: Θ=sin-1(aX/g)and Φ= sin-1(aY/gcos Θ)
51 Inertial Navigation – Strapdown Systems Example:Thus g = m/s2Θ = sin-1( / ) = 1ºΦ = sin-1( /( x 1) = 1º
52 Inertial Navigation – Strapdown Systems Note that during alignment the RLGs on the x and y axes give a direct readout of the two platform rates required for gyrocompassing
53 Inertial Navigation – Strapdown Systems Note:The sensitivity of Ring Laser Gyro is:N=4A/λLWhere: N is the number of fringes per radianA is the area enclosed by the pathL is the Length of the pathλ is the wave length of the lightNote that the larger the area, the more sensitive the gyro