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Hydrogen Alternate Energy Systems ACS Committee on Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Hydrogen Alternate Energy Systems ACS Committee on Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydrogen Alternate Energy Systems ACS Committee on Science

2 Hydrogen Alternate Energy Systems - General

3 What performance is required? U. S. Department of Energy, et. al, Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations, pp. 6-1 through 6-6, Dec. 1997, US DOE and EPRI. Barbir, F. Review of Hydrogen Conversion Technologies. 1999, Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL Baxter, J., et al., Energy and Environmental Science, 2009, 2(6), ; NREL/JA-5A

4 What affects performance? National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Advanced Vehicles & Fuels Research: Vehicles Systems Analysis; Treffinger, P., et al., Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Vehicles - State of the Art and Challenges for Improved Materials. Materials Science Forum, 2007, (2), Pesaran A. A., et al., PEM Fuel Cell Freeze and Rapid Startup Investigation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/MP Markel, T., et al., Fuel Cell Vehicle Systems Analysis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory:

5 Where can I learn about the chemistry? US DOE: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Fuel Cell Technologies Program, Hydrogen Technical Publications: ns.html ns.html

6 Hydrogen Alternate Energy Systems - Generation

7 What performance is required? Biomass Spath, P. L., et al., Update of Hydrogen from Biomass - Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2003, NREL/MP Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-ton Annual Supply, US DOE, USDA, 2005, Logan, B. E., Extracting Hydrogen and Electricity from Renewable Resources, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2004, 38, 160A-167A.

8 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Nuclear Hong, G. T., Spritzer, M. H. Nuclear Energy-assisted Plasma Technology for Producing Hydrogen, Proceedings of the 2002 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review, NREL/CP Biomass Holzman, D. C., Microbe Power, Environmental Health Perspectives, 2005, 113(11), A754-A757. Parry et al., Bioenergy Conversion of Cow Manure, Water Environment Federation - Joint Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference, 2005, DOI: / Reed, T. B., Das, A., Handbook of Biomass Downdraft Gasifier Engine Systems, Ch. 2: History, Current Developments, and Future Directions, Solar Energy Research Institute, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1988, SERI/SP , pp Boyapati, K. R., et al. (General Electric Co.), Co-Producing Hydrogen and Power by Biomass Gasification, U. S. Pat. Appl. 2004/ A1, 12/30/2004.

9 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Ocean Energy Ocean Energy Technology Overview: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), 2009, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/BR-7A , DOE/GO Plasma Kumar, S., Kumar, D. (BTU International, Inc.), Plasma-assisted Gas Production, U. S. Pat. 7,497,922 B2, 3/3/2009.

10 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Water electrolysis Barbir, F., PEM electrolysis for production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources, Solar Energy, 2005, 78(5), Zeng, K., Zhang, D., Recent progress in alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogen production and applications, Progress in energy and combustion science, 2010, 36(3),

11 Hydrogen Alternate Energy Systems - Storage

12 What performance is required? Schlapbach, L, Züttel, A., Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications, Nature, 2001, 414, Wang, J. Hydrogen Storage for Transportation Applications, Presentation at Energy and Nanotechnology: Strategy for the Future, 2003, 3.ppt.pdf 3.ppt.pdf Amos, W. A., Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1998, NREL/TP Carlson, E. J. et al., Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2005, NREL/SR Satyapal, S. et al., The U.S. Department of Energy's National Hydrogen Storage Project: Progress towards meeting hydrogen-powered vehicle requirements, Catalysis Today 2007, 120,

13 What affects performance? Li Zhou, Progress and Problems in Hydrogen Storage Methods, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2005, 5(4), Niedzwiecki, A., Hydrogen Storage, Hydrogen Vision Meeting, Quantum Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Arnold, G., Advanced Hydrogen Storage Technologies, Global Alternative Propulsion Center, GM, Billings, R. E., Hydrogen Stored as Metal Hydride: The Safest Fuel on Earth, Hydrogen Worldview, International Academy of Science, ISBN X

14 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Mechanical Systems - Cassette Redmond, S. D. (FuelSell Technologies, Inc.), Hydrogen Storage, Distribution, and Recovery System, U. S. Pat. 7,169,489 B2, 1/30/2007. Redmond, S. D. (FuelSell Technologies, Inc.), Method and Apparatus for a Hydrogen Fuel Cassette Distribution and Recovery System, U. S. Pat. 7,399,325 B1, 7/15/2008. Mechanical Systems - Wind Turbine Fingersh, L. J. (Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC), Wind Turbine Tower for Storing Hydrogen and Energy, U. S. Pat. 7,471,010 B1, 12/30/2008. Chang, L. (The University of New Brunswick (CA)), Stand-Alone Wind Turbine System, Apparatus, and Method Suitable for Operating the Same, U. S. Pat. 7,476,987 B2, 1/13/2009. Novel Materials Vasiliev, L. L., et al., New Sorbent Materials for the Hydrogen Storage and Transportation, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2007, 32(18),

15 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Metal Hydrides Piccardo, P. et al., Interconnect Materials for next-generation solid oxide fuel cells, J. Appl. Electrochem., 2009, 39, 545–551. Andersen, E. J., Renewable Energy Carrier System and Method, U. S. Pat. 7,144,567 B2, 12/5/2006. Sakintuna, B. et al., Metal hydride materials for solid hydrogen storage, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2007, 32, Complex Metal Hydrides Jensen, C. M., Redmond, S. D. (FuelSell Techologies, Inc.), Methods for Hydrogen Storage Using Doped Alanate Compositions, U. S. Pat. 7,011,768, 3/14/2006. Pretterebner, J., Process for Supplying a Fuel Cell with Hydrogen by Means of Silanes or Polysilanes, U. S. Pat. Appl. 2009/ A1, 5/28/2009.

16 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Complex Metal Hydrides (cont’d) Sandrock, G. et al., Accelerated thermal decomposition of AlH3 for hydrogen-fueled vehicles, J. Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing 2005, A80, Vajo, J. J.; Olson, G. L. Hydrogen storage in destabilized chemical systems, Scripta Materialia 2007, 56, Soloveichik, G. L. Metal borohydrides as hydrogen storage materials, Material Matters 2007, 2, Chemical Hydrides Pez, G. P. et al., Hydrogen storage by reversible hydrogenation of pi-conjugated substrates, U. S. Pat. 7,101,530, 9/5/2006. Peng, B.; Chen, J. Ammonia borane as an efficient and lightweight hydrogen storage medium, Energy Environ. Sci. 2008, 1,

17 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Activated Carbon Noh, J. S. et al., Hydrogen Storage Systems Using Activated Carbon, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 1987, 12(10), Vix-Guterl, C. et al., Electrochemical Energy Storage in Ordered Porous Carbon Materials, Carbon, 2005, 43(6), Hynek, et al., Hydrogen Storage by Carbon Sorption, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1997, 22(6), Chaterjee, A. K., Wolff, A. M. Activated Graphitic Carbon and Metal Hybrids Thereof, U. S. Pat. Appl. 2005/ A1, 9/8/2005.

18 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Nanomaterials Los Alamos National Laboratory, Fact Sheet, Renewable Energy Innovations, 2008, LALP Metals, Carbides and Oxides Zhao, Y. et al., Self-catalyzed Hydrogenation and Dihydrogen Adsorption on Titanium Carbide Nanoparticles, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2006, 425, ; NREL/JA Shimizu, T., Jung, J. H., Metal Oxide Nanotube and Process for Production Thereof, U. S. Pat. 7,172,747 B2, 2/6/2007. Hearley, A. K., Redmond, S. D., Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Systems, U. S. Pat. 7,279,222 B2, 10/9/2007. Jhi, S.-H. et al., Hydrogen Storage by Physisorption - Beyond Carbon, Solid State Comm., 2004, 129(12), Alexander, Jr., M.D. et al., Electrically Conductive Polymer Nanocomposite Materials, AFRL Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Nonmetallic Materials Division;

19 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Nanomaterials, cont’d. Carbon Dillon, A. C., et al., Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Single-Wall Nanotubes, Proceedings of the 2002 US DOE Hydrogen Program Review, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/CP Lueking, A., Tang, R. T., Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes: Residual Metal Content and Pretreatment Temperature, AIChE Journal, 2003, 49(6), Volpe, M., Cleri, F., Role of surface chemistry in hydrogen adsorption in single-wall carbon nanotubes, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2003, 371(3-4), Colibaba-Evulet, A. (General Electric Co.), Appliance Having a Container Including a Nanostructured Material for Hydrogen Storage, U. S. Pat. 7,416,583 B2, Dillon, A. C. et al., Metal-Doped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Production Thereof, U. S. Pat. 7,160,530 B2, 1/9/2007. Bekkedahl et al., Advanced Materials for Hydrogen Storage: Carbon Nanotubes, Proceedings of the 1994 DOE/NREL Hydrogen Program Review, 1994, Heben et al., Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Storage, Proceedings of the 1993 US DOE Hydrogen Program Review, 1993, Vol. II, Bockrath, et al., Hydrogen Storage on Carbon Nanotubes, Fuels and Process Chemistry Division, National Energy Technology Laboratory, %20Storage%20on%20Carbon%20Nanotubes.pdf %20Storage%20on%20Carbon%20Nanotubes.pdf

20 Hydrogen Separations Membranes

21 What performance is required? DOE/H 2 Multi-Year Research, Development and Demostration Plan, available electronically at Carlson, E. J. et al., Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2005, NREL/SR Wheeler, D., Sverdrup, G., Status of Manufacturing Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2007, NREL/TP

22 What affects performance? Report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (Feb 2003); available electronically at A_Secure_Energy_Future_FEB2003.pdf A_Secure_Energy_Future_FEB2003.pdf Report from the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use (Feb 2004); available electronically at U. S. Department of Energy, Small Business Innovation Research Program and Small Business Technology Transfer Program FY 2005 Soliciations, Technical Topic Descriptions, 15. Materials Research, Office of Fossil Energy,

23 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Metal and Alloy Membranes –Ockwig, N. W.; Nenoff, T. M. Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, Silica and Zeolite Membranes –Verweij, H.;Lin, Y. S., Dong, J. H. MRS Bull. 2006, 31, 756. –Lin, Y. S., Kumakiri, I.; Nair, B. N.; Alsyouri, H. Sep. Purif. Methods 2002, 31, 229. –Nenoff, T. M., Spontak, R. J., Aberg, C. M. MRS Bull. 2006, 31, 735.

24 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Carbon and Carbon-Nanotube Membranes –FutureGen Colation Formed. Power Eng. 2005, 109, 16. –Holt, J. K., et al., Science 2006, 312, Polymer Membranes –Freeman, B. D. Macromolecules 1999, 32, 375. –Kazama, S., et al. 7th International Conference on Greenhoue Gas Control Technologies, Vancouver, Canada, –Colinart, T., Büchi, F. N. Sub-Millimeter Current Density Distribution in PEFC at Sub-zero Temperatures, –Santurri, P. R., et al., ChemSultants International Inc., Final DOE Technical Report, 2008, DOE/GO/86043-Final.

25 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Ionic Liquid Membranes –Luebke, D. R., et al., Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach. DOE.NETL-IR –Scovazzo, P., et al., J. Membrane Sci, 2004, 238(1-2), –Salminen, J., et al., Ionic Liquids for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, LBNL

26 Hydrogen Alternate Energy Systems - Fuel Cells

27 What performance is required? Smithsonian Institution, A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology, 2008; Fuel Cells for Backup Power in Telecommunications Facilities, Fact Sheet, 2009, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Report No. NREL/FS Davis, C. et al. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Study, American Physical Society, 2003, Jensen, J., The Need for Batter and Fuel Cell R&D, Energy Conservation by Energy Storage: Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells - Proceedings of the Third Contractors Meeting, Comm. European Communities, Luxembourg, 1983,

28 What affects performance? Pesaran, A. A. et al., PEM Fuel Cell Freeze and Startup Investigation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2005, NREL/MP Billings, R. E., The Hydrogen Fuel Cell - Efficiency is the Key, Hydrogen Worldview, International Academy of Science, 1991, p. 1-10; ISBN X. Bernay, C., et al., Prospects for Different Fuel Cell Technologies for Vehicle Applications, J. Power Sources, 2002, 108,

29 Where can I learn about the chemistry? Ge neral US DOE: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Fuel Cell Technologies Program, Hydrogen Technical Publications: Systems Calhoun, J. C. (Microsoft Corporation), Apparatus and Method for Heating Fuel Cells, U. S. Pat. 7,192,666 B2, 3/20/2007. Pearson, M. T. (Ballard Power Systems, Inc.), Method and Apparatus for Fuel Cell Systems, U. S. Pat. 7,419,734 B2, 9/2/2008. Kottenstette, R., Cotrell, J., Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Design Considerations, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2003, NREL/CP Agbossou, K., et al., (Ogilvy Renault) Control System for a Renewable Energy System, U. S. Pat. Appl. 2003/ A1, 12/11/2003.


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