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TEMPLATE DESIGN © Identifying Research Gaps in Implementation of Zero Energy Building (ZEB). Chayanika Mitra Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia. Annie. R. Pearce Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia OBJECTIVES PROCESS OVERVIEW Literature Review Identification of: 1.Research opportunities in context of ZEB. 2.Barriers in implementation of ZEB, based on content analysis. 3.Factors positively facilitating the adoption of ZEB among consumers. INITIAL LIST OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGY STEP 1: Identification of Literature. STEP 3: Mapping STEP 4: Gap Analysis REFERENCES United States is second only to Canada in energy use per person (DOE 2008). DOE defines a Zero Energy Building (ZEB) as a building with greatly reduced energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of the energy needs can be supplied by renewable technologies. It has been proven that these zero energy homes can lead to saving of energy up to 70% when compared to their traditionally built counterparts.(Parker et al. 2000). Fig 2 : Household Distribution of Energy Consumption (DOE 2008). Abdalla, G., Maas, G., and Huyghe, J. (2009). “Barriers to Zero Energy Construction (ZEC) Technically possible; why not succeed yet?” Proc., International passive and low energy architecture conference, Quebec, Canada, 3-5. Baechler, M. C., and Love, P. M. (2004). “Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot and Humid Climate.” Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 1, DOE, Oak Ridge, TN, Brostrom, M., and Howell, G. (2008). “The challenges of designing and building a net zero energy home in a cold high-latitude climate.” Proc., International Solar cities Congress, Adelaide, South Australia, Caird, S., Roy, R., and Herring, H. (2008). “Improving the energy performance of UK households: Results from surveys of consumer adoption and use of low – and zero-carbon technologies.” J. Energy Efficiency., 1(2), Dixon, G., Abdel-Salam, T., and Kauffmann, P. (2010). “Evaluation of the effectiveness of an energy efficiency program for new home construction in eastern North Carolina.” J.Energy., 35(3), Department of Energy (DOE 2009a). “U.S. Department of Energy, Buildings Energy Data Book.” 2006 Data, (Sep. 1, 2010).http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/TableView.aspx?table=1.2.3 DOE (2009b). “U.S. Department of Energy, Buildings Energy Data Book.” 2006 Data, (Sep.1,2010). DOE (2009c). “U.S. Department of Energy, Buildings Energy Data Book.” 2006 Data, (Sep. 1, 2010).http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/TableView.aspx?table=3.1.1 DOE (2009d). “U.S. Department of Energy, Annual Energy Review 2008.” Independent Statistics and analysis, (Sep. 1, 2010).http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/contents.html Duke, R., and Kammen, D.M. (1999). “The Economics of Energy Market Transformation Programs.” Energy Journal., 20(4), Farhar, B. C., Coburn, T. C., and Murphy, M. (2004). “Large-production home builder experience with zero energy homes.” Proc., Summer study on Energy Efficiency in buildings, ACEEE, Pacific Grove, Cal,8_ 9 – 8_109. Kibert, C.J. (1994). “Establishing principles and a model for sustainable construction.” Proc., of the First International Conference on Sustainable Construction, ed. C.J.Kibert. Tampa, FL., November 6-9. CIB TG-16. Mlecnik, E., Visscher, H., and Hal, A.V. (2010). “Barriers and opportunities for labels for highly energy-efficient houses.” J. Energy., 38(8), Ofori, G., Briffett, C., Gang, G., and Ranasinghe, M. (2000). “Impact of ISO on construction enterprises in Singapore.” J. Construction Management and Economics., 18(8), Parker, D. S. (2009). “Very low energy homes in the United States: Perspectives on performance from measured data.” J. Energy and Buildings., 41(5), Pearce, A.R. (1999). “Sustainability and the Built Environment: A Metric and Process for Prioritizing Improvement Opportunities.” Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology., Atlanta, GA. Puttagunta, S., Aldrich, R. A., Owens, D. K., and Vijayakumar, G.(2006). “The Winding Road Towards “Zero” Energy:Lessons from Monitoring Efficient Solar Homes.” Proc. Summer study on Energy Efficiency in buildings, ACEEE, Pacific Grove, Cal,1_235 9 – 1_246. Schleich, J., and Gruber, E. (2008). “Beyond Case studies barriers to energy efficiency in commerce and the services sector.” J. Energy Economics., 30(2), Shen, L. Y., and Tam, V. W. Y. (2002). “Implementation of environmental management in the Hong Kong construction industry.” International Journal of Project Management., 20(7), Trahan, R. D. (2009). “Geothermal HVAC systems- a business case analysis for net zero plus.” M.S. thesis, Naval PostGraduate School., Monterey, Ca. Zhu, L., Hurt, R., Correa, D., and Boehm, R. (2009). “Comprehensive energy and economic analyses on a zero energy house versus a conventional house.” J. Energy., 34 (9) Identification of Literature Sustainability Innovation Construction Content Analysis Identifying barriers Identifying barrier breakers Identifying drivers Mapping Barriers with Barrier breaker Barriers with Drivers Gap Analysis Identify research gap Innovation Sustainability Construction Research Gap STEP 2 : Content Analysis IMPORTANCE OF STUDY The concept of ZEB needs to be developed within an integrated system approach, not simply as number of discrete, isolated concepts (Wall 1993; Feickert et al. 2009). Similar to the development of any technology, ZEB can be viewed from the prospective of innovation theory.. STEPS (Robson 2002) : 1.Start with a research question. 2.Decide on sampling strategy. 3.Define the recording unit. 4.Construct categories for analysis. 5.Carry out analysis PARAMETERS IDENTIFIED: 1.Barrier 2.Barrier Breaker 3.Parameter. - Snowball sampling. - Areas Searched: Environmental Management BACKGROUND Construction Market barrier Barriers Green building Barrier breakers Net zero energy home Diffusion of innovation Innovation in construction Net zero energy building Barriers in ZEB Barriers in Sustainable Construction Renewable energy Barriers in ZEH Conducted based on: Mapping (tables) To identify research gaps and opportunities. Parameters of each body of literature.. Mapping the attributes of the studies reviewed. In terms of parameters, which characterize ZEB projects.. No.Research TitleAuthor 1.Establishing principles and a model for sustainable constructionKibert The Economics of Energy Market Transformation ProgramsDuke and Kammen Impact of ISO on construction enterprises in SingaporeOfori et al Implementation of environmental management in the Hong Kong construction industry Shen and Tam Large-Production Home Builder Experience with Zero Energy HomesFarhar et al Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot and Humid Climate. Baechler and Love The Winding Road Towards “Zero” Energy:Lessons from Monitoring Efficient Solar Homes. Puttagunta et al The challenges of designing and building a net zero energy home in a cold high- latitude climate Brostrom and Howell Improving the energy performance of UK households: Results from surveys of consumer adoption and use of low – and zero-carbon technologies. Caird et al Beyond Case studies barriers to energy efficiency in commerce and the services sector Schleich and Gruber Very low energy homes in the United States: Perspectives on performance from measured data Parker Geothermal HVAC Systems-a business case analysis for net zero plusTrahan Barriers to Zero Energy Construction (ZEC) Technically possible; why not succeed yet? Abdalla et al Comprehensive energy and economic analyses on a zero energy house versus a conventional house Zhu et al Evaluation of the effectiveness of an energy efficiency program for new home construction in eastern North Carolina Dixon et al Barriers and opportunities for labels for highly energy-efficient housesMlecnik et al STEP 2 : Content Analysis
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