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The Differential Outcomes Effect: Teaching Verbal Operants Michelle Olson, M.S, Mark Harvey, Ph.D, BCBA Ansley Hodges, M.S., BCBA, Eb Blakely, Ph.D, BCBA-D.

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Presentation on theme: "The Differential Outcomes Effect: Teaching Verbal Operants Michelle Olson, M.S, Mark Harvey, Ph.D, BCBA Ansley Hodges, M.S., BCBA, Eb Blakely, Ph.D, BCBA-D."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Differential Outcomes Effect: Teaching Verbal Operants Michelle Olson, M.S, Mark Harvey, Ph.D, BCBA Ansley Hodges, M.S., BCBA, Eb Blakely, Ph.D, BCBA-D Florida Institute of Technology and QuestKids

2 Typical Procedure “How old are you?” “8” Preferred Item “How are you?” “Fine” Preferred Item

3 Differential Outcomes Procedure Different reinforcers in a discrimination task, correlated with each kind of response Increase rate of acquisition and/or maintain higher steady state performance Differential Outcomes Effect

4 Lab Studies With Nonhumans: Variety of discrimination Paradigms Two Choice Discrimination Experiments

5 Two-Choice Procedure: Correlated Outcomes LEFTFood Light RIGHTWater Light

6 Two-Choice Control Procedure: Uncorrelated Outcomes LEFT.5 Food.5 Water Light RIGHT. 5 Food.5 Water Light

7 Two-Choice Control Procedure: Confound???? 1. Two reinforcers 2. Correlated outcomes Food Water DOETypical

8 Human Application: Correlated Outcomes “How are you?” “Fine”Music “How old are you?” “8”Gummy

9 Human Application: Uncorrelated Outcomes “How are you?” “Fine”.5 Music.5 Gummy “How old are you?” “8”.5 Music.5 Gummy

10 Two boys with autism – 8 and 5 years old QuestKids Academy – Experiment 1: Extension to Verbal Operants

11 Experiment 1 Design Alternating Treatments Dependent Variable: – % correct of intraverbal responses Independent Variable : – Correlated vs. Uncorrelated outcomes

12 Baseline Procedure 4 Easy Tasks Target Question Response No Response 15 sec. ITI

13 General Treatment Procedure 4 Easy Tasks Target question Correct Answer Outcome with (15 sec ITI) Wrong Answer / NR Correction Trial 15 sec ITI

14 Intraverbal Tasks “What do you do with a watch?” “Tell time”Gummy “What do you watch?” “TV”Music “How old are you?” “8”Gummy OR Music“How are you?”“Good”Gummy OR Music Correlated Task Uncorrelated Task

15 Video Show video Clip

16 Santi: Intraverbals “What do you eat for breakfast?” “Toast, cereal”Music OR Gummy “When do you eat breakfast?” “Morning” Music OR Gummy “How old are you?” “8”Music“How are you?”“Good”Gummy Correlated Task Uncorrelated Task

17 Results Experiment 1: Santi

18 Josh: Intraverbals “What’s something you drink?” “Milk, juice”Music OR Gummy “What’s something you drink out of?” “Glass, cup” Music OR Gummy “What’s your first name?” “Josh”Music “What’s your last name?” “Smith”Gummy Correlated Task Uncorrelated Task

19 Results Experiment 1: Josh Decreased # experimenters

20 Experiment 2: Extension to Intraverbals and Tacts Two different boys with autism both 8 years old QuestKids Academy –

21 Experiment 2 Design: – Alternating Treatments – Multiple baseline across verbal operants Dependent Variable: – % correct responses – Note: 100% and 97%, IOA respectively Independent Variable : – Correlated vs. Uncorrelated outcomes

22 Caliel: Tacts B + “What letter?”“B”Gummy OR MusicB + “What sound?”“buh”Gummy OR MusicD + “What letter?”“D”Gummy D + “What sound?”“duh”Music Correlated Task Uncorrelated Task

23 Caliel: Intraverbals “What do you do with a watch?” “Tell time”Gummy “What do you watch?” “TV”Music “How old are you?” “8”Gummy OR Music“How are you?”“Fine, good”Gummy OR Music Correlated Task Uncorrelated Task

24 Results Experiment 2: Caliel

25 Austin: Tacts D + “What letter?”“D”Gummy OR MusicD + “What sound?”“duh”Gummy OR MusicB + “What letter?”“B”Gummy B+ “What sound?”“buh”Music Correlated Task Uncorrelated Task

26 Austin: Intraverbals “What number do you call when there’s an emergency?” “911” Music “When do you call 911?” “When somebody’s really hurt” Chip “What happens to ice when it’s heated?” “It melts / turns to water”Chip OR Music “What happens to water when you put it in the freezer?” “It freezes / turns to iceChip OR Music Correlated Task Uncorrelated Task

27 Results Experiment 2: Austin

28 Discussion of Austin Why was uncorrelated more effective? “What number do you call when there’s an emergency?” “911 when somebody’s really hurt” Music “When do you call 911?” “911 when somebody’s really hurt” Chip Correlated Task

29 Summary of Results ParticipantIntraverbal (DOE) Tact (DOE) Santi Josh Caliel x Austin xx

30 Discussion DOE procedure has promise in teaching verbal operants, especially intraverbals Task difficulty critical element Use when traditional procedures don’t work

31 Discussion – Future Directions Intraverbals replications Recall / Comprehension (DTMS) Different ages / abilities

32 End For this PowerPoint and references Website:

33 Differential Outcomes Effect Match-to-Sample

34 Traditional Discrimination Training Assay: Match-to-sample Sample stimulus Choice stimuli Food

35 DOE Procedure Sample stimulus FoodDrink

36 DOE Procedure Sample stimulus FoodDrink

37 DOE Control Procedures Sample stimulus.5 Food/.5 Drink Uncorrelated Sample stimulus FoodDrink Correlated

38 DOE Procedure: Application AB SD: “Point to A” CandySoda SD: “Point to B” Academic Tasks

39 DOE Procedure: Application “Sandwich”“My friend Will” SD: “What did you just eat?” CandySoda SD: “Who did you just talk to?” Recall Tasks

40 Exercises The DOE is an effect in which different _________ are used for different ________ in a discrimination task. The DOE is an effect in which different _________ are used for different ________ in a discrimination task. What is the proper control procedure in a DOE study? What is the proper control procedure in a DOE study? Pick a task that you are teaching, and design a DOE procedure for it. Pick a task that you are teaching, and design a DOE procedure for it.


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