Presentation on theme: "الاسم : سعد بن محمد نور بن محمد ولي الرقم الجامعي : 4350167 التخصص : معيد بكلية الصيدلة قسم الأدوية Pharmacology استخدام الحاسب لتقديم محاضرة في موضوع."— Presentation transcript:
الاسم : سعد بن محمد نور بن محمد ولي الرقم الجامعي : 4350167 التخصص : معيد بكلية الصيدلة قسم الأدوية Pharmacology استخدام الحاسب لتقديم محاضرة في موضوع مختص بالبوربوينت
The functional unit of the thyroid is the follicle or acinus. Each follicle consists of a single layer of epithelial cells around a cavity, the follicle lumen, which is filled with a thick colloid containing thyroglobulin.
The main steps in the synthesis, storage and secretion of thyroid hormone are as follow: uptake of plasma iodide by the follicle cells. oxidation of iodide and iodination of tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin. secretion of thyroid hormone.
1- Hyperthyrodism - Toxic goiter:enlarged thyroid gland. - Thyrotoxicosis:Increase the body's metabolic rate and in the hands and jerk Increase in appetite. - Grave's disease:is a disease of autoimmune disorder, which affects the thyroid gland and cause hyperthyroidism. And is one of the most common type of overactive thyroid prevalent.
Thioamides Such as:carbimazole, methimazole and propylthiouracil Use: To the treat of thyperthyroidism Mechanism of action: The major action is to prevent hormone synthesis by inhibiting the thyroid peroxidase-catalyzed reactions and blocking iodine organification. Side effect: Rashes are more common (2-25%), and other symptoms, such as headaches, nausea, jaundice and pain in the joints, can occur.
Iodide Mechanism of action: Blockade of hormone release. Side effect: Allergic reactions can occur; these include angio-oedema, rashes, drug fever, lacrimation, conjunctivitis, pain in the salivary glands and a cold-like syndrome. Use: The main uses of iodine/iodide are for the preparation of hyperthyroid subjects for surgical resection of the gland, and as part of the treatment of severe thyrotoxic crisis (thyroid storm).
Radioiodine 131 I ( iodide radio iso to ) Use: surgically or by destruction destruction of the gland by beta particles emitted by radioactive iodine (131I), Another use for this drug is the treatment of thyroid cancer. side effect: Radioiodine is best avoided in children and also in pregnant patients because of potential damage to the fetus. There is a theoretical risk of thyroid cancer following the treatment.
Propranolol Mechanism of action: The β-adrenoceptor antagonist. propranolol, are not antithyroid agents as such, but they are useful for decreasing many of the signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism-the tachycardia, dysrhythmias.
:2- Hypothyrodism -Myxedema:in adult due to iodine deficiency sipmle goiter:deficiency of iodine in diet. -cretinism:in childhood due to Endemic extreme iodine deficiency and sporadic defective hormone synthesis.
Levothyroxine Use: It is the drug choice for suppressent of the hormone. Side effect: nervousness, heart palpitations and tachycardia, intolerance to heat, and unexplained weight loss.
Liothyronine Side effect: precipitating angina pectoris, cardiac dysrhythmias or even cardiac failure “ cardiac toxicity ” Use: To increase secreation of thyroid.
if calcium ion concentrations in extracellular fluid fall below normal, Parathyroid hormone stimulating at least three processes: Mobilization of calcium from bone: parathyroid hormone is to stimulate osteoclasts to resorb (breakdown) bone mineral, liberating calcium into blood. Enhancing absorption of calcium from the small intestine: Parathyroid hormone stimulates calcium absorption with help of vitamin D reabsorption of calcium from urine: parathyroid hormone is affected by stimulating tubular reabsorption of calcium.
1- Hyperparathyrodism: - Increas secrete extra PTH and blood calcium rises. - extra hormones can come from enlarged parathyroid glands. Very rarely, the cause is cancer. 2- Hypoparathyrodism: do not have enough PTH. blood will have too little calcium and too much phosphorous.
: Saline Diuresis - rapid reduction of serum calcium - the initial infusion of 500–1000 mL/h of saline to reverse the dehydration and restore urine flow can by itself substantially lower serum calcium.
: Bisphosphonates Pamidronate, and zoledronate, have been approved for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy for this indication.
: Calcitonin Calcitonin by itself seldom restores serum calcium to normal, and refractoriness frequently develops. Calcimar (salmon calcitonin) is available for parenteral and nasal administration.
: Gallium Nitrate It is used in hypercalcemia of malignancy and is undergoing trials for the treatment of advanced Paget's disease.
: Plicamycin (Mithramycin) - Because of its toxicity, plicamycin (mithramycin) is not the drug of first choice for the treatment of hypercalcemia. - The most dangerous toxic effect is sudden thrombocytopenia followed by hemorrhage.
: Phosphate - Giving intravenous phosphate is probably the fastest and surest way to reduce serum calcium, but it is a hazardous procedure if not done properly - The risks of intravenous phosphate therapy include sudden hypocalcemia, acute renal failure, and hypotension.
Calcium A number of calcium preparations are available for intravenous, intramuscular, and oral use. Calcium gluceptate, calcium gluconate and calcium chloride are available for intravenous therapy.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) - vitamin D itself for long-term therapy. - it is capable of raising serum calcium within 24– 48 hours.
http://www.thyroid-info.com/drugs/armour.htm http://www.thyroid-info.com/drugs/armour.htm http://www.parathyroid.com/hypoparathyroidism.htm http://www.parathyroid.com/hypoparathyroidism.htm Book : Basic And Clinical Pharmacology Book : Basic And Clinical Pharmacology