Presentation on theme: "Ketmany Chathakoummane (Laos)"— Presentation transcript:
1Ketmany Chathakoummane (Laos) Achieving MDGs for Global Health MDG case report Social determinants of healthKetmany Chathakoummane (Laos)Yang Liu (China)Si Li (China)Agnes Lai (China)
2Content Background of the countries Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)Social determinants of healthThe situationThe PoliciesExisting ProblemsRecommendationConclusion
3Background of the country (China) LocationPopulationSpecial chararteristicsChinaEast Asia1.35 billion(Male, 51%,Female, 49%)A sovereign state located in East Asia.A single-party state governed by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing.Life expectancy:Male: 72.4 years oldFemale: 77.4 years oldHong KongSouth coast of China7 million people (95 % ethnic Chinese )(male, 46.5%,Female, 53.5%)Hong Kong’s status as a British colony since the mid-1800’s . Hong Kong was returned to China on 30 June 1997.Area : ‘East meets West’Male: 80.5 years oldFemale: 86 years oldChinaShum YangXichanHong Kong: locates on China's south coast. There are seven million people living in Hong Kong in which there are 95 percent ethnic Chinese and 5 percent from other groups .
4Background of the country (Laos) LocationPopulationSpecial characteristicsLao PDRSouth East AsiaAround million people with 49 ethnic minorities)Percentage for male and female is not different.Lao PDR ‘s a small landlocked country in South East Asia , the borders with 5 countries China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia. Lao’s France colony and Independent to Lao PDR on2 Dec % of population living in rural area.
5Millennium Development Goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other disease 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development
6What is social determinants of health? Social determinants of health are the circumstances, in which people are born, grow up, live and work. They are affected by the social and health systems implementing to deal with illness. These circumstances are shaped by the allocation of resources at global, national and local levels.According to MDGs, the first three goals related to social determinants of health including:(i) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger;(ii) achieving universal primary education; and(ii) promoting gender equality and empowering women.
7Social Health Determinants Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerGoal 2. Achieve universal primary educationGoal 3. Promote gender equality and empower womenTarget 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schoolingTarget 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015Target 1A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day.Target 1B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work all including women and young peopleTarget 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
9The indicators for Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day1.2 Poverty gap ratio1.3 share of poorest quintile in national consumption1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed1.5 Employment-to-population ratio1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age1.9 Proportion of population below min level of dietary energy consumption
10Poverty China HK, China Laos 2 decades agoPresent1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day60.2%11.8%(2009)No information on absolute povertyRelative poverty(Gini Coefficient)(1991)(2011)55.7%(1992)33.9%(2008)1.2 Poverty gap ratio20.7%2.8%11.2%27.2 %(2007)1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption8.0%4.7%9.3%7.6%
11Employment China HK, China Laos 7.7% (1991) 4.6% (2011) 3.5% 4.8% 76% 2 decades agoPresent1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed7.7%(1991)4.6%(2011)3.5%4.8%5%8.5%1.5 Employment-to-population ratio76%M,81%;F, 70%71%M,76%;F, 65%64%M,70%;F, 68%59%M,68%;F, 51%47%49%1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per dayNA55.7%(1992)33.9%(2008)1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment33.5%(1995)46%(2005)
12Hunger China HK, China Laos 2 Decades agoPresent1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age12.6%3.6%(2010)NA44%(1993)26.6%(2012)1.9 Proportion of population below min level of dietary energy consumption21.4%11.5%(2011)31%(1990)16%(Target 2015)
13The indicator for Goal 2 Achieve Universal primary education 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary2.3 Literacy rate of years old , women and men
14Education 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education 97.0% 99.5% ChinaHK, ChinaLaos2 decades agoPresent2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education97.0%99.5%(2007)97.5%M,99.5%F,95.5%98.3%M,97%F,99.8%66.2%M,62.6%F, 55.1%97.4%M,98.2%F, 96.4%2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary87.3%99%(2006)98.7%M,98.7%F,100%99.6%M,99.6%F,99.3%32.7%68%2.3 Literacy rate of years old , women and men94.3%99.6%(2010)Almost 100%71.1%83.9%
15The indicator for Goal 3 Achieve Universal primary education 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
16Gender Equality China HK, China Laos 19902 decades agoPresent3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education1o,0.902o, 0.733o, 0.531o,1.042o,1.053o,1.131o,0.992o,1.023o, 0.701o, 1.042o, 1.023o, 1.021o,0.762o,0.663o,0.461o, 0.912o, 0.853o, 0.743.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector37.8%39.1%41%50%20.3%31.1%3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament21.3%Legistlative Council12% %Directorate officers4% %
18The Policies for poverty and hunger ChinaHK, ChinaLaosSustainable EnvironmentEconomic developmentPoverty alleviationFocus on the vulnerable population (elderly, women, children etc.)Social motivationSocial security schemeComprehensive social security assistance scheme,Traffic accident Victims assistance scheme andEmergency relief.Minimum wageMandatory Provident Fund SchemesReduce extreme poverty by halfReduce hunger by halfAchieve full and productive employment and decent work for allAround 80% of workers are still engaged in subsistence-oriented agriculture.
19The Policies for education ChinaHK, ChinaLaosCompulsory Education LawRural compulsory education finance reformmodern distance education project of primary and middle schools in rural areaCompulsory Education SystemAll children above 6 years old must receive education in school. Once students finish junior secondary or are 15-years-old, school attendance is no longer mandatory.Education is better- performing sectors.Net enrolment in primary school education. All number of children of official school age who are enrolled in primary school.Population age who can both read and understand a short , simple statement on every life.
20The Policies for gender equality ChinaHK, ChinaLaosProgram of China's Women Development ( );Population and Family Planning Law;Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests;Marriage Law;Bill of Right OrdinanceSex Discrimination OrdinanceFamily Status Discrimination OrdinanceConvention on the elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women.Five programs:Improve women’s participation in implementation of NGPESpromote opportunities for women and girls to be equal with men and boy in education and other field.Improve health care services.Increase number of women in leading position at all levelStrengthen the capacity the national organizations concerned with protection and promotion of their advancement.
22Existing Problem on poverty and hunger ChinaHK, ChinaLaosThe scale of poverty is still large;The degree of poverty is still deep;The problem of urban poor is neglected.No poverty line was defined.Evaluation of anti-poverty measures on the number of applicants.The minimum wage alone is found to be not sufficient to cover the family expenses of many low-income workers.Meanwhile, it is inadequate to lift their families out of poverty. The problem of poverty is still large in Rural area, the most important is driver in reducing rural poverty.Needs higher employment and higher unskilled wage-rates for poor family.
23Existing Problem on education ChinaHK, ChinaLaosThe quality of education in rural area is low;Migrant and disabled children have not been educated well;The educational budget is not enough;Education statistics system is imperfect.Hong Kong education system is exam-oriented.Ignorance of moral quality and conductPrimary enrolment and children mortality reduction.Improving nutrient dietary intake.Improving opportunitiesImproving livelihoods between people living in urban and rural area.
24Existing Problem on gender equality ChinaHK, ChinaLaosGender discrimination still exists in the labor market;Proportion of female leaders is small;Domestic violence to women still exists.Gender discrimination is still a part of the culture and a practice of many indigenous villages.Many villages still refuse to allow women to vote in village elections.Women and girls enjoy a set of basis human capabilities such as education, health and nutrition.Improving Teachers and pupil have the same languagestill have violence and abuse to women and girls in family.
26Recommendations on poverty and hunger ChinaHK, ChinaLaosEnhance investment of poverty alleviation;Monitor the condition and situation of the poverty in the urban areaSet a poverty lineAssess the number of people be lifted out of poverty through its poverty-alleviation policiesSet up food bank for the people in crisis,Needs in education, infrastructure including roads, electricity and piped water. And also need support by agriculture sector to reduce poverty.
27Recommendations on education ChinaHK, ChinaLaosEnhance the quality of education in rural areaFocus on the migrant and disabled childrenIncreas the educational budgetImprove the education statistics system.Modify the way of conducting educationReduce the amount of teaching materialsEnforce the administration of the compulsory education.Access to school for all girls or boys and ethnic groups on remote area .
28Recommendations on gender equality ChinaHK, ChinaLaosPromote females participating in political and public fairs.Solve the problem of domestic violence to women.Take the initiative both to educate the people in the public and private sectors about gender equality and sexual harassment and the consequences of harassing.Implement more women protection policiesEnsure all girls and women have opportunities to access to education
29Conclusion (China) There are good progress to meet the MDGs in China. Indicatorsfor poverty :1.1 (60.2% to 11.8%);1.3 (8% to 4.7%)for education:2.2 Finish primary education(87.3% to 99%);2.3 literacy rate(94.3% to 99.6%)for gender equality:3.1 Secondary education: female to male ratio (0.73 to 1.05)3.2 Employment : 37.8% to 39.1%)Education means more than acquiring knowledge. It empowers people to develop personally and become politically active.
30Conclusion (Laos) There are good progress to meet the MDGs in Laos Indicatorsfor poverty :1.1 (55.7% to 33.9%);1.3 (9.3% to 7.6%)for education:2.2 Finish primary education (87.3% to 99%);2.3 literacy rate (94.3% to 99.6%)for gender equality:3.1 Secondary education: female to male ratio (0.66 to 0.85)3.2 Employment : 20.3% to 31.1%)Set up a better education system and health facilities to rural area to improve they poverty life and to reduce under 5 mortality rate and child mortality rate
31Set up a better education system and health facilities to rural area to improve they poverty life and to reduce under 5 mortality rate and child mortality rate.
32ReferenceWorld health organisation web site: http//www.who.int/social determinants/ the commissionCensus and statistics Department, special Report on Gross Domestic Product 2012, www. Censtatd.gov.hk/sub/sp250Half-yearly Economic Report, Hong Kong 2012World data bank:UN database: