Presentation on theme: "Achieving MDGs for Global Health MDG case report Social determinants of health Ketmany Chathakoummane (Laos) Yang Liu (China) Si Li (China) Agnes Lai (China)"— Presentation transcript:
Achieving MDGs for Global Health MDG case report Social determinants of health Ketmany Chathakoummane (Laos) Yang Liu (China) Si Li (China) Agnes Lai (China)
Content Background of the countries Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Social determinants of health The situation The Policies Existing Problems Recommendation Conclusion
Background of the country (China) China Shum Yang Xichan Hong Kong: locates on China's south coast. There are seven million people living in Hong Kong in which there are 95 percent ethnic Chinese and 5 percent from other groups . LocationPopulationSpecial chararteristics ChinaEast Asia 1.35 billion (Male, 51%, Female, 49%) A sovereign state located in East Asia. A single-party state governed by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. Life expectancy: Male: 72.4 years old Female: 77.4 years old Hong Kong South coast of China 7 million people (95 % ethnic Chinese ) (male, 46.5%, Female, 53.5%) Hong Kong’s status as a British colony since the mid-1800’s. Hong Kong was returned to China on 30 June 1997. Area : ‘East meets West’ Life expectancy: Male: 80.5 years old Female: 86 years old
Background of the country (Laos) LocationPopulationSpecial characteristics Lao PDRSouth East Asia Around 6.385.057 million people with 49 ethnic minorities) Percentage for male and female is not different. Lao PDR ‘s a small landlocked country in South East Asia, the borders with 5 countries China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia. Lao’s France colony and Independent to Lao PDR on 2 Dec 1975. 80% of population living in rural area.
Millennium Development Goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other disease 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development
What is social determinants of health? Social determinants of health are the circumstances, in which people are born, grow up, live and work. They are affected by the social and health systems implementing to deal with illness. These circumstances are shaped by the allocation of resources at global, national and local levels. According to MDGs, the first three goals related to social determinants of health including: (i) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (ii) achieving universal primary education; and (ii) promoting gender equality and empowering women.
Social Health Determinants Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women Target 1A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. Target 1B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work all including women and young people Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Target 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Target 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015
The indicators for Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day 1.2 Poverty gap ratio 1.3 share of poorest quintile in national consumption 1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed 1.5 Employment-to-population ratio 1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day 1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment 1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age 1.9 Proportion of population below min level of dietary energy consumption
Poverty ChinaHK, ChinaLaos 2 decades agoPresent2 decades agoPresent2 decades agoPresent 1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day 60.2%11.8% (2009) No information on absolute poverty Relative poverty (Gini Coefficient) 0.48 (1991) 0.54 (2011) 55.7% (1992) 33.9% (2008) 1.2 Poverty gap ratio 20.7%2.8% (2009) 11.2% (1992) 27.2 % (2007) 1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption 8.0%4.7% (2009) 9.3% (1992) 7.6% (2008)
Employment ChinaHK, ChinaLaos 2 decades agoPresent2 decades agoPresent2 decades agoPresent 1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed 7.7% (1991) 4.6% (2011) 3.5% (1991) 4.8% (2011) 5%8.5% 1.5 Employment- to-population ratio 76% M,81%; F, 70% (1991) 71% M,76%; F, 65% (2011) 64% M,70%; F, 68% (1991) 59% M,68%; F, 51% (2011) 47%49% 1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day NA 55.7% (1992) 33.9% (2008) 1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment NA 33.5% (1995) 46% (2005)
Hunger ChinaHK, ChinaLaos 2 Decades ago Present2 Decades ago Present2 Decades ago Present 1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age 12.6%3.6% (2010) NA 44% (1993) 26.6% (2012) 1.9 Proportion of population below min level of dietary energy consumption 21.4%11.5% (2011) NA 31% (1990) 16% (Target 2015)
The indicator for Goal 2 Achieve Universal primary education 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education 2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary 2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 years old, women and men
Education ChinaHK, ChinaLaos 2 decades ago Present2 decades ago Present2 decades ago Present 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education 97.0%99.5% (2007) 97.5% M,99.5% F,95.5% 98.3% M,97% F,99.8% 66.2% M,62.6% F, 55.1% 97.4% M,98.2% F, 96.4% 2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary 87.3%99% (2006) 98.7% M,98.7% F,100% 99.6% M,99.6% F,99.3% 32.7%68% 2.3 Literacy rate of 15- 24 years old, women and men 94.3%99.6%(2 010) Almost 100% 71.1%83.9%
The indicator for Goal 3 Achieve Universal primary education 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education 3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
Gender Equality ChinaHK, ChinaLaos 19902 decades ago Present2 decades ago Present2 decades ago Present 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education 1 o,0.90 2 o, 0.73 3 o, 0.53 1 o,1.04 2 o,1.05 3 o,1.13 1 o,0.99 2 o,1.02 3 o, 0.70 1 o, 1.04 2 o, 1.02 3 o, 1.02 1 o,0.76 2 o,0.66 3 o,0.46 1 o, 0.91 2 o, 0.85 3 o, 0.74 3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 37.8%39.1%41%50%20.3%31.1% 3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 21.3% Legistlative Council 12% 18% Directorate officers 4% 36%
The Policies for poverty and hunger ChinaHK, ChinaLaos Sustainable Environment Economic development Poverty alleviation Focus on the vulnerable population (elderly, women, children etc.) Social motivation Social security scheme Comprehensive social security assistance scheme, Traffic accident Victims assistance scheme and Emergency relief. Minimum wage Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes Reduce extreme poverty by half Reduce hunger by half Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all Around 80% of workers are still engaged in subsistence-oriented agriculture.
The Policies for education ChinaHK, ChinaLaos Compulsory Education Law Rural compulsory education finance reform modern distance education project of primary and middle schools in rural area Compulsory Education System All children above 6 years old must receive education in school. Once students finish junior secondary or are 15-years-old, school attendance is no longer mandatory. Education is better- performing sectors. Net enrolment in primary school education. All number of children of official school age who are enrolled in primary school. Population age 15-24 who can both read and understand a short, simple statement on every life.
The Policies for gender equality ChinaHK, ChinaLaos Program of China's Women Development (2001-2010); Population and Family Planning Law; Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests; Marriage Law; Bill of Right Ordinance Sex Discrimination Ordinance Family Status Discrimination Ordinance Convention on the elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women. Five programs: Improve women’s participation in implementation of NGPES promote opportunities for women and girls to be equal with men and boy in education and other field. Improve health care services. Increase number of women in leading position at all level Strengthen the capacity the national organizations concerned with protection and promotion of their advancement.
Existing Problem on poverty and hunger ChinaHK, ChinaLaos The scale of poverty is still large; The degree of poverty is still deep; The problem of urban poor is neglected. No poverty line was defined. Evaluation of anti- poverty measures on the number of applicants. The minimum wage alone is found to be not sufficient to cover the family expenses of many low-income workers. Meanwhile, it is inadequate to lift their families out of poverty. The problem of poverty is still large in Rural area, the most important is driver in reducing rural poverty. Needs higher employment and higher unskilled wage-rates for poor family.
Existing Problem on education ChinaHK, ChinaLaos The quality of education in rural area is low; Migrant and disabled children have not been educated well; The educational budget is not enough; Education statistics system is imperfect. Hong Kong education system is exam-oriented. Ignorance of moral quality and conduct Primary enrolment and children mortality reduction. Improving nutrient dietary intake. Improving opportunities Improving livelihoods between people living in urban and rural area.
Existing Problem on gender equality ChinaHK, ChinaLaos Gender discrimination still exists in the labor market; Proportion of female leaders is small; Domestic violence to women still exists. Gender discrimination is still a part of the culture and a practice of many indigenous villages. Many villages still refuse to allow women to vote in village elections. Women and girls enjoy a set of basis human capabilities such as education, health and nutrition. Improving Teachers and pupil have the same language still have violence and abuse to women and girls in family.
Recommendations on poverty and hunger ChinaHK, ChinaLaos Enhance investment of poverty alleviation; Monitor the condition and situation of the poverty in the urban area Set a poverty line Assess the number of people be lifted out of poverty through its poverty-alleviation policies Set up food bank for the people in crisis, Needs in education, infrastructure including roads, electricity and piped water. And also need support by agriculture sector to reduce poverty.
Recommendations on education ChinaHK, ChinaLaos Enhance the quality of education in rural area Focus on the migrant and disabled children Increas the educational budget Improve the education statistics system. Modify the way of conducting education Reduce the amount of teaching materials Enforce the administration of the compulsory education. Access to school for all girls or boys and ethnic groups on remote area.
Recommendations on gender equality ChinaHK, ChinaLaos Promote females participating in political and public fairs. Solve the problem of domestic violence to women. Take the initiative both to educate the people in the public and private sectors about gender equality and sexual harassment and the consequences of harassing. Implement more women protection policies Ensure all girls and women have opportunities to access to education
Conclusion (China) There are good progress to meet the MDGs in China. Indicators for poverty : 1.1 (60.2% to 11.8%); 1.3 (8% to 4.7%) for education: 2.2 Finish primary education(87.3% to 99%); 2.3 literacy rate(94.3% to 99.6%) for gender equality: 3.1 Secondary education: female to male ratio (0.73 to 1.05) 3.2 Employment : 37.8% to 39.1%) Education means more than acquiring knowledge. It empowers people to develop personally and become politically active.
There are good progress to meet the MDGs in Laos Indicators for poverty : 1.1 (55.7% to 33.9%); 1.3 (9.3% to 7.6%) for education: 2.2 Finish primary education (87.3% to 99%); 2.3 literacy rate (94.3% to 99.6%) for gender equality: 3.1 Secondary education: female to male ratio (0.66 to 0.85) 3.2 Employment : 20.3% to 31.1%) Set up a better education system and health facilities to rural area to improve they poverty life and to reduce under 5 mortality rate and child mortality rate Conclusion (Laos)
-Set up a better education system and health facilities to rural area to improve they poverty life and to reduce under 5 mortality rate and child mortality rate.
Reference World health organisation web site: http//www.who.int/social determinants/ the commission Census and statistics Department, special Report on Gross Domestic Product 2012, http:// www. Censtatd.gov.hk/sub/sp250 Half-yearly Economic Report, Hong Kong 2012 http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx?cr=156 http://data.un.org/Explorer.aspx World data bank: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.EMP.TOTL.SP.ZS?page=3 http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.EMP.TOTL.SP.ZS?page=3 UN database: http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=MDG&f=seriesRowID%3A773