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Francis Harmon Libo-on

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1 Francis Harmon Libo-on
ANABOLIC STEROIDS Members James Robin Cudiamat Francis Harmon Libo-on Rodel Pedragosa Neil Villaronte


3 Anabolic Steroids Class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone – testosterone Increase protein synthesis within cells whiche results in growth of muscle Also have androgenic properties which include the development and maintenance of males characteristics Have both medical and sport performance uses

4 Anabolic Steroids AS have been modified many times to maximize the anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic effects

5 Anabolic Steroids All AS possess both anabolic and androgenic properties Anabolic effect dose dependent (300mg per week required)

6 History 1934 – androstenone synthesized
1931 – male hormone androstenone isolated 1934 – androstenone synthesized 1935 – testosterone identified and synthesized 1937 – clinical trials on humans with testosterone began

7 History WWII – German scientist synthesized other anabolic steroids and experimented on concentration camp inmates to treat chronic wasting Also given to German soldiers hoping to increase their aggression Adolf Hitler rumored to take anabolic steroids

8 History 1972 – study no difference in performance enhancement in participants compared to ones given placebo Remained unchallenged for 18 years Poor study with inconsistent controls and insignificant doses 2001 – study showed clear increas in muscle mass and decrease in fat with high doses of anabolic steroids


10 Anabolic Effects Two different but overlapping effects
Promote cell growth Increase in protein synthesis, appetite, bone remodeling and growth and production of red blood cells Increase the size of muscle fibers leading to increase in muscle mass and strength Decrease the amount of fat in muscle

11 Androgenic effects Androgenic (virilizing) – development and maintenance of male characteristics: Increased growth of pubic, beard, chest and limb hair Enlargement of vocal chords Increased libido Suppression of natural sex hormones

12 Adverse effects Elevated blood pressure
Increase in LDL cholesterol and decrease HDL Increase risk CV disease and coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and heart attacks

13 Adverse effects Accelerate the rate of premature baldness for male and female Appearance of acne- stimulates the sebaceous glands Liver damage (cancer) – increase demand on liver as oral steroids are changed

14 Adverse Effects Stiffer and less elastic tendon
Tendon rupture has been linked to AS Stiffer and less elastic tendon Probably tendon does not adapt as fast

15 Gender Specific effects
Gynecoastia – development of brest tissues in males Temporary infertility (decreased production of sperm) Testicular atrophy (caused by decrease levels in natural testosterone)

16 Adverse Effects Most side effects are dose dependent
Blood pressure elevation Increase the risks of Cardio Vascular disease, coronary artery disease, arrythmia and any disease related to the heart. Accelerates the rate of baldness (male and female)

17 Adverse Effects Acne-stimulates the sebaceous glands
Liver Complications-increased demand on liver functions Tendon rupture(stiff and less elastic tendons)

18 Female Specific Effects
Increase in body hair Male-pattern baldness Deepened Voice Enlarged Clitoris Unpredictable menstrual cycle Affects fetal development during pregnancy

19 Teenage/Adolescent users effect
Halted growth Accelerated puberty which could cause premature skeletal maturation before growth spurt Premature sexual development

20 Behavioral Effects Uncontrolabe mood swings Roid Rage(Aggression)
Depression(withdrawal from use) Irritability Paranoia * Behavioral effects are similar to those of drug addiction

21 Biochemical Mechanisms
Anabolic Steroids affect muscle mass by: 1. Increasing the production of proteins 2. Reduce recovery time by blocking the effects of cortisol. (reduces fatigue/faster recovery)

22 Biochemical Mechanisms
Steroid Hormones interact with cells by binding to receptor proteins. After binding, proteins move into cell nucleus and alter the expression of genes or activate other processes in the cell(protein synthesis)

23 Medical Uses Bone Marrow Stimulation- Anemia
Supplement for patients with hormone deficiency(Hormone Replacement Therapy) Puberty for delayed Adolescents Used for recovery of muscle tissue

24 Non-medical use and abuse
Extemely difficult to determine what percentage of use in the population Usually middle class, heterosexual men with a median age of 25 2006 study – 78% noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes (cosmetic) 13 % reported unsafe injection practices (needle sharing)

25 Non-medical use and abuse
Users often stereo-typed as uneducated or “muscle heads” 1998 study showed steroid users to be the most educated drug users out of all users of controlled substances Research their product more than any other group

26 Administration 3 forms of Anabolic Steroids Administration:
Oral – most convenient (dangerous – liver) Injectable – intramuscular not intravenous (HIV and Hepatitis) Transdermal – self adhesive skin patches

27 Methods of Administration
Athletes who take AS do so typically during the active years of the careers They combine multiple steroid forms (oral and injectable), a practice called “stacking” The drug dosage is progessively increased (“pyramiding”) during a 4 to 18 week cycle, including a drug-free period between drug regimens (4-6 weeks). The drug quantity far exceeds the recommended medical dose (200X) The athlete then progressively reduces the drug dosage in the months prior to competition (to avoid detection)

28 Methods of Administration
The cycling of steroids coincides with competition Many athletes use the training model – “Periodization” An athlete with a yearly training program (macrocycle) subdivides the year into phases called mesocycles (3 months) As competition nears, training volume gradually decreases while training intensity increases Steroid use coincides with the mesocycles, with the goal of achieving maximum strength and size at competition

29 Oral Anabolic Steroids
17 – alpha methyl testosterone (Android) 17 – alpha ethyl testosterone (Maxibolin) 1 –methyl testosterone (Primobolan) Androstenediol (“Andro” food supplements) Androstenedione Dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

30 Injectable Anabolic Steroids
19-nortesterone ester derivatives (Durabolin) Testosterone ester derivatives (Oreton) Testosterone cypionate derivatives (Virilon) Boldenone Stanozolol (Winstrol) oral form as well

31 Minimization of Side Effects
Several techniques to minimize side effects both during cycles and post cycle Increase Cardiovascular exercise to counter act effects to counter effects on left ventricle Estrogen receptor modulators to reduce effect of aromatisation of steroid hormones (tamoxifen) reduce gynecomastia

32 Post Cycle Therapy “PCT” – takes place after each cycle to combat the natural testosterone suppression and restore proper function of numerous glands Typically consists of combination of the following drugs: Clomiphene or tamoxifen (Primary PCT drug) Anastrozole – aromatase inhibitor HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) – restore hormonal balance

33 Post Cycle Therapy Finasteride (Propecia) - reduces the conversion of testosterone to DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) – high rate of alopecia The drug is useless in cases in which the steroid is not converted into a more androgenic derivative

34 Legal Status Varies from country to country
U.S. – Schedule III controlled substance (required prescription, possession without Rx. federal crime punishable to 7 years) Canada – Schedule IV (obtaining or selling punishable for up 18 months), possession not punishable Also illegal without Rx. In Australia, Argentina, Brazil and Portugal Legal in Mexico and Thailand

35 U.S legislation of A.S Interest and debate after 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul following controversy of Ben Johnson AS added to Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act in the Anabolic Control Act of 1990 Prohormones or “Designer Steroids”not included (Androstenedione)

36 Prohormones In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act was signed into law. This act classified substances derived from natural sources as food supplements and made many drugs such as prohormones available over the counter. Thus these substances are not regulated under the same rules and regulations by the FDA.(Loop Hole) This can result in the dosages and actual quality of these substances to be in question as they are sold to the consumer Amended in 2004(Androstenedione)

37 Status in Sports AS are being banned by all major sporting bodies: IOC

38 Status in Sports Testing in Texas high schools to start this year(UIL)
Expensive Jurisprudence Normal T:ET ratio 1.3:1 1 in 1000 men ratio of 4:1 Positive test result 6:1

39 Status in Sports For testosterone the definition of positive depends on an adverse analytical finding(pos. result) based on any reliable analytical method) e.g. IRMS,GCMS,CIS) which shows that the testosterone is of exogenous origin, or if the ratio of the total concentration of testosterone to that of eitestosterone in the urine is greater than 6:1, unless there is evidence that this ratio is due to a physiological or pathogolical condition.

40 Illegal Trade The majority of AS are obtained illegaly through black market trade Usually manufactured in other countries and smuggled across borders Smuggling usually done in conjunction w/other illegal drugs Organized crime is involved

41 Counterfeit Drugs Significant health hazard
Computer and scanning technology as made it to copy labels Product could contain anything(Vegetable oil to toxic substances) Users have died of injecting unknown substances in their body Products also diluted to maximize profits

42 Production and Distribution
AS are either manufactured by legitimate pharmaceutical compaies or undergroud laboratories In the 1990’s most U.S. producers stopped making and marketing AS Eastern Europe still produce AS in quantity (most medical grade AS sold illegally in North America) Many illegal AS are veterinary grade(produced and handled in cruder and less sterile fashion)

43 Production and Distribution
AS can be obtained from several sources Sold at gyms and competitions Illegal drug dealers Mail order(magazines) Internet(websites posing as oversea pharmacies)

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