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BRIEF INTRODUCTION

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Presentation on theme: "BRIEF INTRODUCTION"— Presentation transcript:

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2 BRIEF INTRODUCTION

3  Class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone – testosterone  Increase protein synthesis within cells whiche results in growth of muscle  Also have androgenic properties which include the development and maintenance of males characteristics  Have both medical and sport performance uses  Class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone – testosterone  Increase protein synthesis within cells whiche results in growth of muscle  Also have androgenic properties which include the development and maintenance of males characteristics  Have both medical and sport performance uses

4  AS have been modified many times to maximize the anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic effects

5  All AS possess both anabolic and androgenic properties  Anabolic effect dose dependent (300mg per week required)  All AS possess both anabolic and androgenic properties  Anabolic effect dose dependent (300mg per week required)

6  1931 – male hormone androstenone isolated  1934 – androstenone synthesized  1935 – testosterone identified and synthesized  1937 – clinical trials on humans with testosterone began  1931 – male hormone androstenone isolated  1934 – androstenone synthesized  1935 – testosterone identified and synthesized  1937 – clinical trials on humans with testosterone began

7  WWII – German scientist synthesized other anabolic steroids and experimented on concentration camp inmates to treat chronic wasting  Also given to German soldiers hoping to increase their aggression  Adolf Hitler rumored to take anabolic steroids  WWII – German scientist synthesized other anabolic steroids and experimented on concentration camp inmates to treat chronic wasting  Also given to German soldiers hoping to increase their aggression  Adolf Hitler rumored to take anabolic steroids

8  1972 – study no difference in performance enhancement in participants compared to ones given placebo  Remained unchallenged for 18 years  Poor study with inconsistent controls and insignificant doses  2001 – study showed clear increas in muscle mass and decrease in fat with high doses of anabolic steroids  1972 – study no difference in performance enhancement in participants compared to ones given placebo  Remained unchallenged for 18 years  Poor study with inconsistent controls and insignificant doses  2001 – study showed clear increas in muscle mass and decrease in fat with high doses of anabolic steroids

9 ANABOLIC STEROID EFFECTS

10  Two different but overlapping effects  Promote cell growth  Increase in protein synthesis, appetite, bone remodeling and growth and production of red blood cells  Increase the size of muscle fibers leading to increase in muscle mass and strength  Decrease the amount of fat in muscle  Two different but overlapping effects  Promote cell growth  Increase in protein synthesis, appetite, bone remodeling and growth and production of red blood cells  Increase the size of muscle fibers leading to increase in muscle mass and strength  Decrease the amount of fat in muscle

11  Androgenic (virilizing) – development and maintenance of male characteristics:  Increased growth of pubic, beard, chest and limb hair  Enlargement of vocal chords  Increased libido  Suppression of natural sex hormones  Androgenic (virilizing) – development and maintenance of male characteristics:  Increased growth of pubic, beard, chest and limb hair  Enlargement of vocal chords  Increased libido  Suppression of natural sex hormones

12  Elevated blood pressure  Increase in LDL cholesterol and decrease HDL  Increase risk CV disease and coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and heart attacks  Elevated blood pressure  Increase in LDL cholesterol and decrease HDL  Increase risk CV disease and coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and heart attacks

13  Accelerate the rate of premature baldness for male and female  Appearance of acne- stimulates the sebaceous glands  Accelerate the rate of premature baldness for male and female  Appearance of acne- stimulates the sebaceous glands  Liver damage (cancer) – increase demand on liver as oral steroids are changed

14  Tendon rupture has been linked to AS  Stiffer and less elastic tendon  Probably tendon does not adapt as fast  Tendon rupture has been linked to AS  Stiffer and less elastic tendon  Probably tendon does not adapt as fast

15  Gynecoastia – development of brest tissues in males  Temporary infertility (decreased production of sperm)  Testicular atrophy (caused by decrease levels in natural testosterone)  Gynecoastia – development of brest tissues in males  Temporary infertility (decreased production of sperm)  Testicular atrophy (caused by decrease levels in natural testosterone)

16 Most side effects are dose dependent Blood pressure elevation Increase the risks of Cardio Vascular disease, coronary artery disease, arrythmia and any disease related to the heart. Accelerates the rate of baldness (male and female) Most side effects are dose dependent Blood pressure elevation Increase the risks of Cardio Vascular disease, coronary artery disease, arrythmia and any disease related to the heart. Accelerates the rate of baldness (male and female)

17 Acne-stimulates the sebaceous glands Liver Complications-increased demand on liver functions Tendon rupture(stiff and less elastic tendons) Acne-stimulates the sebaceous glands Liver Complications-increased demand on liver functions Tendon rupture(stiff and less elastic tendons)

18 Increase in body hair Male-pattern baldness Deepened Voice Enlarged Clitoris Unpredictable menstrual cycle Affects fetal development during pregnancy Increase in body hair Male-pattern baldness Deepened Voice Enlarged Clitoris Unpredictable menstrual cycle Affects fetal development during pregnancy

19 Halted growth Accelerated puberty which could cause premature skeletal maturation before growth spurt Premature sexual development Halted growth Accelerated puberty which could cause premature skeletal maturation before growth spurt Premature sexual development

20 Uncontrolabe mood swings Roid Rage(Aggression) Depression(withdrawal from use) Irritability Paranoia * Behavioral effects are similar to those of drug addiction Uncontrolabe mood swings Roid Rage(Aggression) Depression(withdrawal from use) Irritability Paranoia * Behavioral effects are similar to those of drug addiction

21 Anabolic Steroids affect muscle mass by: 1. Increasing the production of proteins 2. Reduce recovery time by blocking the effects of cortisol. (reduces fatigue/faster recovery) Anabolic Steroids affect muscle mass by: 1. Increasing the production of proteins 2. Reduce recovery time by blocking the effects of cortisol. (reduces fatigue/faster recovery)

22 Steroid Hormones interact with cells by binding to receptor proteins. After binding, proteins move into cell nucleus and alter the expression of genes or activate other processes in the cell(protein synthesis) Steroid Hormones interact with cells by binding to receptor proteins. After binding, proteins move into cell nucleus and alter the expression of genes or activate other processes in the cell(protein synthesis)

23 Bone Marrow Stimulation- Anemia Supplement for patients with hormone deficiency(Hormone Replacement Therapy) Puberty for delayed Adolescents Used for recovery of muscle tissue Bone Marrow Stimulation- Anemia Supplement for patients with hormone deficiency(Hormone Replacement Therapy) Puberty for delayed Adolescents Used for recovery of muscle tissue

24 Extemely difficult to determine what percentage of use in the population Usually middle class, heterosexual men with a median age of study – 78% noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes (cosmetic) 13 % reported unsafe injection practices (needle sharing) Extemely difficult to determine what percentage of use in the population Usually middle class, heterosexual men with a median age of study – 78% noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes (cosmetic) 13 % reported unsafe injection practices (needle sharing)

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27 Athletes who take AS do so typically during the active years of the careers They combine multiple steroid forms (oral and injectable), a practice called “stacking” The drug dosage is progessively increased (“pyramiding”) during a 4 to 18 week cycle, including a drug-free period between drug regimens (4-6 weeks). The drug quantity far exceeds the recommended medical dose (200X) The athlete then progressively reduces the drug dosage in the months prior to competition (to avoid detection) Athletes who take AS do so typically during the active years of the careers They combine multiple steroid forms (oral and injectable), a practice called “stacking” The drug dosage is progessively increased (“pyramiding”) during a 4 to 18 week cycle, including a drug-free period between drug regimens (4-6 weeks). The drug quantity far exceeds the recommended medical dose (200X) The athlete then progressively reduces the drug dosage in the months prior to competition (to avoid detection)

28 The cycling of steroids coincides with competition Many athletes use the training model – “Periodization” An athlete with a yearly training program (macrocycle) subdivides the year into phases called mesocycles (3 months) As competition nears, training volume gradually decreases while training intensity increases Steroid use coincides with the mesocycles, with the goal of achieving maximum strength and size at competition The cycling of steroids coincides with competition Many athletes use the training model – “Periodization” An athlete with a yearly training program (macrocycle) subdivides the year into phases called mesocycles (3 months) As competition nears, training volume gradually decreases while training intensity increases Steroid use coincides with the mesocycles, with the goal of achieving maximum strength and size at competition

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30 19-nortesterone ester derivatives (Durabolin) Testosterone ester derivatives (Oreton) Testosterone cypionate derivatives (Virilon) Boldenone Stanozolol (Winstrol) oral form as well 19-nortesterone ester derivatives (Durabolin) Testosterone ester derivatives (Oreton) Testosterone cypionate derivatives (Virilon) Boldenone Stanozolol (Winstrol) oral form as well

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32 “PCT” – takes place after each cycle to combat the natural testosterone suppression and restore proper function of numerous glands Typically consists of combination of the following drugs: 1.Clomiphene or tamoxifen (Primary PCT drug) 2.Anastrozole – aromatase inhibitor 3.HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) – restore hormonal balance “PCT” – takes place after each cycle to combat the natural testosterone suppression and restore proper function of numerous glands Typically consists of combination of the following drugs: 1.Clomiphene or tamoxifen (Primary PCT drug) 2.Anastrozole – aromatase inhibitor 3.HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) – restore hormonal balance

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34 Varies from country to country U.S. – Schedule III controlled substance (required prescription, possession without Rx. federal crime punishable to 7 years) Canada – Schedule IV (obtaining or selling punishable for up 18 months), possession not punishable Also illegal without Rx. In Australia, Argentina, Brazil and Portugal Legal in Mexico and Thailand Varies from country to country U.S. – Schedule III controlled substance (required prescription, possession without Rx. federal crime punishable to 7 years) Canada – Schedule IV (obtaining or selling punishable for up 18 months), possession not punishable Also illegal without Rx. In Australia, Argentina, Brazil and Portugal Legal in Mexico and Thailand

35 Interest and debate after 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul following controversy of Ben Johnson AS added to Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act in the Anabolic Control Act of 1990 Prohormones or “Designer Steroids”not included (Androstenedione) Interest and debate after 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul following controversy of Ben Johnson AS added to Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act in the Anabolic Control Act of 1990 Prohormones or “Designer Steroids”not included (Androstenedione)

36 In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act was signed into law. This act classified substances derived from natural sources as food supplements and made many drugs such as prohormones available over the counter. Thus these substances are not regulated under the same rules and regulations by the FDA.(Loop Hole) This can result in the dosages and actual quality of these substances to be in question as they are sold to the consumer Amended in 2004(Androstenedione) In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act was signed into law. This act classified substances derived from natural sources as food supplements and made many drugs such as prohormones available over the counter. Thus these substances are not regulated under the same rules and regulations by the FDA.(Loop Hole) This can result in the dosages and actual quality of these substances to be in question as they are sold to the consumer Amended in 2004(Androstenedione)

37 AS are being banned by all major sporting bodies: 1.IOC 2.NBA 3.NHL 4.MLB 5.NCAA AS are being banned by all major sporting bodies: 1.IOC 2.NBA 3.NHL 4.MLB 5.NCAA

38 Testing in Texas high schools to start this year(UIL) Expensive Jurisprudence Normal T:ET ratio 1.3:1 1 in 1000 men ratio of 4:1 Positive test result 6:1 Testing in Texas high schools to start this year(UIL) Expensive Jurisprudence Normal T:ET ratio 1.3:1 1 in 1000 men ratio of 4:1 Positive test result 6:1

39 For testosterone the definition of positive depends on an adverse analytical finding(pos. result) based on any reliable analytical method) e.g. IRMS,GCMS,CIS) which shows that the testosterone is of exogenous origin, or if the ratio of the total concentration of testosterone to that of eitestosterone in the urine is greater than 6:1, unless there is evidence that this ratio is due to a physiological or pathogolical condition.

40 The majority of AS are obtained illegaly through black market trade Usually manufactured in other countries and smuggled across borders Smuggling usually done in conjunction w/other illegal drugs Organized crime is involved The majority of AS are obtained illegaly through black market trade Usually manufactured in other countries and smuggled across borders Smuggling usually done in conjunction w/other illegal drugs Organized crime is involved

41 Significant health hazard Computer and scanning technology as made it to copy labels Product could contain anything(Vegetable oil to toxic substances) Users have died of injecting unknown substances in their body Products also diluted to maximize profits Significant health hazard Computer and scanning technology as made it to copy labels Product could contain anything(Vegetable oil to toxic substances) Users have died of injecting unknown substances in their body Products also diluted to maximize profits

42 AS are either manufactured by legitimate pharmaceutical compaies or undergroud laboratories In the 1990’s most U.S. producers stopped making and marketing AS Eastern Europe still produce AS in quantity (most medical grade AS sold illegally in North America) Many illegal AS are veterinary grade(produced and handled in cruder and less sterile fashion) AS are either manufactured by legitimate pharmaceutical compaies or undergroud laboratories In the 1990’s most U.S. producers stopped making and marketing AS Eastern Europe still produce AS in quantity (most medical grade AS sold illegally in North America) Many illegal AS are veterinary grade(produced and handled in cruder and less sterile fashion)

43 AS can be obtained from several sources Sold at gyms and competitions Illegal drug dealers Mail order(magazines) Internet(websites posing as oversea pharmacies) AS can be obtained from several sources Sold at gyms and competitions Illegal drug dealers Mail order(magazines) Internet(websites posing as oversea pharmacies)


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