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CERIS-CNR 1 ECONOMIC-TERRITORIAL FIRMS AGGLOMERATIONS: ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICIES ADDRESSED TO SUSTAIN THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE TECHNOLOGICAL.

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Presentation on theme: "CERIS-CNR 1 ECONOMIC-TERRITORIAL FIRMS AGGLOMERATIONS: ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICIES ADDRESSED TO SUSTAIN THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE TECHNOLOGICAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 CERIS-CNR 1 ECONOMIC-TERRITORIAL FIRMS AGGLOMERATIONS: ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICIES ADDRESSED TO SUSTAIN THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN THE COUNTRIES PhD Thesis Program of Serena Novero Doctorate in Economy and Management of Technology - University of Bergamo Ceris - Cnr, Torino –

2 CERIS-CNR 2 Preliminary remarks:  New increasing attention to agglomeration phenomenos due to the competitiveness in national and international markets need of “make a system” to contrast it  Attention to networks in their different types, characteristics, way of development, points of strenght and weakness, role in innovation production: In Italy: Industrial and Technological Districts (Marshall, 1890; Antonelli, 1986) In the world: Perroux Poles (1955-’71); Clusters (Porter, 1990); Milieu Innovateur (Camagni, Cappellin,Brenner, 2000); Networks; Poles de Compétitivité (2005) SMEs, Big firms, Centre of research, Public Bodies, spread know-how, skilled workers Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

3 CERIS-CNR 3  Element of success: ability of cohesion and collaboration among them Paper 1:  “Economic-territorial agglomerations of enterprises: typologies, definitions, characteristics, comparison”  Important rule in territorial performances: rise of territorial specificities and innovations in products and processes Research Question 1: Differences among economic agglomerations, in particulary between districts and clusters: the role and the relationship with the areas of location the topic has been only partially treated Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

4 CERIS-CNR 4  Paper 1:  Storical excursus of the teories of economic agglomerations: birth of the different agglomeration typologies, their evolutions and their diversification  Importance of technological innovation in TD, poles and clusters and their role in it Huggins R., 2001; Krugman P., 1991 M.Lazzeroni, Lorenzen E., Maskell P.,2004 Lorenzoni G., 1990 Markusen, A., 1996, Marshall A., Maskell P., 2001 Mills E.S., 1992 Ozcan S., 2004 Patrono A.,2002 Piccaluga A., Porter, M.E., Rullani E.,1997 Sforzi, F., Storper M.,, 1992 P.Aydalot,1986; C.Antonelli, ; G.Becattini, ; F.Belussi, 2002; H.Bennett, 1992; Bergman E., Feser E., 1999; Bottazzi G., Dosi G., Fagiolo G., 2002; Brenner T., ; Callegati E., Grandi S., 2005 Cavallo C., 2002; Cesaroni, 2003; Cooke P., ; Dümmler Patrick, 2003; Guerrieri P., Pietrobelli C., 2001 Harrison B. Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

5 CERIS-CNR 5  Territorial transitions and life cycles of districts phenomenons have been recognized  Necessity of a public intervention Research Question 2: Which is the innovation policies impact on economic/territorial agglomerations? And which are the most important points of these collaborations? How public policies have to work to gain positive results? Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

6 CERIS-CNR 6  Paper 2: “Technological districts and innovation: TT policies and processes, methods and measures of valuation of public actions, analysis of the impact of public policies made to their support – The case of Canavese”  Centrality of knowledges and innovations (territorially localized)  Innovation and Technological Transfer policies = the solution for innovation problems of firms? Strategic variable for SMEs First responsable of success or failure of the policy actions made Foundamental for innovative knowledges diffusion Different in dissimilar ambits Transfer the knowledges in the space new variable: a field of stregths Characteristics, subjects and channels envolved

7 CERIS-CNR 7 Channels of communication: - a network among the econimic actors - public bodies and structures Technological intermediary TT could be: - formal: patents, licences, spinn-off, R&D collaborations, join ventures, mergers, consortia - informal: direct contacts Different methods of transmission: -Tacit knowledges undirect way (services) firms -Esplicit knowledges direct way (texts, workshops,patents) institute of research Subjects: sources, interfaces, usersimportance of relationship among them Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

8 CERIS-CNR 8  Methods and measures of impact of innovation policies? Analysis of a tangible case: how the development of technological district of Canavese has been supported - The story of the area Address of TT: - Market oriented: active TT because it creates financial fees in the Centre of research involved: measured in units of money - Education oriented: it produces benefits in the long time for the receiving social system, it increas the level of knowledges: measured with the n° of courses, students, doctorate, etc.. Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

9 CERIS-CNR 9 THE CANAVESE AREA  In the north-west of Italy, in Piedmont, at north of Turin Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

10 CERIS-CNR 10 The snapshot of Canavese in the nineties:  The firms 1 Big Firm : Olivetti, Ivrea 290 High-Tech SMEs of informatic, elettronic semimanufactured and ICT products or services  December 1993 –Province of Turin –Commune of Ivrea –Association of Industrial Managers of Canavese Founded: Consortium for the Technological District of Canavese (CTDC -  The innovative5 Centres of Competence : Cellular Sheet services of TT Laser Mechanical engineering Microsystems Metal Pressing Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

11 CERIS-CNR 11 THE CTDC PROJECTS:  T.S. (Tecnologia & Sviluppo) CANAVESEJuly 1999 – September 2001  PIA (Progetti Integrati d’Area) 01July 2003 – May 2005  PIA 02May 2004 – December 2005  PIA 03August 2004 – December 2005  DIADIJanuary 2004 – December 2006  CF 2October 2005 – March 2008 The objective of each project was to give a significative impulse to the technological, economic and social development of the manufacturing industry of the area, supporting the rise of the competitiveness and of the employment in the local SMEs Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

12 CERIS-CNR 12 The technical services (described in a technical way) given to Canavese High Tech firms in the projects :  APlanning and making machineries  BMetallographic analysis for problems rise during the welding  CUse of laser technology  DAnalyses and advices  ECertification of the products  FUse of the laboratories and services that the Centre supply  GStudies of fattibility  HOthers different collaboration in the future Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

13 CERIS-CNR 13 The firms: definited with ATECO - ISTAT activities code 25 - Plastic and rubber manufactures45 – Constructions 26 - Mineral not metalliferous products 50 - Motor vahicle commerce, maintenance and repair 27 – Metallurgy51 – Wholesale trade and intermediaries 28 - Metal products manufactures (machineries and systems excluded) 52 - Retail commerce 29 - Mechanical machineries manufactures64 - Post and telecommunications 30 - Manufacture of typewrites, PC and informatic systems 70 - Estate activities equipment 31 - Manufacture of machineries and elettric products 72 – Informatic and connected activities 32 – Manufacture of broadcasting and communication apparatus 74 – Test and technical analyses of products 33 – Manufacture of precision medical apparatus, optical instruments and watches 92 Cultural and sports activities and Equipment 34 - Cars, trailers and semi-trailers fabbrication

14 CERIS-CNR 14 Valuation of their impact - The method (Antonelli, 2005) Balance sheets data, comparison with the area as a whole (index) and probit models: Y = Balance sheet performances (sales, ROI, G.O.M.) X1 = ATECO code of activity of the firm X2 = Size of the firm (number of employeers) X3 = Gross Operative Margin (GOM = A.V. - salaries & wages) X4 = Sales X5 = Profit X6 = GOM / Sales X7 = ROS, ROI, ROE X8 = existing technological problems X9 = Centre of Competence involved X10 = Objectives of the collaborations (A-H) X11 = Feasibility studies X12 = Results and possible developments X13 = Processes or products modifications, patents X14 = Projects execution X15 = Further developments X16 = Technological Status of each firm, before and after the collaborations X17 = Technological level and utility interventions X18 = Their impact in the production X17 = Relationships with the Centre X18 = if new employments have been done or are preview X19 = if new opportunity of work are rised

15 CERIS-CNR 15 SOME RESULTS..  Probability of success of an innovative project = 62%  Larger firms answer better to innovation  Previous high technological status has a big weight  Types and high technical quality of the collaborations are also very important  Firms belonging to the sectors 28, 29, 30 and 72 have had a bigger economic growth and have required mostly the collaborations C and D.  Firms of sectors 25, 27, 28 and 51 have had a better evolution of employment.  Collaborations B, C, D and E have given a good result for the increase of the employment ATECO Code Employment Balance sheets variations 2001 / 2004 Rate of Growth 2001 /2004 Rate of growth 2003 / 2004 BetterWorse 25 6,5%67,3% ,7%90,3%2 28 4,5%40,1% ,2%27,5% ,6%-1,6% ,0%12,7% ,0%5,3% ,0%2,0% ,8%-22,3% ,0% 50 37,8%-42,3% ,5%45,7% ,1% 72 2,9%0,5% ,8%14,1% ,8%-42,3%1 Medium 12%14%59,4%40,6%

16 CERIS-CNR 16 COLLABORATIONS Types of CollaborationsFrequencyBetterWorseEmployed APlanning and making machineries3,4%3,6%6,9% BMetallographic analysis for problems rise during the welding 3,4%4%29,2% CUse of laser technology22,4%18%25%27,1% DAnalyses and advices by technics24,1%24%21,4%28,1% ECertification of the products8,6%12%7,1%50,6% FUse of the laboratories and services that the centre supply 8,6%12%7,1%17,6% GStudies of fattibility10,3%8%21,4%-11,1% HOthers different collaboration in the future 19%22%14,3%59,4% TOTAL100% Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

17 CERIS-CNR 17 Collab.Technical level and utility HighMediumLow A 1 B C 63 D 72 E 22 F 2 G 631 H 41 Productive effects in the firms GoodMediumNothing

18 CERIS-CNR 18 I t (.) = f (collab t ) + f (relationship t ) + f(serv.typology t ) + f(location t ) + + f(feasibility t ) + f(project t ) + v t B t (.) = f (ATECO t ) + f (size t ) + f (sales t ) + f (profit t ) + f (tech.problems t ) + + f (collab t ) + f (tech.status t ) + f(serv.typology t ) + w t Collaborations Innovativeness Balance sheet Services typologies

19 CERIS-CNR 19  Research Question 3: How enterprises in economical territorial agglomerations of others UE Countries have been supported by public interventions finalized to their innovation? and which have been their impacts? International comparison with the French case Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

20 CERIS-CNR 20  PAPER 3: AN INTERNATIONAL CONFRONTATION: FROM LPS (Local Productive Systems) TO CP (Competition Poles), FRENCH POLICIES GENESIS AND EVOLUTION  French Poles de Compétitivité: points of strength and weakness  Policies and the governance management followed by the regional governments – International comparison  Their impacts: effects on technological innovation, creation and diffusion of knowledges, abilities and technologies, training of skilled employeers, spillovers  Results on firms balance sheets Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

21 CERIS-CNR 21 Conclusions:  Determination of typologies of interventions useful to substain technology innovation and to support firms development, competitiveness and networking. All that to: Cut down the costs Favour a fast circulations of ideas and projects Allow the development of the areas Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007

22 CERIS-CNR 22 Thank you for the attention! Serena Novero


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