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International Conflict Elements of a Just War (i) Jus ad bellum - the right to make war Just Cause Cause must be proportionate Right Intention Authorisation.

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Presentation on theme: "International Conflict Elements of a Just War (i) Jus ad bellum - the right to make war Just Cause Cause must be proportionate Right Intention Authorisation."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Conflict Elements of a Just War (i) Jus ad bellum - the right to make war Just Cause Cause must be proportionate Right Intention Authorisation by an appropriate authority Reasonable prospect of success A last resort

2 International Conflict Elements of a Just War (ii) Jus in bellum - justice in the conduct of war Discrimination - no attacking of the innocent Proportionality - the minimum necessary force Winnable???

3 International Conflict Study Design Preamble (implications) Causes and nature of post cold-war conflict Global terrorism and its responses Nationalist, religious, economic or ethnic tensions came together at the Sept.11 terrorist attacks on the US. US as main superpower; China and India emerging. Tensions between the EU and US.

4 International Conflict Exam Aspects Study Design Essay Question essay will be on conflict. You will need to have a thorough understanding of ‘terrorism’ and the war on terror in relation to the general issue of conflict - Its causes, nature and effects. The war on terror will be the focal point for this term.

5 International Conflict Main Dot Points Outcome 2 - to analyse and evaluate the nature of post cold war conflict. Causes and nature of armed conflict in the PCW global terrorism - definitions of terrorism, and state and non- state based terror Causes and effects of international terrorism US power: extent nd limitations Success/failure of states and groups in the PCW

6 International Conflict Analyse and evaluate the nature of international terrorism in PCW Definitions of terrorism including state and non-state terrorism Nature: what is international terrorism and what form(s) does it take What causes are championed by international terrorist ‘movement’ or phenomena? What effects have they had? US power: extent and limitations Success/failure

7 International Conflict Implications of study design Need for comprehensive and broad coverage of the nature of conflict, and particularly the war against terror in the PCWW Coverage is not just terrorism, but International conflict since the end of the cold war Terrorism as an example of international conflict Bracket terrorism and the subsequent war on terror as a major component of PCW conflict

8 International Conflict General contexts Terrorism - problem of definition, origin, nature, types Islamist background US foreign policy Relationship to globalisation, including global information networks, media systems, economic structure and funding. The subsequent war on terror becomes far more complex and complicated in this context.

9 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Possible type of question Focus will probably be general - expect a general prompt. Discuss (turn the question around) so that you can focus on the conflict you have chosen. Consider: Causes Nature of conflict Progress/effects of the war Possibly offered 3 questions Show an understanding for both sides of issue Critically analyse & evaluate

10 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Be Balanced… YOU MUST AVOID!!! Knee-jerk Islamaphobia & Anti-Americanism

11 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Pay attention to the context of the question. Two contexts are appropriate: 1.Broad context of developing trends within Islamic societies: Previous centuries Since Iranian revolution Issues facing Islamic identity - globally and internally.

12 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Pay attention to the context of the question. Two contexts are appropriate: 2. US power and foreign policy - since at least the end of the cold war ( ).

13 International Conflict The essay component of the exam It is important to define the topic carefully Need to be careful relating ‘terror’ to ‘conflict’. (Bracket terrorism within the broader topic of global conflict in the PCWW). Should focus on ‘terror’ as an aspect of ‘conflict’ or ‘US response to terror’ ie: if ‘war on terror’: Terror becomes a ‘given’ and less problematic Focuses more on the US. (If terror, or Islamist terror, then US/Western response simply an unreflective response).

14 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Problem of appropriate definition of the topic Specific problems of US ‘war on terror’ War on terror is multifaceted and complex ‘Iraq war’ - is this part of the war on terrror? (There were no WMD found, or any evidence to justify US claims about Iraq being a state sponsoring terror against the West). Therefore, the Iraq war must be seen within a broader context of US foreign policy and the need to secure resources. Many/most would say that the Iraq war is related to US foreign policy - particularly in regard to securing access to oil resources.

15 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Best way of dealing with these problems - BROAD COVERAGE Background - for understanding Issues of conflict - general understanding of how conflicts develop and occur How these general factors have come into play in a specific example The context of Islamic radicalism and mobilisation US power and FP since the end of the cold war Globalisation - islamist terror and US policy in regards to globalisation

16 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Best way of dealing with these problems - BROAD COVERAGE Short term origins of Islamist terror Afghanistan under soviet invasion Al Qaida Contemporary Islamist issues - global and national Sept 11 and US response Afghan War Iraq war

17 International Conflict The essay component of the exam The problem of State Terrorism The Study Design assumes that this is a clearly defined category: in reality, more problematic and uncertain Is it state terrorism when a government: 1. Attacks another country - including civilians? (Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon). No! Unless it: (a) deliberately targets civilians who it knows are not Hezbollah. (Then what about Dresdan and Hiroshima)? (b) Has specific aims of intimidation.

18 International Conflict The essay component of the exam The problem of State Terrorism Is it state terrorism when a government: 2. Uses instruments of govt. (e.g. militia) to intimidate civilians? * Yes! Probably the least controversial and best example. * Zimbabwe, Indonesia in Aceh and East Timor,

19 International Conflict The essay component of the exam The problem of State Terrorism Is it state terrorism when a government: 3. Assassinates opposing political leaders outside its nation? * (Israel targeting PLO or Hezbollah leaders). * No! Unless civilians are killed and this was known about in advance. (E.g. bombing an apartment building in the hope that a PLO leader is inside).

20 International Conflict The essay component of the exam The problem of State Terrorism Is it state terrorism when a government: 4. Uses murder, illegal arrests torture etc. against its own citizens? (e.g. Zimbabwe, Pinochet in Chile) * Yes! But its not international terrorism, but internal.

21 International Conflict The essay component of the exam War on Terror… too broad to provide a satisfactory focus? In last year’s exam, students tended to make assumptions on origins and nature of terrorism. Students lost marks for making unsustainable assumptions such as: Terrorism is ‘evil’ and needs no explanation US response is justified and legitimate. US claims ‘jus ad bellum’ for its war in Iraq due to its prosecution of a war against terrorism. But is it? WOT is very complex and multifaceted.

22 International Conflict Elements of US War on Terror Investig- ation of Sept. 11 Home- land Security Issues Inter- national Security Issues Attack on Afghanistan & Taliban Attack on Iraq and Hussein Arrest of perpetrators General Security Civil rights of suspects Pakistan Monitor- ing Islamist groups Central Asia Middle East Israel Additional problems Regional terrorist groups Increas- ing influence on Iraqi Shi’Ites Nuclear threshold Hostility to US Iran Airline Safety etc: Guantanamo Bay Home-grown terrorists

23 International Conflict The essay component of the exam A simple definition of terrorism? The use of: a deliberate strategy of violence or intimidation, often arbitrary and seemingly unprovoked, often against civilians or non-combatants to achieve political or broader outcomes. Deliberate: to some extent planned and organised Violence or intimidation: assassination, uprisings, hostages, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings. Arbitrary: not specifically invoked - often without warning Aims: achieve political (or perhaps theological) outcomes Non-state actors (groups outside govt.) eg Shining Path, Tamil Tigers, Jemmeh Islamiah, Al Qaida Committed by States themselves at times - more problematic/controversial.

24 International Conflict The essay component of the exam When is terrorism international? Terrorism becomes international when: Attacks occur across international boundaries. There are networks of finance, organisation and/or recruitment across international borders. Motivation is against another nation.

25 International Conflict The essay component of the exam When is terrorism international? International does not necessarily mean global. Al Qaida has been able to have a global reach, they have conducted attacks upon the US from their home soil, to Madrid, to Africa. Jemmeh Islamiah have had an international reach by targetting western targets within Indonesia - Bali, Australian Embassy, Marriot Hotel.

26 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Globalisation and Contemporary Terrorism. Globalisation has helped enable terrorism - by increasing connections internationally. Growth of international as part of the growth of power of non- state actors (a characteristic a a globalised world). Globalisation of US Western power through trade and investment, culture in PCWW One of the main causes of Islamist terrorist. Nb. The timing and target of Sept WTC, Pentagon, Whitehouse, - on the anniversary of Pres. Bush’s New World Order speech.

27 International Conflict The essay component of the exam Nature of Globalisation has helped enable terrorism - by increasing connections internationally. Growth of international as part of the growth of power of non- state actors (a characteristic a a globalised world). Globalisation of US Western power through trade and investment, culture in PCWW One of the main causes of Islamist terrorist. Nb. The timing and target of Sept WTC, Pentagon, Whitehouse, - on the anniversary of Pres. Bush’s New World Order speech.


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