Presentation on theme: "Prepared By Dipak parikh A precis is an abstract or abridgement of a given passage. While making a precis, the following points should be borne in mind:"— Presentation transcript:
A precis is an abstract or abridgement of a given passage. While making a precis, the following points should be borne in mind: 1.The student should read the given passage a number of times to under-stand its meaning thoroughly.
2.Then the main points in the proper, sequence should be jotted down. 3.A rough precis comprising about one- third the number of words in the given passage should be written down with the help of the points jotted down.
4.The fair precis should be written down after the student is satisfied in all respects with the rough prcis 5.The precis should be written, as far as possible in student’s own language, words, phrases and sentences should not be copied from the given passage.
6. It should contain only the main points. All repetitions, quotations, illustrations, proverbs, digressions (change of subject) etc. should be excluded. 7. There should be a proper sequence of ideas, such that precis and not a jumble of words.
8. The language used should be simple and idiomatic but not bombastic. 9. Sentences should be short and pithy long bombastic sentences should be avoided. 10. The precis should be written, as far as possible, in third person, in past tense and in indirect speech.
11.The title must be given even if the student is asked to do so or not. Exercise:1 One of the defects of our civilization is that it does not know what to do with its knowledge.
Science, as we have seen, has given us powers fit for the gods, yet we use them like small children. For example, we do not know how to manage our machines. Machines were made to be man’s servants, yet he has grown so dependent on them that they are in a fair way to become his masters.
Most men spend most of their lives looking after and waiting upon machines. And the machines are very stern masters. They must be fed with coal, and given petrol to drink, and oil to wash with, and they must be kept at the right temperature. And if they do not get their meals when they expect them,
they grow sulky and refuse to work, burst with rage and blow up and spread ruin and destruction all round them. So we have to wait upon them very attentively and do all that we can to keep them in good temper. Already we find it difficult either to work or play without the machines
and a time may come when they will rule us altogether, just as we rule the animals. (Words- 206) (Stern-harsh, Sulky-ill tempered) Precis: Civilization has given man scientific knowledge, but not the way of using it properly.
Man invented machines to act as ser-vants, but reverse has been the case. Today man is so much dependent upon them that he cannot live without them. He has to spend his life looking after them. Otherwise, they cause much destruction. Man’s dependence on machines progressively goes on increas- ing day by day.
Words in the original passage=206 Words in the precis =67 Title:- Man’s Dependence on Machines Or Man and Machine. Exercise:2 Education is a dynamic process.
A sound educational structure is one that is responsive to the challenges of a fast changing society. Those who are engaged in educational process must constantly re-examine the academic machinery so that it can prepare the young generation to discharge their obligations towards the
community.Text books are an integral part of our academic apparatus; they shape the minds of the readers and mould their personalities. They should bring the young student in intimate contact with the latest developments in thought and help them developments in thought and help them
develop integrated personalites. PRACTIS:1 If we look at India’s long history we find that our forefathers made wonderful progress whenever they looked out on the world with clear and fearless eyes and kept the window of their minds open to
give and receive. And,in later periods,when they grew narrow in outlook and shrank form out side influence. India suffered a set – back,politically and culturally.when a Magniftcent inheritance we have. Though we have abused It often enough.India has been and is a vital nation.
In spite of all the misery and suffering that she has experienced. (words: 95) practice-2 A vast responsibility therefore, rest on our universities and education institutions and those who guide their destinies.
Must not stray form the right path even when passion convulses the multitude and blinds many amongst those whose duty it is to set an example to others. We are not going to reach our goal through crookedness or flirting with evil in the hope that it may lead to good.the right end can never be fully achieved
through wrong means. (words:87) practice -3 I think that a successful old is easiest for those who have strong impersonal interests in involving appropriate activities.it is in this sphere that long experience is really fruitful,
and it is this sphere that the wisdom born of experience can be exercised without being oppessive. It is no use telling grown up children not believe you and because mistakes are an essential part of education. (words:74)