Presentation on theme: "References COHRE (2008), “Motala Heights, Durban. South Africa”, Successes and responses to forced evictions, p. 29-43. COHRE (2009), “Imminent forced."— Presentation transcript:
References COHRE (2008), “Motala Heights, Durban. South Africa”, Successes and responses to forced evictions, p. 29-43. COHRE (2009), “Imminent forced eviction of residents of Symphony Way, Cape Town”, Letter to Mayor Plato of Cape Town, p. 1-3. 2010 FIFA World Cup™ Organising Committee South Africa (2010). (http://www.gcis.gov.za/resource_centre/multi media/posters_and_brochures/ brochures/sa2010_govprep.pdf Grudgings, S. (2011), “Brasil Under Fire For World Cup Slum Evictions”, Reuters. (http://www.reuters.com/articl e/2011/05/11/us-brazil-world cup-slums-idUSTRE74A09720 McAdams, M. (2010), “The Dark Side of Brazil’s Olympic Dreams: The 2016 Olympic Host Battles Poverty, Violent Crime, and Police Brutality”, Council on Hemispheric Research. (www.coha.org) Newton, C. (2009), “The Reverse Side of the Medal: About the 2010 FIFA World Cup and the Beautification of the N2 in Cape Town”, Urban Forum, Vol. 20, p. 93-108. Raghavan, S. (2010), “South Africa’s poor complain of evictions as country prepares to host World Cup”, The Washington Post. Smith, D. (2010), “Life in ‘Tin Can Town’ for the South Africans evicted ahead of World Cup”, The Guardian. Steinbrink, M., Haferburg, C., and Ley, A. (2011), “Festivalisation and urban renewal in the Global South: socio-spatial consequences of the 2010 FIFA World Cup”, South African Geographical Journal, Vol. 93 (1), p. 15-28. Werth, C. (2010), “Kicked Out for the Cup?”, Newsweek Magazine. The South African Constitution states that: (1) Everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing. (2) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisa- tion of this right. (3) No one may be evicted from their home, or have their home demolished, without an order of court made after considering all the relevant circumstances. No legislation may permit arbitrary evictions. evictions. (COHRE, 2008) IDS Lecture Series (2011) - Zachary Coeman, Nike Festen, Mieke Bartholomeus World Cup Slum Evictions Positive contributions Social injustice Beautification & forced evictions In preparation for the World Cup, South Africa invested over $4 billion in infrastructure, such as stadiums and transportation. As part of this beautification process, thousands of poor South Africans were displaced from informal settlements to ‘temporary relocation areas’ (TRAs) in the nine host cities’ outskirts. Slum clearance mostly affected settlements most visible to media and international visitors (near airports, stadiums or major roads). Shack dwellers were forced to move to TRAs against their will and without consultation. People in TRAs live in highly inadequate conditions, far away from their livelihoods and social networks, and will not be moving soon. (COHRE, 2009; Newton, 2009; Steinbrink et al., 2011; Werth, 2010) Blikkiesdorp Blikkiesdorp or ‘Tin Can Town’ is a TRA in Delft, Cape Town. Described by many as “a dumping place for people”, its residents live in the following circumstances: - Families of 5-7 people live in one-room shacks (3x6m), constructed with thin tin and zinc sheets, providing no protection against extreme weather conditions. - Four shacks share one toilet and a water tap. - Created to house 650 people, now accommodating 15,000. - Located 16km out of town, far away from health care, school and job opportunities. Transportation is expensive. - Crime is high: many incidences of drugs, theft, and rape. - Police is accused of brutality against residents. - Starvation, tuberculosis and HIV are rife. (COHRE, 2009; Raghavan, 2010; Smith, 2010) “I lost my home because of the World Cup” – eviction fighter FIFA World Cup in South Africa In 2004, South Africa was awarded the bid to host the Federations Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup. Thereby, South Africa was the first African nation to host the World Cup in 2010. Celebrations followed both in South Africa and the entire African continent. These were not only for the love of the game, but also because the World Cup is part of Africa’s journey into a century of growth and development. Sports mega events Sports mega events increas- ingly take place in the metropolises of emerging countries, and can be seen as a catalyst for urban develop- ment, image building, economic growth, and broader development. They are used as a marketing tool to boost tourism, improve infra-structure, and make a state more visible within the international competition for foreign and domestic investments. (Steinbrink, Haferburg and Ley, 2011) Contributions To ensure that the World Cup contributes to growth and development goals, the government certifies that the hosting of the tournament brings opportunities that can be accessed by South Africans in a way that will empower those who were systemati- cally excluded from participation in the economy under the apartheid. The South African government invests in better sports facilities, a better public transport system, and better telecommunications infrastruc- ture. Moreover, the tournament promotes a healthy lifestyle through sports and fosters pride in the country and the continent. The FIFA World Cup also stimulates devel- opment in neighbouring countries. For example, Mozambique invested $51 million on the rehabilitation of their railway system and road network. (2010 FIFA World Cup™ Organising Committee South Africa) “We want to show that Africa’s time has come” – President Mbeki, 2003 South Africa is no exception Brazil, as host to both the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, faces similar challenges as South Africa had. In preparation for the World Cup, slums are being cleared out and destroyed to make way for new infrastructure projects. Moreover, many slums in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo are under the control of criminal organisations. In order to give an appearance of safety to the rest of the world, police have 'occupied' many slum areas and have often responded to situations brutally and with violence. (Grudgings, 2011; McAdams, 2010) Brazil, and other future mega-event hosts should strive for a balanced approach, one that still brings growth to the country, but does not further marginalise vulnerable groups.