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SPORTS AND DRUG USE. OVERVIEW HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS DRUG USE IN THE INDUSTRIAL ERA OLYMPIC GAMES TESTOSTERONE ERA, 1927-1957 ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA, 1958-1984.

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Presentation on theme: "SPORTS AND DRUG USE. OVERVIEW HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS DRUG USE IN THE INDUSTRIAL ERA OLYMPIC GAMES TESTOSTERONE ERA, 1927-1957 ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA, 1958-1984."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPORTS AND DRUG USE

2 OVERVIEW HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS DRUG USE IN THE INDUSTRIAL ERA OLYMPIC GAMES TESTOSTERONE ERA, ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA, GILBERT REPORT, SPORTS ILLUSTRATED 1969 HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE ARRIVAL, 1984 TECHNOLOGY, SPORTS AND DRUGS MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL STEROIDS ERA MITCHELL REPORT 2008

3 HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS GREEK ATHLETES, OLYMPIC GAMES “PROTEIN DIET” AND WRESTLERS ENDURANCE SEEDS/ RUNNERS HALLUCINOGENIC MUSHROOMS ANCIENT PERU, ANCIENT MEXICO COCA LEAVES, CAFFEINE, MUSHROOMS, SEEDS SPORT, RELIGIOUS EVENTS

4 DRUG USE IN THE SPORTS INDUSTRIAL ERA 1860s-1880s SWIMMING, BICYCLE RACING, “SPEED BALLS” (HEROINE- COCAINE) TO INCREASE ENDURANCE 1886 FIRST REPORTED DRUG RELATED DEATH IN SPORTS, A CYCLIST OLYMPIC GAMES, ST-LOUIS, THOMAS HICKS, MARATHON RUNNER, COLLAPSED, TEAM GAVE HIM REPEATED DOSES OF BRANDY AND STRYCHNINE, MEDAL AWARDED.

5 TESTOSTERONE ERA 1927 FRED KOCH AND CLYDE MCGEE, (UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO) ISOLATED AND EXTRACTED TESTOSTERONE FROM BULLS, TESTED ITS IMPAC ON ANIMALS. RESULTS: DRAMATIC INCREASE IN AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, PROCESS NOT VIABLE YUGOSLAVIA´S CHEMIST LEOPOLD RUZICKA, ALTERED THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF CHOLESTEROL TO PRODUCE SYNTHETIC TESTOSTERONE

6 TESTOSTERONE ERA TESTOSTERONE, 1930s AND 1940s “FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH” GAINS IN ENERGY, WEIGHT, STRENGTH. EXPERIMENTS IN GERMANY, TESTOSTERONE PROVIDED TO ELITE TROOPS 1945 GERMAN SCIENTIFIC&TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES, SEIZED BY SOVIET GOVERNMENT 1952 HELSINKI OLYMPIC GAMES, SOVIET WEIGHTLIFTING TEAM DOMINATES COMPET VIENNA WEIGHTLIFTING WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP, SOVIET TEAMS U.S. TEAM PHYSICIAN, J. ZIEGLER, TESTED TESTOSTERONE ON HIMSELF.

7 ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA “ANABOLIC” W/OUT “ANDROGENIC” EFFECTS, MUSCLE-BUILDING W/OUT AGGRESSION, INCREAS. LIBIDO PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY RELEASED DIANABOL, FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES. DR. ZIEGLER, U.S. TEAM PHYSICIAN PERSUADED LIFTWEIGHTERS TO USE DIANABOL

8 ZIEGLER TRAINING PROGRAM NEW EXERCISE ROUTINE ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION + PILLS IOMETRIC CONTRACTION PULL/PUSH AGAINST IMMOBILE RESISTANCE “STRENGTH AND HEALTH” MAGAZINE ARTICLE. STEROIDS USE SPREAD THROUGH GYMS, COLLEGE STUDENTS AND ATHLETES

9 STEROIDS & OLYMPIC GAMES 1964 TOKYO, 1968 MEXICO CITY COLD WAR OLYMPIC, NATIONAL PRIDE, CAPITALISM vs SOCIALISM ATHLETES CONFESSIONS, HAROLD CONNOLLY, TOM WADDELL, 30% U.S. TEAM ON STEROIDS 1971 PATERA CHALLENGE TO SOVIET ATHLETE: “LET’S SEE WHO’S STRONGER: HIS STEROIDS OR MINE” DEATHS FOR DRUG OVERDOSE

10 GILBERT REPORT 1969 SPORTS ILLUSTRATED, B. GILBERT 3-PART DRUGS IN OLYMPIC, COLLEGE AND PROFESSIONAL SPORTS USE OF A.STEROIDS IN PRO AND COLLEGE SPORTS PROFESSIONAL SPORTS ASSOCIATIONS LACKED REGULATORY POLICIES % U.S. OLYMPIC TRACK & FIELD TEAM HAD USED ANABOLIC STEROIDS 1976 MONTREAL GAMES TEST MANDATORY, PENALTIES UP TO DISQUALIFICATION.

11 PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS, 1970s 1976 CHANGED IN PATTERN, ATHLETES RETURNED TO TESTOSTERONE (MALE HORMONE) TO BEAT THE TEST, OR COMBINED DIANABOL W/ TESTOSTERONE TESTOSTERONE BECAME A BANNED SUBSTANCE 1983 PAN AMERICAN GAMES CARACAS, 15 ATHLETES TESTED POSITIVE THE FIRST DAT. 12 U.S. TRACK&FIELD ATHLETES ABANDONED THE GAMES BEFORE BEING TESTED.

12 H.G.H. ERA, 1984 to PRESENT HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE BODY BUILDERS, 1970s GH FROM MONKEYS H.G.H. EXPENSIVE, DIFFICULT, EXTRACTED FROM THE PITUITARIES OF CADAVERS ONLY 1990s SYNTHETIC VERSION OF H.G.H. KERR “THE PRACTICAL USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS WITH ATHLETES”

13 STEROIDS BOOM 1990s BODYBUILDING BOOM 1990s SELF-HELP LITERATURE: MANUALS, HANDBOOKS, CONVENTIONS, “PROPER USE” PHILOSOPHY BLACK MARKET OF STEROIDS, SMUGGLERS, GYM-DEALERS, COACH-PROVIDERSATHLETES-SMUGGLERS

14 STEROIDS AND PRO BASEBALL JOSE CANSECO, 1988 OAKLAND A´s AL MVP, ONLY MEMBER CLUB, “BASH BROTHERS” (MARK MCGWIRE). “WASHINGTON POST” THOMAS BOSWELL ARTICLE. KEN CAMINITI STORY, 1996 MVP, 2002 SPORTS ILLUSTRATED INTERVIEW ¨AT LEAST HALF OF THE GUYS ARE USING STEROIDS¨ 2004 CAMINITI DIED, HEART ATTACK COMPLAINTS BY SCHILLING, HANK ARON, REGGIE JACKSON, REGARDING INFLATED BATTING RECORDS DUE TO WIDESPREAD USE OF STEROIDS AND AMPHETAMINES “JUICED, WILD TIMES, RAMPANT ´ROIDS, HOW BASEBALL GOT BIG” 2005 BOOK BY JOSE CANSECO IS PUBLISHED MCGWIRE-SOSA “PERFECT SEASON” 1998 JOSE “MILKSHAKE” VOGUE. CANSECO BOOK PROVIDED A PLAYERS LIST.

15 BALCO SCANDAL 2003 BURLINGAME BAY AREA LABORATORY CO OPERATIVE BLOOD-URINE TESTING ANALYSIS FOR ATHLETES 1988 OLYMPIC GAMES SEOUL VICTOR CONTE, NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS PTICHMAN 1996 BILL ROMANOWSKI ELITE ATHLETES CLIENTELE MARION JONES, MIAMI DOLPHINS, BARRY BONDS, CONTE´S HGH: “UNDETECTABLE, BETTER VISION, MORE ENERGY, MORE MUSCLE MASS” ZIMA TRACK/FIELD CLUB BONDS 0CT TH HOMERUN 2003 ANONYMOUS TIPSTER SENT A SYRINGE WITH TGH TETRAHYDROGESTRINONE (ALTERED STEROIDS GESTRINONE AND TRENBOLONE TO AVOID DETECTION IN TESTS) U.S. FIELD/TRACK ATHLETES AND FOUR OAKLAND RAIDERS TESTED POSITIVE SEPTEMBER 2003 FDA AUTHORITIES RAIDED BALCO OFFICES “THE CLEAR AND THE CREAM” BONDS DECLARATION TO THE GRAND JURY. OVER FORTY SUPERSTAR ATHLETES TESTED POSITIVE AND/OR WERE SUMMONED IN THE INVESTIGATION U.S. TRACK/FIELD ESTABLISHES LIFE TIME BAN ON FIRST TIME OFFENDERS

16 BALCO SCANDAL 2005 U.S. CONGRESS HEARINGS CDC REPORT STEROIDS AND YOUTH CANSECO, MCGWIRE, PALMEIRO, SOSA, SCHILLING CALLED TO TESTIFY. CONTE’S CONVICTION, “ROMO’S BOOK TOUR” (BILL ROMANOWSKY) DRUG FREE SPORTS ACT BILL PROPOSAL (McCAIN, BONNING) MLB DRUG POLICY (OCT 2005) 50GAMES- 100GAMES SUSPENSION-AND LIFE BAN ON ANFETHAMINES AND ANABOLIC STEROIDS. STILL NO TEST FOR HGH

17 PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS DEBATE MLB JUST RECENTLY APPROVED MANDATORY STEROID TESTING IN ATHLETES. WHAT IN YOUR OPINION WILL BE THE IMPACT OF THIS POLICY. PRO-STEROID LITERATURE ARGUES THAT ANABOLICS USAGE SHOULD BE ACCEPTED AND REGULATED, SINCE ATHLETES USE/TAKE THEM ANYWAY. DO YOU AGREE/DISAGREE? WHY?


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