Presentation on theme: "Georgia and the American Experience"— Presentation transcript:
1Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 3:The Land And Its Early PeopleStudy Presentation
2Georgia and the American Experience Section 1: How Did We Learn About the Earliest Peoples?Section 2: Indian Nations in Georgia
3Section 1: How Did We Learn About the Earliest Peoples? Essential QuestionHow did Georgia’s prehistoric Indian tribes live?
4Section 1: What is Geography? What words do I need to know?archeologistanthropologistshaleartifactculturetribeantiquities
5Understanding Ancient Peoples Through Artifacts Oral Tradition: Elders repeated narratives of events often until the younger generations memorized themArcheologists dig into earth to find artifacts (items made by people) that tell us about early inhabitantsShale: Layered rock that can encase ancient animals or birds
6Understanding Ancient Peoples Through Culture Anthropologists use artifacts, cave drawings, well-traveled pathways, and oral history to study a group’s cultureCulture: shared beliefs, traditions, music, art, and social institutions of a group of people
8Cultural Periods in Georgia History: Paleo Paleo (from Greek, “Very Old”)Also called Old Stone AgeLasted about 10,000 yearsNomadic (roaming) huntersMost tools and spear points made of stoneUsed an “atlatl”: stone sling-like implement that threw darts from a longer distance
9The atlatl allowed Native Americans to hunt more efficiently.
10Notice how the arrow is bowed Notice how the arrow is bowed. As it straightened in flight it gained force, resulting in an increas in range and accuracy.
11While trying atlatls, bow and arrow, spears, etc While trying atlatls, bow and arrow, spears, etc. can be fun and educational, care must be taken at all times.An atlatl demonstration gone awry.
12Cultural Periods in Georgia History: Early Archaic Archaic (means “Old”)Three time spans: Early, Middle, LateEarly Archaic period: 8,000 B.C. to 5,000 B.C.Hunted large animals and small gameInvented tools from deer antlersMoved with each season to find best food resources
13Cultural Periods in Georgia History: Middle Archaic Began around 5,000 B.C.Water levels moved back along rivers and coastal areasPeople began making hooks from animal bonesShellfish was a more common foodFood was easier to find; people moved around less
14Cultural Periods in Georgia History: Late Archaic 4,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C.Created grooved axes to clear trees and bushesBegan saving and planting seeds for plants and seeds for growing seasons (horticulture)Made and used pottery for storing, cooking, and serving food
15Cultural Periods in Georgia History: Woodland 1,000 B.C. to 1,000 A.D.Tribe: group of people sharing common ancestry, name, and way of livingHundreds of families formed tribesBuilt domed-shaped huts with treesUsed bow and arrows to huntHeld religious ceremoniesImproved pottery-making techniques
16The bow and arrow was a great improvement over the atlatl.
17Cultural Periods in Georgia History: Mississippian Also called the Temple Mound periodFarmed with homemade tools and grew most of their foodThousands might live in a single settlement, protected by fences and moatsVery religious; used jewelry and body art
18The Black Drink Ceremony… …separated the men from the boys!!!Yaupon Holly
19Archeological FindsAncient middens (garbage piles) show what people ate, how they used fire, what they used for cookingOcmulgee National Monument near Macon reveals a large ceremonial area with benches and platformsThere are large temple mounds in Early, Bartow, and Bibb countiesStallings Island near Augusta is a large shell midden
21Section 2: Indian Nations in Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhich Indian nations lived in Georgia and how did they live?
22Section 2: Indian Nations in Georgia What peoples do I need to know?Creek (Muscogee)Cherokee
23The Creeks (Muscogee) Originally from American southwest Spoke MuskogeanDiscovered by early European explorers who called them CreeksLived along Ocheese Creek (today’s Ocmulgee River)Lived in italwa and talofa (large villages surrounded by smaller villages) similar to today’s large city and surrounding suburbs
24Creek (Muscogee) Lifestyle Village center featured a plaza and rotundaGames and ceremonies held in plazaRotunda was used for council meetingsWooden huts or log cabins with chimneys surrounded the plazaVillages, split from larger villages, helped form a confederacyRaised livestock and were successful farmers
26“Good Lord willing and the creek (Creek) don’t rise…” This old saying doesn’t mean rising water but the hope that the Creek Indians don’t attack.
27The Cherokee Lived in northwestern mountain region of the state Called themselves Awi-yum-wija, which meant “real people” or “principal people”Tribal Clans: groups of Cherokee who believed themselves related by bloodTwo tribal chiefs: one for making war and one for making peacetime decisionsClans governed on the local level
28The Cherokee FamilyFamily lines were traced through the mother, not the fatherThe mother’s brothers took responsibility for raising her childrenMothers handled most domesticchores; fathers often left home tohunt or trade
29Cherokee LifestyleBuilt homes on high banks or hills along rivers and streamsShelters were built from available materials, often plastered on the exterior to keep out rain and coldLog cabins built for winter livingFishing and raising crops including maize (corn)Barter: trading goods and services without use of money was an economic system
30The Cherokee built log cabins for winter living.
31Economics – the study of how we allocate limited resources to meet our unlimited wants.
32Cherokee Religious Beliefs Believed Earth was large island resting on water“This World”: tribe was at center of the earth“Upper World”: above This World; clean and pure world; Sun and Moon chief gods“Under World”: in waters below This World; disorder and changeDeer and birds were honored; bears were not
33Other Cherokee Lifestyle Practices Drank ginseng potion to stop bleeding or shortness of breathSmoked tobacco on ceremonial occasions when seeking the gods’ blessingsGreen Corn Ceremony held to give thanks for corn, the most important food sourceFollowed “Law of Retaliation,” avenging a wrong by getting even; this law helped prevent feuds within a tribe
34Smoking tobacco was an important part of many ceremonies.
35Native American families banded together to form clans Native American families banded together to form clans. Tribes were groups of clans. There were 7 major clans; all Cherokee belonged to one of these clans.