Deography Statistical analysis of human population – Spatial Density – Humans are quite unevenly distributed over the Earth’s surface – Population densities range from zero to over 2,000 people per square mile
Demography Fertility Gender Health Age Nutrition Mortality Migration
Population Geographers Study spatial and ecological aspects of demography, but are also interested in spatial variation of other demographic qualities. – Birthrate differences – Death rates – Overpopulation – Sex ratios – Age groups – Crime – Quality of life – Human mobility
Demographic regions Formal regions devised by population geographers Distribution of people by continents – Eurasia 73.3 percent – North America 7.3 percent – Africa 12.7 percent – South America 5.5 percent – Australia and Pacific Islands < 0.5 percent
Demographic regions Population density categories for demographic regions – Thickly settled areas – 250 or more per sq mi – Moderately settled areas – 60 to 250 per sq mi – Thinly settled areas – 2 to 60 per sq mi – Categories based on single trait of population density.
Shanghai Municipality with close to 13 million people is one of the largest cities in the world The central city exceeds 7 million Nanjing Lu, one of it’s major thoroughfares, illustrates the country’s highest population density averaging 9,650 per square mile and rising as high as 88,789 per square mile.
Shanghai, China With the recent relaxation controls on population movement in China, rural-urban migration and natural increas are expected to expand Shanghai’s population to 15 million by the turn of the century. The problems of providing adequate housing and services are formidable indeed.
Population density What population densities do not tell us – Standard of living – Over or under population – As a statistic concept it conceals changes that constantly occur
Patterns of natality Birthrates – measured as the number of births in a year per thousand people.
Patterns of natality Does not generally correspond to population density Inverse situation in China/Europe and interior of Africa High birthrates concentrated in a belt through the lower latitudes Mid-latitudes and high-latitude countries have low birthrates Birthrates now declining in most all countries
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Measured as the average number of children born to each woman during her reproductive years – Focuses on female segment of population and reveals family size – In Europe TFR now stands at 1.4 – Sub-Saharan Africa’s overall rate is 60, Niger is highest with 7.4
Geography of mortality Number of deaths per 1000 people Similar yet different from birthrates – Concentration of high figures in Sub-Saharan Africa, worst area of the world for life-threatening diseases – American tropics generally have rather low death rates – Desert belt across North Africa, the Middle East, ad Central Asia have rather low death rates.
Geography of mortality Reasons for differences in death rates when compared with birth rates – Countries with high birth rates tend to have younger population – More developed regions, such as Europe, including Russia, have low birth rates and an aging population that is reflected in higher death rates. – Australia, Canada, and the United States attract more young immigrants
Geography of mortality Nature seeking to find a balance may have developed effective diseases to control dss population in Africa where our species originated. – Changing climatic patterns imposed a great desert belt across Africa blocking the spread of diseases from its humid tropic region – AIDS apparently started in Tropical Africa but has diffused to more temperate climates
Geography of mortality Fatal or potentially fatal diseases can occur in all parts of the world – Many are increasingly resistant to medicines – Monitored by World Health Organization and US Center for Disease Control – Next slide shows that few areas of the world have been spared. – Medical Geography – name given to spatial study of human health
Geography of mortality Death comes in different forms geographically – In developed world – age-induced degenerative conditions – In developing nations contagious diseases are leading cause of death
The population explosion Triggered by the dramatic decrease in the death rate especially in infants and children Not accompanied by decline in birth rates Improved health conditions allowed more children to survive to adulthood Globally, population has increased geometrically
The population explosion Rapid growth began about 1700 – Presently some 100 million more people are born each year than die – One hundred and seventy persons are added to the world population each minute – World population will double in 43 years at present growth rates – Some population scholars expect the world population to level out, perhaps early in the 21 st century, at about 10 to 15 billion people
The population explosion Others predict a sharp population decline in near future Population decline may already be under way in parts of eastern Europe Some feel stabilization will occur before any catastrophic depletion of resources Others believe Earth cannot support many more people without ecological disaster
Demographic transformation World population explosion is not a worldwide phenomena – Confined to underdeveloped and developed countries with high TFR – All industrialized, technologically advanced countries have achieved low fertility rates – Stabilized or declining populations – Passed through the demographic transformation
In pre-industrial societies, birth and death rates are normally high Coming of industrial era – Medical advances and diet improvements – Sets state for drop in death rates – Life expectancy soared from average of 35 years to 75 years or more at present – Results in population explosion – Eventually leads to decline in birth rate following decline in death rate
Demographic transformation In post-industrial period, demographic transformation produces actual zero population growth or decline Stages 3 and 4 of demographic transformation – Require effective methods of birth control – Traditionally, infanticide – the killing of the newborn – served as principal method in some cultures – Abortion remains common in some parts of the world – More common are various contraceptive devices
Rural Pakistan These girls are visiting their brothers at a boy’s school in a village north of Peshawar. In rural settings where a child becomes an economic asst by the age of six, girls train for early marriage and motherhood by looking after their younger siblings. While studies show that more educated women bear fewer children, only one in four women is literate.
Rural Pakistan The average Pakistani woman has more than six children. Since daughters will marry out of their birth households, spending money on their education is seen as wasteful. Parents prefer sons for their labor, old-age assistance, and pride of accomplishement. With a natural increase rate of close to 3%, Pakistan is still in state 2 of the demographic transformation.
Age distributions How countries differ – Countries with almost half their population under 15 years of age – Kenya, Africa has the highest number – Many other nations in Latin America, Africa, and tropical Asia – Early industrialized countries have greatest preponderance of people in the over-20/under-60 category age bracket
Age distributions Growing number of affluent countries have remarkably aged population Sweden has 18 percent over the age of 65 Other European countries not far behind In Africa, Latin America, or other parts of Asia, the average person never lives to age 65 In Sudan, Gambia, Saudi Arabia, Guatemala, and other countries only 2 or 3 percent reach age 65.
Age distribution Different cultures result in populations that have large numbers of young or aged people Age structure differs spatially within individual countries Rural populations – In US and many other countries are usually older than the urban areas – In the United States, the flight of young people has resulted in rural people having a median age of 45 years or older
Age distribution Retirement havens for the elderly – Arizona and Florida have populations far above normal average age – Sun City, Arizona legally restricts residence to elderly – In Great Britain, coastal districts have a higher proportion of elderly
Useful graphic device for comparing national age characteristics Reveals past progress of birth control Allows geographers to predict future population trends Broad based pyramids suggest the rapid growth of population explosion Excessively narrow based pyramids represent countries approaching population stability
Geography of gender The human race is divided almost evenly between females and males, but geographical differences in the sex ratio occur Recently settled areas tend to have more males than females Look at the next slides parts of Alaska, tropical Australia Alaska 53% male Mississippi 52% female reflecting the emigration of young males seeking better jobs Africa – 59% females in some poverty-stricken areas
Gender Gendered spaces: Daphne Spain – Finds them in homes, schools, at work, and sometimes regionally – Males and females often spatially segregated – Inequality of status, access to knowledge, and well-being Some cultures impose gender-specific place taboos – Muslim countries – Mount Athos peninsula in Greece Influence of WWII on Germany where lower number of males, even 50 years later
Gender Female-specific infanticide or abortion – Most notorious in China and India – Results from culturally-based preference for male offspring – About 100,000 ultrasound devices available, even to rural Chinese peasants, allowing sexual identification of fetuses – By 2020 China will have 110 marriageable aged males for every 100 females – India today, has only 930 females for each 1000 males creating a profound gender imbalance
Standard of living One simple measure to map living standards is using infant mortality rate Tells how many children die (per 1000 live births) before reaching one year of age Reveals many different things – Health and nutrition – Sanitation – Access to doctors, clinics, and ability to obtain medicines – Education – Adequacy of housing
Standard of living East vs west component, brought on by collapse of the Soviet empire Standard of living could be the basis of future mass migrations or conflicts, especially where rich border poor
Brazil This boy lives in a village in the Amazon basin accessible only by river. While the village has electricity, there is no plumbing and raw sewage puddles in the dirt road. There is a clinic but no resident doctor, a two-room school but few supplies Television is received via satellite.
Brazil Chances for employment in the village are negligible. Most young people seek economic opportunity in mines and logging camps or in larger settlements such as Manaus. Will this boy join the ranks of the rural-urban migrants?
Diffusion in population geography Migration – Constitutes cultural diffusion – Represents the most basic aspect of relocation – Humankind has proved remarkably adaptable to new and different physical environments Except such places as ice-sheathed Antarctica and Arabia’s “Empty Quarter” Permanent habitat extends from ice sheet edges to seashores and desert valleys
Migration The far-flung distribution of humankind is product of migration Migrating humans generally remember the event for the rest of their lives Prehistoric migrations often remain embedded in folklore for centuries or millennia
Voluntary migration Takes place when the difficulties of moving seem more than offset by the expected rewards Considered to be relocation diffusion Decision to migrate can also spread by expansion diffusion Push-and-pull factors – Act to make old home unattractive and new land attractive – Generally push factors are the key ones
Voluntary migration Perhaps the most important factor prompting humans to migrate is economic Since humans began migrating they have sought greater prosperity through better access to resources, especially land. Some cultural ecologists see humans as seeking to fill every possible environmental niche
Voluntary migration Ecologically, migration is a trial-and-error process – More often than not, leads to grief rather than success – Some peole may be preconditioned genetically to strike out into new lands – Some people have a compulsion that is not grounded in push-and-pull factors
Voluntary migration Migration in the nineteenth century – More than 50 million emigrants sought better lives outside their native lands – Changed the racial and ethnic character of much of the Earth By 1970, about one-half of all Caucasians did not live in their ancestral European homelands
Voluntary migration Foreign lands seem more attractive – Home country has a negative image in some people’s minds – Great Britain loses almost a quarter of a million of its own people each year Governments often encourage migration – Want to redistribute population within countries
Israel These Russian Jews are bargaining for fabric with a Bedouin at the Thursday market in Beersheba, an ancient city at the edge of the Negev Desert. Voluntary migrants, they were only recently permitted to leave the former Soviet Union.
Israel Push-and-pull factors were Russian discriminatory practices, and Jewish perceptions of Israel as “The Promised Land” and place of refuge. In 1950, Israel passed the “Law of Return” which gave every Jew the right to settle in Israel. Such immigrants are known as “olim”
Forced migration Westward displacement of Native Americans in the United States Dispersal of Jews from Israel in Roman times Terrible export of African slaves to the Americas Brutal “clearings” of Scottish farmers by landlords to make way for large-scale sheep raising
Forced migration Today refugee movements are common Prompted by: – Despotism – War – Ethnic hatreds – Famine
Forced migration Recent decades have witnessed a flood of refugees – Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia in Africa – Haiti in the Caribbean – Iraqi Kurdistan and Israel in the Middle East – Balkans in Europe – Cambidia in Southeast Asia
Forced migration By mid-1900s, 18 million people lived outside their homelands as refugees Great dislocations are occurring in southern Asia and Africa An additional 21 million displaced persons resided in their own countries
Diffusion of fertility control Needed for the final two stages of the demographic transformation – Successful cultural diffusion of effective methods of birth control – Acceptance that small families are preferable to large ones Sustained fertility decline arose in Europe in the first half of the 1800s
Diffusion of fertility control France was the country of origin Spread slowly at first, eventually diffused through most of Europe Fertility decline became accepted as countries industrialized and became prosperous Root of population explosion caused by failure of European idea of fertility control to spread to less- developed countries Why?
Diffusion of fertility control Reasons for birth control in an urban society: – Investment of large sums of money into the formal education of its children – The forbidding of child labor makes children a financial burden
Enforced fertility control China: “one couple, one child” Authorities sought to halt population growth and decrease the number of people Penalties for violations of the policy – Huge monetary fines – Cannot request new housing – Lose rather generous old-age benefits provided by the government – Forfeit their children’s access to higher education – Maybe even lose their jobs
Enforced fertility control Late marriages encouraged China’s falling fertility rate – Plummeted from 5.9 births per woman to 2.7 between 1970 and 1980. – Was 2.2 by 1990 – Latest statistics 1.8 China achieved one of the greatest short- term reduction of birthrates ever recorded Cultural diffusion can be coerced
Enforced fertility control China has less rigidly enforced its population control program in recent years – Economic growth eroded government’s control over the people – Allowed more couples to have two children instead of one – Rise of economic opportunity and migration to cities led others to have smaller families
Diffusion of fertility control Barriers to diffusion of fertility control Example of India’s rural society – Children may offer the only way out of a life of poverty and an old age of solitary begging – Costs of raising and educating a child are minimal and grow smaller with every child added to the family – Children start working at an early age, replacing expensive hired labor – Without offering a method of attaching the root problem, the struture of peasant poverty, tenancy, and insecurity is to offer nothing
Disease diffusion AIDS Most widely accepted theory on where AIDS began – HIV-1 – in east-central Africa – HIV-2 – in the upper Niger River country in the Guinea highlands of West Africa Apparently originated in the local monkey population Passed on to humans through the local cultural practice of injecting monkey blood as an aphrodisiac
Disease diffusion HIV-2 – Most similar to the simian type – Has had less impact on humans in its source region – Has not spread as widely beyond Africa as HIV-1
Disease diffusion Diffusion after humans became infected – Apparently moved throughout central and western Africa – Followed transport routes and spread through growing urban areas – Haitians working at civil service posts in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) carried disease back to the Caribbean in the early 1960s – Europeans visiting central Africa diffused AIDS back to Europe
Disease diffusion American male homosexuals vacationing in Haiti likely contracted the virus and spread it throughout the gay communities in the United States Americans falsely believed the virus was exclusively linked to homosexual behavior Western Europe became a secondary diffusion area
Disease diffusion Not all diseases spread by contagious diffusion Relocation diffusion – tourism, temporary migration Hierarchical diffusion – disease spread by persons affluent enough to participate in international tourism