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Energy and Human Labor. References  Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1990) Assessment of the energetics of human labor. Agriculture, Ecosystems and.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy and Human Labor. References  Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1990) Assessment of the energetics of human labor. Agriculture, Ecosystems and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy and Human Labor

2 References  Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1990) Assessment of the energetics of human labor. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 32  Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1992) Energy Efficiency and Nutrition in Societies based on human labor. Energy of Food and Nutrition. 28 pp  Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1991) Energy Efficiency: assessing the interaction between humans and their environment. Ecological Economics 4, pp  Ramos-Martin, Jesus; et al.() Why Catalonia will see its energy metabolism increas in the near future: An application of MuSIASEM  Giampietro, Mario; Mayumi, Kozo (2000) Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism: Introducing the Approach. Population and Environment 22(2), pp

3 Approach How to assess energetics of human labor?  concept energy efficiency in the assess. of human labor Different Hierarchical levels  Individual levels (energy requirments)  Societal level  Ecological level Different measurements  Monetary  Energetic

4 Approach  Societal energy budget Characteristics of different societies Assessing technological change and „measuring improvement“  Optimizing Energy Efficiency (trade-offs, interdependences) Linking demographic, nutritional factors, etc. integerate questions on ecological and individual level

5 Systems Energy Analysis Self-organizing systems able to maintain a certain level of complexity by continuous dissipation of energy „Dissipative structure theory“ (Prigogine) Humans invest applied power to alter ecosystems  direct: energy to generate applied power  Maintenance of the structures needed to produce Flow of energy harvested (Energy input) is the return on human investment

6 Definitions  Human Labor provides Flow of applied power Flow of Information  Direct applied power [N]  Conversion losses [η]  Conversion of AP to Work Done  Energy for Maintenance [M]  Cost for Maintenance Ratio: N/M [σ]

7 Basic Model Generation of power applied outside Energy spent in Self-Organization NM Applied PowerEnergy Input System: Society Environment: Ecosystem N…Direct Input M…Maintenance

8 Societies based on Human Labor  Agricultural, rural societies  Embodied Energy in human labor  Energy Costs allocated to human labor EI = Joules consumed by the society in order to have human laborers AP = joules of muscular power delivered by human society EI / AP... „Measure of Efficiency“  Power generation cost

9 Applied Power  Power Labor charge; hours worked per year Labor productivity (technological change) Total Population  Sex ratio Different power per unit time Different metabolic rates  Non-working population Reduces Applied Power Age Structure

10 Energy Input  Rural society based on manpower Body size Quality of diet Exosomatic energy flows  Societies based on tech. Power Consumption of exosomatic energy (fossil, nuc.)  Level of expenditure per capita Standard of living

11 Basic Model Generation of power applied outside Energy spent in Self-Organization NM Applied PowerEnergy Input System: Society Environment: Ecosystem N…Direct Input M…Maintenance

12 Differences between societies  rural societies EI/AP = level of expenditure per capita / level of labor charge x K (for a given population)  Reduce consumption levels  Increase Labor Charge  Work more hours Power treshold Importance of flow of applied power provided by human labor  Higher value of human labor but cheaper labor (standard of living)  More children,etc. Most Human labor invested in agriculture  In High-Societies Human labor provides flow of information

13 Differences between societies  In industrial societies Human labor provides flow of information Technological improvements Human labor is more expansive  More energy is needed for providing human laborers  More capitalization High Applied Power and high complexity can only be sustained by high capitalization  E.g. Food Production

14 Differences between societies  Depend on societal and technological level  Question of Scale and Time Higher AP through technology or more human labor (time) – Power tresholds „Economy of Scale“  E.g. Storage  Cost of maintenance  Different Sectors? Allocation of laborers‘ time?

15 MuSIASEM  Mulit-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism Dynamic energy budget Labor defined as „Human activity“ „Useful Energy“

16 Human Activity  Allocation of „Human activity“ (Time) Maintenance, Reproduction, Non-Working Population, Governance Total av. Time of Hum act  Leisure and social Household  Paid Work Agricultural, Service, Productive Sectors

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18 Questions  Labor Productivity and Time Allocation gains invested in higher Energy flows  Rebound Effect More leisure – Less Work in Productive Sector?  Increased Household Consumption Shift to more manual work  Repair, maintenance


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