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No. 1 Quality and product safety in Sub Saharan Africa – challenges and opportunities By Ivar Foss, Ivar Foss Quality Management, Norway

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Presentation on theme: "No. 1 Quality and product safety in Sub Saharan Africa – challenges and opportunities By Ivar Foss, Ivar Foss Quality Management, Norway"— Presentation transcript:

1 No. 1 Quality and product safety in Sub Saharan Africa – challenges and opportunities By Ivar Foss, Ivar Foss Quality Management, Norway E-mail: ivar.foss@fossquality.no

2 No. 2 My background 13 years in Det norske Veritas, 5 years as Executive Vice President Ivar Foss Quality Management established in 1987 11 years of consulting in CEEC Last 3 years: Consulting on trade development in Africa. Clients: Sida, Norad, UNIDO, ISO etc. Lived in Kenya for two years

3 No. 3 The Sida/Norad strategy project The main report is available from Sida, see www.sida.se

4 No. 4 African trade initiatives African Union: The African Common Market NEPAD Market Access Initiative (2001): Points out the need to increase value added in agro-processing and mineral beneficiation Promotes development of the private sector Give specific recommendations for removal of Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Sets objectives for agriculture, including food security, but is not specific with regard to Sanitary and phytosanitary Measures (SPS)

5 No. 5 Cape Verde Como- ros Mauri- tius Sey- chelles Barcelona ECOWAS ECOWAS and UEMOA SADC COMESA Barcelona and COMESA SADC and COMESA Trade areas

6 No. 6 Vegetable export from Kenya HCDA packing and storage facility at Nairobi Airport

7 No. 7 Testing laboratories Kenya Bureau of Standards, Nairobi

8 No. 8 New solutions in metrology Mobile calibration laboratory for Mozambique

9 No. 9 Objectives in three dimensions Each country has to protect its own society against hazardous and sub-standard products, imported as well as domestically produced Exporters have to comply with the increas- ingly demanding requirements in target markets Complying to requirements is not enough – the products must also be attractive in the target markets. Supply side development is required

10 No. 10 General and Targeted Strategies Awareness building Engagement and basic training Export- focussed tailor made qualtiy infrastructure Domestic focussed general TBT/SPS structure

11 No. 11 Creating awareness - why is it so important? No change will take place until influential stakeholders are convinced of the need for change!

12 No. 12 Two sets of strategies Defensive strategies Regulate only when risks are significant Limit national legisla- tion; make use of international standards Simplify conformity assessment procedures Develop the quality infrastructure Improve transparency Offensive strategies Collect info. on Technical Regulations, standards and conformtiy assessment in target markets Map market requirements Develop a tailormade conformity assessment infrastructure Develop quality as a competitive strategy

13 No. 13 Ensure safe products on domestic markets Domestic suppliers Tariffs and quotas - Laws and regulations - Standards - Market surveillance Border control Trade and industry policy Imports

14 No. 14 The food chain approach for the SPS area Plant health Animal health Food safety Multidisciplinary approach Scientific risk assessment HACCP IPPC Codex OIE

15 No. 15 The SPS infrastructure Most African countries have not adopted the food chain approach. Present legislation is outdated National SPS policies are absent Responsibilities and resouces are scatted on many ministries (up to 6) The infrastructure for testing and enforcement is weak The risk analysis process is introduced only in special cases, typically for export Most countries are members of Codex, OIE and IPPC

16 No. 16 Standardisation in Africa 14 full members and 16 associates or corre- sponding members of ISO ~ 50 countries are members of Codex and OIE 66 % of NSBs are autonomous government bodies The NSBs have published few standards (< 150) The distinction between standards and regulations is blurred Participation in international standards development is low

17 No. 17 The leapfrog strategy Consistent Effective International Simple New solutions Old problems and solutions

18 No. 18 Traditional and new approach to standards The Reference to Standards Principle: Products complying with the referenced standards are pre- sumed to comply with legal require- ments Technical regulations Legal act Voluntary standards Reference to standards Government NSB Legal act Regulations Mandatory standards Traditional approach Government

19 No. 19 Common regulatory objectives International (or other agreed) standards Country A National legislation Country BCountry CCountry D The international model for regulatory harmonisation Evidence of conformity Regional and sectoral structure

20 No. 20 Harmonisation of standards ISO etc. NSB ARSO (African Regional Organisation for Standardisation Regional organisation

21 No. 21 Recommended strategy for African standardisation Introduce the Reference to Standards Principle and The International Model in legislation in order to promote regional harmonisation Accept international standards for industrial products Influence Codex, OIE and IPPC to take African concerns into accounts Establish regional African scientific committees to support participation in international standardisation Develop African regional standards for products and conditions that are specific to Africa

22 No. 22 Regional development of con- formity assessment services Calibration services (industrial and legal metrology, proficiency testing) Reference laboratories (chemistry and microbiology for food safety, animal and plant health) Management system certification: Quality, environment, HACCP Accreditation Scientifically based risk assessment

23 No. 23 Present products and markets Traditional Local, Domestic Regional Africa Emerging Middle East India, etc. Demanding Europe, USA, Japan Commodities Agricultutal products Value-added prod. Processed agricult. prod. Textiles, leather, etc. A few success stories based on Just-in- time strategies Minerals Metals, gems, oil/gas Markets Products

24 No. 24 Targeted Export Strategies Traditional Local, Domestic Regional Africa Emerging Middle East India, etc. Demanding Europe, USA, Japan Commodities Agricultural products Value-added prod. Processed agricult. prod. Textiles, leather, etc. Minerals Metals, gems, oil/gas, etc. Markets Products

25 No. 25 The Just-in-Time Export Strategy Technical Regulations Standards Competitive products Recognised documentation of compliance Supplier. Produce and sell The target market TBT 1) TBT SPS SPS 1) Tariffs and quota 1) and other non-tariff barrier Quality Price Availability Market requirements Conformity assessment MRAs

26 No. 26 Inspection Excellence Statistical quality control Quality assurance/management Total quality management 192019602000 Development stage Quality as a competitive strategy

27 No. 27 The important role of the NSB Standardisation : –Industrial as well as food safety, animal and plant health –Arm length distance, independence from government –Establish a good committee structure Other services: –Information centre, incl. WTO enquiry point –Laboratory testing –Certification services –Calibration services, possibly metrology institute –Training A national focal point for quality and product safety

28 No. 28 Conclusions Africa faces very large and multi-facetted challenges in the areas of quality and product safety National policies should guide development priorities Targeted and specific strategies are required in order to succeed Regional cooperation is important for rapid development Export development must be accompanied by the relevant conformity assessment structure Both national and regional developments require technical assistence

29 No. 29 How do you eat an elephant?


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