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Chapter 30: Populations and Communities Name: ____________________ Period: _________.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 30: Populations and Communities Name: ____________________ Period: _________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 30: Populations and Communities Name: ____________________ Period: _________

2 What is a population? Definition: _____________________ ______________________________. ____________________ A group of similar organisms living in a given area Wildebeest in the Serengeti Whales in the ocean Bees in a nest Flowers in a field People in a city

3 Population of people in the USA. 1960= 1970= 1980= 1990= 2000= What is causing this drastic change? 180 million 205 million 227 million 249 million 270 million

4 What causes population change? Immigration = people __________ a population…SIZE __________ Emigration = people _________ a population…SIZE _________ Death-rate… ____________ population Birth-rate… _____________ population What are the multiple reasons for the change in population size in the USA? 1. _____________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ 3. _____________________________________ 4. _____________________________________ come into increases Exit (leave)decreases increases Increase in immigration Decrease in emigration Medical technology is better No significant war or disease

5 “Clumped” populations Human population in the USA 1.What causes this “clumping”? ______________________________________________ Resources are abundant

6 Examples of limiting factors _____________________ How do these factors effect the growth of a population? _______________________________________________________________________ Examples: Lion and hyena compete for _____________________ Plants compete for ______________, ________________, and __________________ Birds compete for _____________________ Squirrels and birds compete for _____________________ rabbits and groundhogs compete for _____________________ Limiting factors …help keep population from growing food water shelter space sunlight nutrients food spacesunlightnutrients territory Food and shelter space

7 Communities ______________________________ _______________________________ Animals of the Serengeti Fish and plants in an aquarium Plants and animals in a forest *All animals have a ______________(place they “live”)…ex: field, lake, forest. *They also have a _______________(“job” or “role” within their habitat) All living things that share a particular area habitat niche

8 _____________________ (“autotrophic”) –Produces its own food –Plants, algae, and some bacteria –Chlorophyll is the food-making chemical Produce food and oxygen during photosynthesis!! _____________________ (“heterotrophic”) –All animals are consumers –Types of consumers _______________…eats a producer = “herbivore” Ex: Grasshopper eats grass _______________…eats the primary consumer = “carnivore” Ex. Frog eats grasshopper _______________…eats the second consumer Ex. Snake eats frog _______________…eats the third consumer Ex. Bird eats snake _____________________ …recycle nutrients back into the community –_____________________ 3 Types of Niches Producer Consumer Primary Consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary consumer Fourth consumer Decomposer bacteria fungus

9 ___________ __________ Producers Consumers Decomposers

10 Food Chain Producer? _______________________ Primary Consumer? ________________________ Secondary consumer? ______________________ Decomposer? _________________________ Grass Mouse Cat Fungus Shows pathway of energy through a community

11 Food Web. 1. How many food chains are in this particular food web? ___________________ 2. Can you identify a producer and a primary, secondary, third, fourth, and fifth consumer? ______________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ______________ _________________ rabbitFox (2)Snake (4)Owl (5)grass 17 Spider (3) Food chains connected in a community

12 Energy flow The primary source of energy for a community is the ________________ Which group directly uses the sun’s energy? ______________ by the process of photosynthesis –Primary consumer gets energy by eating the ____________________ –Secondary consumer gets energy by eating the ____________________ (and so on) –ENERGY IS LOST THROUGH EACH STEP OF A FOOD CHAIN!!! (released as _______ by the organism) Why do you usually NOT see a sixth or seventh consumer? _____________________________________________________ Energy pyramid ENERGY Sun Producers producer Primary consumer heat Not enough energy available

13 Three types of Relationships 1. Mutualism –_________________________ Moray eel and cleaner fish Sea anemone and clown fish Bees and flowers Rhino and birds Both organisms benefit

14 2. Commensalism One organism ________ and the other _____________________ A remora fish uses a shark for _______ and to ____________ A frog uses vegetation as __________ benefits Unharmed and NO benefit transport Food scraps camouflage

15 3.Parasitism One organism benefits, while the other is _____________________ tick fleas mosquito harmed

16 Predation –Predator and prey –________ is killed and eaten by the _____________ Prey Predator Are all secondary consumers

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