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Populations and Communities

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Presentation on theme: "Populations and Communities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Populations and Communities
Chapter 30: Populations and Communities Name: ____________________ Period: _________

2 What is a population? Definition: _____________________
______________________________. A group of similar organisms living in a given area Wildebeest in the Serengeti ____________________ ____________________ Whales in the ocean People in a city Flowers in a field Bees in a nest

3 Population of people in the USA.
1960 = 1970 = 1980 = 1990 = 2000 = 180 million 205 million 227 million 249 million 270 million What is causing this drastic change?

4 What causes population change?
increases Immigration = people __________ a population…SIZE __________ Emigration = people _________ a population…SIZE _________ Death-rate… ____________ population Birth-rate… _____________ population What are the multiple reasons for the change in population size in the USA? 1. _____________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ 3. _____________________________________ 4. _____________________________________ come into Exit (leave) decreases decreases increases Increase in immigration Decrease in emigration Medical technology is better No significant war or disease

5 “Clumped” populations
Human population in the USA What causes this “clumping”? ______________________________________________ Resources are abundant

6 Limiting factors …help keep population from growing
Examples of limiting factors _____________________ How do these factors effect the growth of a population? _______________________________________________________________________ Examples: Lion and hyena compete for _____________________ Plants compete for ______________, ________________, and __________________ Birds compete for _____________________ Squirrels and birds compete for _____________________ rabbits and groundhogs compete for _____________________ food water shelter space sunlight nutrients food space sunlight nutrients territory Food and shelter space

7 Communities ______________________________
_______________________________ All living things that share a particular area Fish and plants in an aquarium Animals of the Serengeti Plants and animals in a forest habitat *All animals have a ______________(place they “live”)…ex: field, lake, forest. *They also have a _______________(“job” or “role” within their habitat) niche

8 3 Types of Niches Producer Consumer Decomposer bacteria fungus
_____________________(“autotrophic”) Produces its own food Plants, algae, and some bacteria Chlorophyll is the food-making chemical Produce food and oxygen during photosynthesis!! _____________________(“heterotrophic”) All animals are consumers Types of consumers _______________…eats a producer = “herbivore” Ex: Grasshopper eats grass _______________…eats the primary consumer = “carnivore” Ex. Frog eats grasshopper _______________…eats the second consumer Ex. Snake eats frog _______________…eats the third consumer Ex. Bird eats snake _____________________ …recycle nutrients back into the community _____________________ Consumer Primary Consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary consumer Fourth consumer Decomposer bacteria fungus

9 ___________ Producers __________ Consumers __________ Decomposers

10 Shows pathway of energy through a community
Food Chain Shows pathway of energy through a community Grass Producer? _______________________ Primary Consumer? ________________________ Secondary consumer? ______________________ Decomposer? _________________________ Mouse Cat Fungus

11 Food chains connected in a community
Food Web. Food chains connected in a community 1. How many food chains are in this particular food web? ___________________ 2. Can you identify a producer and a primary, secondary, third, fourth, and fifth consumer? ______________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ______________ _________________ 17 grass rabbit Fox (2) Spider (3) Snake (4) Owl (5)

12 Energy flow ENERGY ENERGY Sun heat
The primary source of energy for a community is the ________________ Which group directly uses the sun’s energy? ______________ by the process of photosynthesis Primary consumer gets energy by eating the ____________________ Secondary consumer gets energy by eating the ____________________ (and so on) ENERGY IS LOST THROUGH EACH STEP OF A FOOD CHAIN!!! (released as _______ by the organism) Producers producer Primary consumer heat ENERGY ENERGY Energy pyramid ENERGY ENERGY Why do you usually NOT see a sixth or seventh consumer? _____________________________________________________ Not enough energy available

13 Three types of Relationships
1. Mutualism _________________________ Both organisms benefit Bees and flowers Sea anemone and clown fish Moray eel and cleaner fish Rhino and birds

14 2. Commensalism. One organism ________ and the other
benefits Unharmed and NO benefit A frog uses vegetation as __________ camouflage A remora fish uses a shark for _______ and to ____________ Food scraps transport

15 Parasitism One organism benefits, while the other is _____________________ harmed mosquito fleas tick

16 Are all secondary consumers
Predation Predator and prey ________ is killed and eaten by the _____________ Predator Prey Are all secondary consumers

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