Presentation on theme: "Training Special Populations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Training Special Populations Exercise ScienceTrainingSpecial Populations
2 Training Special Populations Special Populations – individuals that have unique needs or concerns physically, due to disease, injury or lifestyle conditions.These individuals will NEED accommodations and/or adjustments made to the standard exercise guidelines and recommendations to challenge but not overwhelm.Key Words: Accommodate & Adjust
3 Training Special Populations Cardiovascular DisordersHyperlipidemiaHypertensionArteriosclerosisCoronary (Heart) DiseaseCerebral Vascular Accident (Stroke)Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)
4 Training Special Populations Hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol)Lipid is the scientific term for fats in the blood. At proper levels, lipidsperform important functions in your body,but can cause health problems if they arepresent in excess.The term hyperlipidemia means high lipid levels.Hyperlipidemia includes several conditions,but it usually means that you have highcholesterol and high triglyceride levels.High lipid levels can speed up a process calledatherosclerosis, and heart disease
5 Training Special Populations Hyperlipidemia Exercise GuidelinesEat a diet low in total fat, saturatedfat, and cholesterol.Increase consumption of high-fiberfoods such as fruits, vegetables,beans, and whole grains.If you are overweight, lose weight.Exercise regularly (cardiovascular training1st)Physician Release
6 Training Special Populations HypertensionSystolic 160mmHg or greater,Diastolic 90 mmHg or greaterOver 50 million people haveelevated blood pressureHypertensive individuals havea 3 to 4 times greater risk ofdeveloping heart disease and 7 timegreater risk of having a strokeTypically caused by narrowing of thearteries
7 Training Special Populations Hypertension Exercise GuidelinesObtain a Physician ReleaseNo Valsalva ManeuverAerobic Activities (1st)May need to use alternatemethods of assessing intensityMay appropriate of monitorand record BP during training
8 Training Special Populations Hypertension Exercise GuidelinesStop training immediately ifANY abnormal symptoms ariseMuscular training if used shouldbe muscular conditioningBe aware of orthostatic HypotensionNo Isometric ActivitiesFrequency 4+ sessions/weekDuration of 30 to 60minsIntensity – Low
9 Training Special Populations Cerebral Vascular Accident (stroke)
10 Training Special Populations Cerebral Vascular Accident (stroke)
11 Training Special Populations Cerebral Vascular Accident Exercise GuidelinesSame guidelines as HypertensionObtain Physician ReleaseFrequency – 4+ sessions/weekIntensity – LowTime – 30 to 60 minsType – Aerobic Activities (1st)Muscular conditioning if at all
12 Training Special Populations ArteriosclerosisA disease affecting the arterial blood vessel.It is commonly referred to as a "hardening"of the arteries. It is caused by the formationof multiple plaques within the arteries.increases your risk of heart disease,stroke, and other vascular diseases.
13 Training Special Populations Coronary (heart) DiseasePlaque often narrows a coronary arteryso that the heart does not get enough blood.This slowing of blood flow causeschest pain, or angina.
14 Training Special Populations Coronary (heart) DiseaseIf plaque completely blocks blood flow,it may cause a heart attack (myocardialinfarction) or a fatal rhythm disturbance(sudden cardiac arrest).A major cause of death and disability,coronary heart disease claims more livesin the United States than the next 7leading causes of death combined.
15 Training Special Populations Exercise Guidelines for CHD & ArteriosclerosisObtain a Physician ReleaseNetwork with the individualsCardiologistFrequency – 3 to 5 sessions/weekIntensity – Low as per toleranceTime – 20 to 30 min continuousType – Aerobic Activities
16 Training Special Populations Peripheral Vascular DiseaseThe blood vessels outside the heartand brain begin to develop arteriosclerosis.It's often a narrowing of vesselsthat carry blood to the legs, arms, stomachor kidneys.20 times more common in DiabeticsIntermittent claudication (weakness, pain)Painful!!!
17 Training Special Populations Peripheral Vascular Disease Exercise GuidlinesAvoid training in the cold(air or water) encourages vasoconscrictionInterval Training – frequent rests periodsAvoid Blistering to the feetInitially non-weight bearingFrequency – Daily to toleranceIntensity – Low to High (claudication Scale)Time 30 to 40 min working to continuousType – Aerobic (non-impact)
18 Training Special Populations Metabolic DisordersHypoglycemiaInsulin Dependant Diabetes MellitusNon-Insulin Dependant Diabetes MellitusGestational Diabetes
19 Training Special Populations HypoglycemiaThe pancreas sends out too much insulin and the blood sugar plummets below the level necessary to maintain well-being. Since all the cells of the body, especially the brain cells, use glucose for fuel, a blood glucose level that is too low starves the cells of needed fuel, causing both physical and emotional symptomsSymptoms:fatigue heart palpitationsinsomnia dizzinessfaintness blurred visionheadaches
20 Training Special Populations Hypoglycemia & Exercise GuidelinesExercise is an important component in the management of hypoglycemia because it is a great metabolic booster.Increases insulin sensitivityLowers insulin needsImproves glucose tolerance.Frequency – 3 to 5 sessions/weekIntensity – As per toleranceTime – work towards 30+ mins continuousType – Aerobic initially
21 Training Special Populations Insulin Dependant Diabetes MellitusJuvenile or Type I DiabetesThe body (pancreas) does notproduce insulinInsulin must be introduces externallyDiabetics are at greater risk for kidneyfailure, nerve damage, eye problems &heart diseaseProlonged and frequent elevation ofblood sugars can damage capillarybeds, which lead to poor circulationProne to infections
22 Training Special Populations Non-Insulin Dependant Diabetes MellitusAdult onset or Type II DiabetesBody Produces insulin, reducedsensitivityMost Common 90% of alldiabeticsLifestyle – high sugar diets,overweightReversible – by lifestyle modification
23 Training Special Populations Gestational Diabetes MellitusA form of Type II diabetesManifests during pregnancyCeases post gestationProne to Type II diabetesin later life
24 Training Special Populations Diabetes Exercise GuidelinesCheck glucose levels frequentlyAlways have a rapid actingcarbo snack availableAvoid exercising during peakinsulin periodsDo not inject insulin into musclesthat will be trainedTake care of their feet
25 Training Special Populations Diabetes Exercise GuidelinesFrequency – IDDM: 5 to 7 sessions/weekNIDDM: 4 to 5 sessions/weekIntensity – IDDM: 50% to 60% HRRNIDDM: 60% to 70% HRRTime – IDDM: 20 to 30 min continuousNIDDM: 40 to 60 min continuousType – Aerobic Activities
26 Training Special Populations Pulmonary DisordersAsthmaBronchitis (COPD)Emphysema (COPD)
27 Training Special Populations AsthmaReactive Airway DiseaseAllergies, exercise, infections,stress, environmental irritantsShortness of Breaths, coughing& WheezingCaused by: Constriction of Smoothmuscle around airwaysSwelling of mucosal cellsIncrease in mucousApprox 80% of asthmatics –exercise induced
28 Training Special Populations Asthma Exercise GuidelinesPre-exercise medicineCarry inhalerDrink plenty of fluidsExtend Warm-up & Cool downAvoid training in extremeenvironment conditions (cold, pollen, heat)Freqency – 3 to 4 session/weekIntensity – Initially Low to toleranceTime – 25 to 45 min continuousType – Aerobic (1st)
29 Training Special Populations Bronchitis (COPD)Form of Chronic Obstruction PulmonaryDisorderInflammation of the bronchi, the mainair passages to the lungs, it generally followsa viral respiratory infection.Symptoms include; coughing, shortnessof breath, wheezing and fatigue.
30 Training Special Populations Emphysema (COPD)lung disease that involvesdamage to the air sacs (alveoli)in the lungs.The air sacs are unable tocompletely deflate, and aretherefore unable to fill withfresh air to ensure adequateoxygen supply to the body.
31 Training Special Populations Bronchitis & Emphysema (COPD) Exercise GuidelinesMay not see improvements in pulmonary functionBenefits – decreased stress, weight, anxiety, increased functionality of daily dutiesUnstable COPD physician releaseAvoid upper body exercisesFrequency – 4 to 5 sessions/weekIntensity – lowTime – 20 to 30 mins (continuous)Type – Aerobic/Dynamic activities
32 Training Special Populations Bone or Joint DisordersOsteoarthritisRheumatoid ArthritisOsteoporosisChronic Low Back Pain
33 Training Special Populations Osteoarthritismost common joint disorderThe chronic disease causes thecushioning (cartilage) between the bonejoints to wear away, leading to pain andstiffness. It can also cause new pieces ofbone, called bone spurs, to grow around the joints.Causes: primarily related to aging. However,metabolic, genetic, chemical, and mechanicalfactors play a roleThe cartilage of the affected joint becomesrough and wears down (degenerates). As thedisease gets worse, the cartilage disappearsand the bone rubs on bone. Bony spurs usuallydevelop around the joint.
34 Training Special Populations Rheumatoid ArthritisChronic disease that causesinflammation of the joints andsurrounding tissues.Cause is unknownIt is considered autoimmune diseaseRA can occur at any age.It usually occurs in people between 25and 55. Women are affectedmore often than men.
35 Training Special Populations Arthritis Exercise GuidelinesLow impact activitiesExtend Warm-up and Cool-downsBe able to modify activity during sessionTrain full ROMEmphasize correct BiomechanicsMore limited due to ROM than CVFrequency – 4 to 5 session/weekIntensity – Low to toleranceTime – Initially 10 to 15 min boutsType – Aerobics, Calisthenics
36 Training Special Populations OsteoporosisThe thinning of bone tissue andloss of bone density over time.Most common type of bone diseaseThe leading causes are a drop inestrogen in women at the time ofmenopause, and a drop in testosteronein men.Women, especially those over theage of 50, get osteoporosis more oftenthan men.Osteoporosis is the most commontype of bone disease.There are currently an estimated10 million Americans suffering fromosteoporosis, as well as another18 million who have low bone mass.
37 Training Special Populations Osteoporosis Exercise GuidelinesWeight Bearing Activities,promotes greater bone depositionAvoid Ballistic Activities , Jumping,Running, etc.Avoid spinal flexion, wood floors,abducting & adducting hipsFrequency – 4 to 5 sessions/weekIntensity – Low (40% to 50% HRR)Time – 30 to 60 mins continuous(long warm-up)Type – Aerobic (weight bearing)training, muscular conditioning training
38 Training Special Populations Low Back PainLow back pain is the #2 leadingreason that Americans see theirdoctor -- second only to coldsand flus.Most back injuries occur at work85% of chronic low back painis a result of weak abdominal musclesand poor flexibility of low back andhamstrings.
39 Training Special Populations Low Back Exercise GuidelinesAlways proper mechanical alignmentNeutral pelvic alignmentAvoid low back hyperextensionProper warm-up & cool downFrequency – 4 to 5 sessions/weekIntensity – Low (40% to 50% HRR)Time – 30 to 60 mins continuous(long warm-up)Type – Aerobic (weight bearing)training, muscular conditioning training
40 Training Special Populations Miscellaneous DisordersCancerAgingObesity (Over Weight)Children
41 Training Special Populations CancerCancer develops when cells in a partof the body begin to grow out of control.Although there are many kinds of cancer,they all start because of out-of-controlgrowth of abnormal cellsCancer cells continue to grow anddivide, they are different from normal cells.Instead of dying, they outlive normal cells andcontinue to form new abnormal cells.Cancer cells develop because of damageto DNA
42 Training Special Populations CancerOften, cancer cells travel to other partsof the body where they begin to growand replace normal tissue.This process is called metastasisNot all tumors are cancerous.Cancer is the second leading causeof death in the United States.Half of all men and one third of all womenin the United States will develop cancerduring their lifetimes.The risk of developing most types of cancercan be reduced by changes in a person's lifestyle
43 Training Special Populations Cancer Exercise GuidelinesAdjust activity to individual’s capacity(physical, nutritional, treatment)Exercise does not CURE cancerbut it can help improve quality of lifeExercise can be a factor to assistin prevention of CancerFrequency – as per statusIntensity – as per statusTime – as per statusType – as per status
44 Training Special Populations AgingBy 2030, the number of older Americanswill have more than doubled to 70 million,or one in every five Americans.Regular physical activity greatly reducesa person's risk from dying of heart disease,and decreases the risk for colon cancer,diabetes, and high blood pressure. Physicalactivity also helps to control weight; contributesto healthy bones, muscles, andjoints; helps to relieve the pain of arthritis; reduces symptoms of anxiety anddepression; and can decrease the need for hospitalizations, physician visits, andmedications.People tend to be less active as they age.
45 Training Special Populations By age 75, about one in three menand one in two women do not engagein ANY physical activity.The heart muscle becomes a lessefficient pump, working harder to pumpthe same amount of blood through your body.Also, your blood vessels become lesselastic & possibly harden.Bones shrink in size and density.Gradual loss of density weakens yourbones and makes them more susceptibleto fracture.Muscles, tendons and joints generallylose some strength and flexibility.Metabolism generally slows
46 Training Special Populations Aging Exercise GuidelinesPhysical activity does not need tobe strenuous to bebeneficial; people of all ages benefit frommoderate physical activity.Obtain a Physician ReleaseEmphasize Full ROMFrequency – 4 to 5 Sessions/weekIntensity – Moderate as per statusTime – 30 to 60 mins(include an extended warm-up and cool-down)Type – Aerobic activities, muscular conditioning,flexibility exercises, calisthenics
47 Training Special Populations Obesity (Over Weight)On any given day 1 out of every 4 Americans is on a dietAmong adults aged 20–74 years the prevalence of obesity increased from 15.0% (in the 1976–1980 survey) to 32.9% (in the 2003–2004 survey).Weight Management Industry $40 billion95% of those who lose weight will beunsuccessful in keeping it off.
48 Training Special Populations Obesity (Over Weight)May Lead to Hypokinetic disordersHypertensionHyperlipidemia (for example, high totalcholesterol or high levels of triglycerides)Type 2 diabetesCoronary heart diseaseStrokeGallbladder diseaseOsteoarthritisSleep apnea and respiratory problemsSome cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)
49 Training Special Populations Obesity (Over Weight) Exercise GuidelinesModeration1 to 2 pounds /weekLifestyle ChangeExercise – Appetite SuppressantEmotional ConcernsBe sensitive to mobility, balance,coordination, & fitness levelsFrequency – 5 to 6 sessions/weekIntensity – Low (40% -50% HRR)progress slowlyTime – 30 to 60min continuousType – Aerobic Activities, Muscular Conditioning initially
50 Training Special Populations ChildrenChildren are NOT “mini” adultsChild DefinitionBirth – 1 year1 year -3 years4 years – 5 years6 years – 12 years13 years – 18yearsChildhood Obesity epidemicOverweight children are more likely to be overweight adults.
51 Training Special Populations Children Exercise GuidelinesMake your activities FUNDevelop CoordinationImprove Cv SystemImprove muscular conditioningFrequency – Daily ActivityIntensity – challenge not overwhelmTime – at least 30 mins/bout (multiplebout/day)Type – Activities to promote Cv,muscular conditioning, coordination & agility