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Trigger Point Workshop

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Presentation on theme: "Trigger Point Workshop"— Presentation transcript:

1 Trigger Point Workshop
Phillip Snider, RD, DO Amelia Medical Associates Bon Secours Medical Group Norfolk, VA

2 Common Complaints Headaches Low Back Pain Tennis Elbow
Post-surgical Neuropathic Pain Runners Glutes TFL Hamstring Gastroc / Soleus FDB

3 Treatments OMT TPI (trigger point injections) Neural Therapy PT
Posture education Watch for trigger point irritation Muscle relaxants

4 Treatments cont’d NSAIDs – po, gel, drops, patch Lidoderm patch
Tylenol Narcotics Short term use is best Narcotic contract is a must Urine drug testing Drug monitoring system – pill counts, PMP HA Meds (BB, CCB, Antiepilectics)

5 Trigger Point Injections
0.25% Lidocaine w/ NaHCO3 1cc into each muscle 30ga 1.5 inch needle Avoid use in face and forearm Dry Needling (Acupuncture needle) My favorite: Lhasa OMS (www.lhasaoms.com) Name brands: Seirin Hwa-to

6 Trigger Point Injections
Needle Diameter Hypodermic Gauge .30 30 .20 36 .14 42 .12 44

7 Trigger Point Injections
Needle Sizes .30 x 50 mm for most muscles .30 x 60 for QL .30 x 75 for psoas or glutes in obese pt .20 x 25 mm for forearm .14 x for face / head .12 x for hands / feet

8 Headaches Migraines IHS Criteria Anyone can get one
Triggers often include MSK component Most Common Offenders Traps SCM Levator Scapulae

9 IHS Migraine Criteria 4+ HA lasting 4 - 72 hr, 2 of the 4 with:
Unilateral location Pulsating quality Moderate or severe intensity (affecting ADLs) Aggravated by walking stairs or similar routine physical activity During headache at least 1 of the 2 following symptoms occur: Phonophobia, photophobia or osmophobia Nausea and/or vomiting

10 Trapezius

11 Trapezius Needling Patient supine Pincer grasp of muscle
Insert needle anterior to posterior 30ga x 1.5” or .30 x 50mm Muscle twitches can be significant

12 Levator Scapulae

13 Levator Scapulae Needling
Patient prone Insert needle at shallow angle toward superior angle of scapula .30 x 50mm or 30ga x 1” DO NOT insert needle posterior to anterior Muscle twitch is moderate

14 Sternocleidomastoid

15 SCM Needling Patient supine Pincer grasp of muscle
30ga x 1” or .30 x 50mm Avoid external jugular (bruising) Insert needle only through portion of muscle you’re holding Muscle twitch is moderate Responsible for many ENT-like symptoms

16 Low Back Pain Common muscle trouble makers: QL Iliopsoas Multifidis
Iliocostalis & Longissimus Glute medius

17 Quadratus Lumborum

18 QL Needling Patient on side, affected side up
May need pillow under unaffected side 1 – 2” posterior of iliac crest apex, approx ½ way b/w there and rib 12 Insert .30 x 50mm or .30 x 60mm needle lateral to medial toward midshaft of spinous process

19 QL Stretch

20 Iliopsoas

21 Iliopsoas Needling Patient prone Patient on side
Insert .30 x 75mm needle posterior lateral to anterior medial through QL Patient on side Insert a .30 x 75mm needle posterior lateral to anterior medial lateral through QL; aim for base of transverse process

22 Iliopsoas

23 Iliopsoas Stretch

24 Multifidus

25 Multifidus Needling Patient supine
Safety zone is 1 finger width lateral to spinous process Insert .30 x 50mm needle from posterior lateral to anterior medial; aim for base of transverse process and lamina

26 Iliocostalis & Longissimus

27 Iliocostalis & Longissimus Needling
Patient prone .30 x 50mm needle Identify trigger point Use index and middle fingers to block the adjacent intercostal spaces Insert needle using shallow angle

28 Gluteus Medius

29 Glute Medius Needling Patient on side
.30 x 50mm needle into trigger point Muscle twitch ranges from barely noticeable to fairly strong Can mimic greater trochanteric bursitis

30 Tennis Elbow Don’t Forget - Joint Above and Below
Shoulder Radial head Wrist Myofascial Pain Referral Patterns Trigger Point Injection/needling Don’t use Lidocaine near the radial nerve

31 Supinator

32 Supinator Needling Have patient supinate forearm to identify muscle
.20 x 25mm needle

33 Brachioradialis

34 Brachioradialis Needling
Pincer grasp of muscle .20 x 25mm needle Insert needle only through portion of muscle you’re holding Mimics OA pain in the 1st MTP Mimics scaphoid pain

35 ECRL

36 ECRL Needling .20 x 25mm needle Muscle twitch is strong

37 Extensor Digitorum

38 ED Needling .20 x 25mm needle Muscle twitch is strong

39 Triceps

40 Triceps Needling Pincer grasp of muscle .30 x 50mm needle
Insert needle only through portion of muscle you’re holding Review anatomy to avoid median nerve and radial nerve Muscle twitch is strong

41 Anconeus

42 Anconeus Needling .20 x 25mm needle Muscle twitch is vague to moderate

43 Supraspinatus

44 Supraspinatus Needling
Pt seated or prone 30ga x 1.5” or .30 x 50mm needle You must identify the spine of scapula Insert needle anterior to posterior and medial to lateral Muscle twitch is vague Very common trigger point in shoulder pain

45 Infraspinatus

46 Infraspinatus Needling
Pt seated or prone 30ga x 1.5” or .30 x 50mm needle You must identify the medial border and inferior angle of scapula Muscle twitch is moderate Very common trigger point in shoulder pain

47 Serratus Posterior Superior

48 Serratus Posterior Superior Needling
Patient prone .30 x 50mm needle Identify trigger point Use index and middle fingers to block the adjacent intercostal spaces Insert needle using shallow angle Muscle twitch vague to moderate

49 Serratus Posterior Superior Needling
Patient side-lying, affected side down Arm internally rotated with hand behind back Pull scapula away from ribs Insert .30 x 50mm needle parallel to rib cage and scapula Also treats: Rhomboid, Subscapularis, Serratus anterior

50 Post-Surgical Neuropathic Pain (729.2)
Occurs due to surgical scar Pain is burning and usually local Neural therapy Injection of 0.25% Lidocaine along scar 30ga needle

51 Runners Injuries result from Treatment includes
Overuse (volume, intensity) Biomechanical imbalance Treatment includes PRINCE Identify and address the imbalances Calm down the injured muscles & joints Structured return to running

52 Piriformis

53 Piriformis Needling Patient prone .30 x 50mm needle
Avoid middle portion of piriformis to avoid sciatic nerve Have pt ext rotate leg to ID muscle

54 Gluteus Maximus

55 Glute Max Needling Patient prone or on side .30 x 50mm
Avoid sciatic nerve Have pt extend hip to ID muscle

56 Gluteus Medius

57 Gluteus Minimus

58 Glute Minimus Patient side lying .30 x 50mm needle
Muscle twitch ranges from barely noticeable to fairly strong Can mimic greater trochanteric bursitis

59 Rectus Femoris

60 Rectus Femoris Needling
Patient supine 30ga x 1.5” or .30 x 50mm Muscle twitch is usually strong

61 Vastus Medialis, Intermedius & Lateralis

62 Vastus Muscles Patient supine
27ga x 1.5” or .30 x 50mm (I prefer the hypodermic needle) Muscle twitch can be very strong Have pt extend knee and slightly lift leg to ID muscle

63 Adductors aDDUCTOR

64 Adductor Needling Patient supine or side lying Pincer grasp of muscle
30ga x 1.5” or .30 x 50mm needle Muscle is twitch fairly strong

65 Hamstrings

66 Hamstring Needling Patient prone .30 x 50mm needle
Angle away from midline to avoid sciatic nerve Muscle is twitch fairly strong and trigger point feels particularly crampy

67

68

69 Soleus and Gastroc Needling
Patient prone 30ga x 1.5” or .30 x 50mm needle Muscle is twitch strong Only do one side per treatment session

70 Nutritional or Metabolic Considerations
Vitamin D deficiency: 268.9 Goal = 40+ 50,000 IU/week x 16 weeks, recheck 5,000 IU/day Hypothyroid: 244.9 Goal = TSH < 3.5 Some may need optimization of T3 Fe-def anemia 280.9 Goal = Ferritin > 40 Ferrous Gluconate 327 mg BID

71 Post Treatment Instruct patient to go to get CXR if any SOB, chest pain or cough developing within 24 hours Ice several times a day for 1st 24 hr and then heat Stretch affect muscles twice a day Manual treatment daily using The Trigger Point Therapy Workbook by Claire Davies

72 Post Treatment Warn patient that pain may temporarily increase after the treatment. Treat with: Ice NSAID Rest If no better after 4 or 5 treatments, verify that patient is doing their part, keep looking for other reasons including Vit D, Thyroid or Iron status Botox may be another treatment option

73 Common Musculoskeletal CPT Codes
OMT: 9892x Billed by number of regions treated 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10 Trigger Point Injection 20552: 1-2 muscles (Medicare/Medicaid) 20553: 3+ muscles (Private insurance only) x=5,6,7,8 or 9

74 CPT Codes - cont’d Tendon Injection: 20550
Joint/bursa Aspiration or Injection Small (finger/toes): 20600 Medium: 20605 Large (shoulders/hips/SI/knee): 20610

75 ICD-9 Codes for TPI 729.1 728.85 Myofascial pain, fibromyalgia
Medicare/Medicaid 728.85 Muscle spasm Private insurance

76 Modifiers - 25 Used on E/M code only Separate and distinct procedure
Example: New non-Medicare Pt seen for LBP and you diagnose them with QL and multifidus trigger points Your billing sheet Enter (new patient office visit) Enter the 25 modifier, attaching it to the 99203 Enter dx of muscle spasm Circle (1-2 muscle TPI) You’ve just added $160 to your billing Used for anything else you do other than lab & x-ray EKG, nebulizer, TPI, OMT, etc

77 Modifiers - 24 Used on E/M code only
Appends office visit if occurring during the global time period of a surgery and the visit is unrelated to that surgery Example – Pt had TPI or OMT and returns 1 week later for reassessment of the symptoms that prompted the treatment and possible retreatment Your billing sheet Code (established patient office visit) Enter a 24 modifier, attached to the 99213 Enter a 25 modifier as the 2nd modifier, attached to the 99213 Write in or 9892x Enter the appropriate TPI or OMT CPT code

78 Modifiers - 50 Used on the procedure code
Bilateral procedure (joint/tendon injection) Example: New patient presents c/o bilateral shoulder pain You diagnose bilateral subacromial bursitis (726.19) You inject each subacromial bursa (20610) Your billing sheet Enter 99203, attach 25 modifier to it Enter Enter and attach the 50 modifier to it

79 Modifiers - 59 Used on the procedure code
Prevents bundling of multiple procedures Based on the National Correct Coding Initiative In above example, the patient also had a SD of the C-spine, T-spine and First ribs: You add 739.1, & to the dx list You also enter for the OMT You link the 59 modifier to the OMT* *Attach the 59 to the less expensive procedure (OMT - $80)

80 Typical charges: OMT 98925 (1 – 2 regions) $59

81 Charges: Trigger Point
Trigger Point Injection 20552 or $160

82 Documentation Because injections are considered surgical procedures, they require a procedure note. The procedure note should include a signed consent, documentation of the anatomic location, preparation of the site, local anesthetic administration, name and dosage of drug administered, and patient reaction to procedure. Documentation should also include all postoperative instructions related to the procedure.

83 Online Resources http://www.proceduresconsult.com/medical-procedures
http//emedicine.medscape.com My


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