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Interest Groups in Forest Policy. Today’s Lecture Interest Groups – strategies – resources Organization, resources, and strategies for – Industry Groups.

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Presentation on theme: "Interest Groups in Forest Policy. Today’s Lecture Interest Groups – strategies – resources Organization, resources, and strategies for – Industry Groups."— Presentation transcript:

1 Interest Groups in Forest Policy

2 Today’s Lecture Interest Groups – strategies – resources Organization, resources, and strategies for – Industry Groups – Labour – Environmental Groups September 30, 2014 2

3 Analytical Framework: Forces at work in natural resources policy 3 environment governance markets policies actions

4 Governance September 30, 2014 4 governance Who decides Who participates At what level? Interest groups Interests Resources Strategies

5 September 30, 2014 5 What are the interests (core objectives) of your group?

6 How do interest groups try to influence public policy? September 30, 2014 6

7 Pralle Framework on group strategies - branching out, digging in (p. 16) Issue definition – “framing” - using rhetoric and symbols to expand or contain conflicts Linking Boundaries Ownership Actors – expanding and restricting political participation Institutions – Expanding jurisdictions – changing venues – modifying rules September 30, 2014 7

8 Group Tactics lobby influence public opinion – through media influence market behaviour finance elections litigation form coalitions direct action (demonstrations, civil disobedience) September 30, 2014 8

9 Group Resources money expertise (substance, process) control over investment, jobs skilled leadership (effective, charismatic) appealing cause public opinion contacts September 30, 2014 9

10 10 What resources does your group have to influence policy?

11 Forest Industry individual firms industry associations – provincial – national September 30, 2014 11

12 Forest Science Centre 12

13 Size of Firm, by fraction of AAC, 2003 September 30, 2014 13 Sept 3, 2003, MOF

14 2000s Consolidation September 30, 2014 14

15 2000s Consolidation Canfor (1) bought Slocan (3) Riverside (7) bought Lignum (18) Tolko (10) bought Riverside (6) West Fraser (3) bought Weldwood (8) from IP Weyerhaeuser sold its coastal holdings (previously adquired from MacMillan Bloedel) to Brascan, which created Cascadia, which was then bought by Western Forest Products September 30, 2014 15

16 Size of Firm, by fraction of AAC, 2013 source source September 30, 2014 16 September 2013 The Big 5

17 Provincial Associations Council of Forest Industries – Interior Only Council of Forest Industries Coastal Forest Products Association Truck Loggers Association September 30, 2014 17

18 National Association Forest Products Association of Canada – required 3 rd party certification from all of its members by 2005 – Boreal agreement with environmentalists September 30, 2014 18

19 Forest Industry Resources Structural advantage (privileged position) of business money advantage – buys expertise, leadership control over investment, jobs - exampleexample – government seeks reelection – reelection depends on jobs, healthy economy – jobs, growth created by investment – investment a function of business climate – government constrained from undermining business climate weak economy strengthens business influence over government September 30, 2014 19

20 Industry Objectives Profit Certainty September 30, 2014 20

21 Industry Strategies lobbying, campaign finance coalition building with communities, workers influence public opinion through media – FPAC op eds FPAC September 30, 2014 21

22 Labour - Objectives Jobs Higher wages Security Safety September 30, 2014 22

23 Steep drop in employment September 30, 2014 23

24 Environmental Organizations - Objectives Environmental quality Organizational maintenance September 30, 2014 24

25 Engo Resources – salience vs. support Public Opinion: – Support – general attitudes on an issue Example: how important is the protection of old growth forests to you? – Salience – how the issue is ranked among most important problems Example: how important is a party position on old growth conservation to your vote? September 30, 2014 25 Environmental group power function of salience

26 Issues in the May 2013 election 26 Source: George Hoberg, What Issues Mattered in the 2013 British Columbia Election? Some Context on the Kinder Morgan Surprise, based on Ipsos-Reid dataWhat Issues Mattered Issue Very important Voted for LiberalsNDPLib - NDP Open honest gov713747-10 The BC Economy655632+23 Health care603749-12 Trust in leader/party584045-5 Gov spending565333+20 Leadership564839+9 Job creation445138+13 Provincial debt445632+24 Education423253-21 Desire for change40776-69 Pipelines394542+3 Taxes/HST383648-12 Social issues372559-34 Environment362954-25 Crimes/justice334548-3 Candidate in riding3342 0 LNG305433+21 TV Debate95532+23

27 Power Shift: Market strategies Create economic power by influencing purchasers of BC forest products – Boycotts – Purchasing policies – Certification (next week) September 30, 2014 27

28 Market Strategies: Great Bear Rainforest targeted buyers of wood from old growth coastal temperate rainforests over 80 companies, including Ikea, Home Depot, Staples and IBM, committed to stop selling wood products made from these forests forcing logging companies to negotiate with environmentalists gave enviros a form of economic power September 30, 2014 28

29 Environmental Group Influence general public support – can be jeopardized by “radical” tactics disadvantage on money, expertise real power dependent on salience, markets September 30, 2014 29

30 Groups – Conclusion thus far Interest groups matter Different objectives, resources and strategies Strategic choice can influence policy Business has structural advantage Environmentalists can benefit from issue salience and market actions September 30, 2014 30

31 Actors – Interests and ResourcesActorinterestResource PoliticiansReelection, revenueAuthority, spending BureaucratsInfluence, prestigeExpertise, authority industryProfit, certaintyCapital, control of investment LabourSecure jobs, safetyOrganization, votes environmentalists Environmental quality Public opinion, votes, influence on markets First NationsTitle, economic development law 31

32 New Themes 8.Actors in the policy process have interests and resources, and adopt strategies designed to best use those resources in pursuit of their interests 9.Business control over investment gives it a structural advantage 10.Public opinion is far more influential on policy makers when it is salient 11.Environmentalists have effectively used market- oriented strategies to increase their power 12.First Nations have effectively used the courts to increase their power 13.The BC government has undergone a profound shift in relations towards First Nations, from active repression through resistance and now apparently sincere efforts at reconciliation 32


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