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CHAPTER 30 SOLID WASTE A PLASTIC SURF Are the oceans teeming with trash?

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 30 SOLID WASTE A PLASTIC SURF Are the oceans teeming with trash?"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 30 SOLID WASTE A PLASTIC SURF Are the oceans teeming with trash?

2 A PLASTIC SURF Are the oceans teeming with trash?30 Learning Outcomes At the end of this chapter you will know: More about the types and amount of trash produced by humans. Options we have for dealing with solid and hazardous waste. The role of business in reducing the amount of waste

3 Main Concept A PLASTIC SURF Are the oceans teeming with trash?30 Waste that cannot be reused or recycled accumulates. We can minimize the waste we produce by recovering, recycling, and disposing of waste products properly.

4 Are the oceans teeming with trash?30 Giora Proskurowski Case: Scientists have been sampling the ocean in an effort to determine how much trash is at sea. Small bits of plastic have formed surprisingly large patches of trash in regions where strong currents circle around areas with weak currents. We are still in the early stages of determining the impact of ocean plastic on marine ecosystems, food webs, and as transport for invasive species.

5 Waste is a uniquely human invention, generated by uniquely human activities30 TERMS TO KNOW: Law of conservation of matter Matter is never created nor destroyed, but it does change form. Some of these changes make materials that are dangerous or toxic to living organisms. In nature, potentially toxic matter is stored in the Earth until catastrophic events release them. Human activity and use of materials disrupts this cycle such that even degradable materials can’t break down. Launching a neuston tow to sample the ocean’s surface

6 Waste is a uniquely human invention, generated by uniquely human activities30 TERMS TO KNOW: Law of conservation of matter Biodegradable materials are those that can be broken down by other organisms through primarily aerobic processes. Without air, however, this process is stopped and material accumulates. Degradable materials can be broken down by chemical and physical reactions, while nondegradable materials are made of very stable molecules and so never break down—at least not in a human time scale. Launching a neuston tow to sample the ocean’s surface

7 Waste is a uniquely human invention, generated by uniquely human activities30 The United States produces more trash per person than any other nation. Municipal waste is only a small part of our total waste produced, but it is the type of waste that can be directly impacted by our daily choices. * MSW=Municipal solid waste 243 million tons = 486,000,000 pounds (That’s about the weight of 113,000 SUVs)

8 How big is the Atlantic Garbage Patch and is it growing?30 History: The first garbage patch found in 1997 while crossing the Pacific Ocean. Press claims sensationalized the finding with unfounded reports about weight, size, density, and growth. In reality, measurement and comparison was very difficult. The ecological definition of “patch” includes distribution of materials or organisms, so the public thinks “island.” Trash was settling at several levels within the water column, but data up to this discovery were based on near-surface sampling. Five major gyres in the oceans. Much of the debris is very small and floats just below the surface

9 How we handle waste determines where it ends up30 TERMS TO KNOW: Open dumps Hazardous waste Leachate Sanitary landfills Incinerators Open dumps are cheap and common in developing countries. These dumps are largely unregulated, contain a mix of hazardous and non- hazardous materials, and are often very hospitable for insects and rodents. Cambodia municipal garbage – sorting for anything that can sold to recyclers. Processing e-waste in China Sanitary landfill – Soil is above and below trash to keep contents from seeping into the environment. Compacting trash under layers of soil keeps odors down but also prevents aerobic digestion.

10 How we handle waste determines where it ends up30 Reducing waste at its source is the EPA’s top choice for waste management. Landfilling is the last choice. Unfortunately, more than 50% of our solid waste still ends up in landfill. Sanitary landfills are dug out and lined to prevent groundwater contamination from leachate. Trash is dumped and covered with soil to reduce smell and infestation. Newer landfills have leachate collection systems and holding ponds built into their facilities.

11 How we handle waste determines where it ends up30 Reducing waste at its source is the EPA’s top choice for waste management. Landfilling is the last choice. Unfortunately, more than 50% of our solid waste still ends up in landfill. Sanitary landfills are dug out and lined to prevent groundwater contamination from leachate. Trash is dumped and covered with soil to reduce smell and infestation. Newer landfills have leachate collection systems and holding ponds built into their facilities.

12 How we handle waste determines where it ends up30

13 Improperly handled waste threatens all living things30

14 30

15 When it comes to managing waste, the best solutions mimic nature30 TERMS TO KNOW: Composting Much of our waste is biodegradable— we can copy nature to help deal with this part of the waste stream on large or or small scales. We can also use garbage and its by-products to make usable energy.

16 When it comes to managing waste, the best solutions mimic nature30 TERMS TO KNOW: Composting Much of our waste is biodegradable— we can copy nature to help deal with this part of the waste stream on large or or small scales. We can also use garbage and its by-products to make usable energy.

17 When it comes to managing waste, the best solutions mimic nature30 TERMS TO KNOW: Composting Much of our waste is biodegradable— we can copy nature to help deal with this part of the waste stream on large or or small scales. We can also use garbage and its by-products to make usable energy.

18 Lifecycle analysis and better design can help reduce waste30 By assessing the environmental impact of every stage of a product's life, companies are trying to reduce the amount of waste generated by what they design, sell, and make. Cradle-to-cradle analysis attempts to increase reuse potential and turn waste into resource. European countries and 19 U.S. states have implemented “take back laws,” which require manufacturers to take back some of their products after consumers have finished with them.

19 Lifecycle analysis and better design can help reduce waste30 An example of industrial ecology, the industrial park in Kalundborg, Denmark, shows 24 different connections between industries and local farms— waste becomes resource.

20 Lifecycle analysis and better design can help reduce waste30 An example of industrial ecology, the industrial park in Kalundborg, Denmark, shows 24 different connections between industries and local farms— waste becomes resource.

21 Lifecycle analysis and better design can help reduce waste30 An example of industrial ecology, the industrial park in Kalundborg, Denmark, shows 24 different connections between industries and local farms— waste becomes resource.

22 Lifecycle analysis and better design can help reduce waste30 An example of industrial ecology, the industrial park in Kalundborg, Denmark, shows 24 different connections between industries and local farms— waste becomes resource.

23 Lifecycle analysis and better design can help reduce waste30 An example of industrial ecology, the industrial park in Kalundborg, Denmark shows 24 different connections between industries and local farms – waste becomes resource.

24 Consumers have a role to play, too30 TERMS TO KNOW: Eco-industrial parks Refuse Reduce Reuse “…We now buy a bottle of water rather than refill a canteen. We buy individually wrapped bags of mini carrots…. There are countless other examples, and as we learn with every net tow, there are significant costs to the planet for those choices.” A family in Ohio with their polymer-based possessions

25 Consumers have a role to play, too30 TERMS TO KNOW: Recycle We have better options than throwing away many products. An item like a plastic bottle can be recovered and reused, or the bottle can be recycled into another product.

26 Consumers have a role to play, too30 TERMS TO KNOW: Recycle We have better options than throwing away many products. An item like a plastic bottle can be recovered and reused, or the bottle can be recycled into another product.

27 Consumers have a role to play, too30 TERMS TO KNOW: Recycle We have better options than throwing away many products. An item like a plastic bottle can be recovered and reused, or the bottle can be recycled into another product.

28 Consumers have a role to play, too30 TERMS TO KNOW: Recycle We have better options than throwing away many products. An item like a plastic bottle can be recovered and reused, or the bottle can be recycled into another product.

29 Consumers have a role to play, too30 TERMS TO KNOW: Recycle We have better options than throwing away many products. An item like a plastic bottle can be recovered and reused, or the bottle can be recycled into another product.

30 Consumers have a role to play, too30 TERMS TO KNOW: Recycle We have better options than throwing away many products. An item like a plastic bottle can be recovered and reused, or the bottle can be recycled into another product.

31 PERSONAL CHOICES THAT HELP30

32 UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUE30

33 ANALYZING THE SCIENCE30

34 30

35 EVALUATING NEW INFORMATION30 Recycling information

36 UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUE30

37 MAKING CONNECTIONS30


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