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空间宇宙线和高能伽玛射线探测 with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) Facility onboard China’s Space Station Shuang-Nan Zhang ( 张双南 )

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Presentation on theme: "空间宇宙线和高能伽玛射线探测 with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) Facility onboard China’s Space Station Shuang-Nan Zhang ( 张双南 )"— Presentation transcript:

1 空间宇宙线和高能伽玛射线探测 with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) Facility onboard China’s Space Station Shuang-Nan Zhang ( 张双南 ) Center for Particle Astrophysics 粒子天体物理中心 Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences 1/30

2 China’s Space Station Program Phase -I astronauts in 5 flights  space walk Phase -II 2016 Space lab : no living cabin Phase -II 2020 Space Station 3 large modules ~ 60 tons ~10-year lifetime HERD POLAR 2/30

3 3/35 HERD Dark matter particle proton He Gamma-ray electron background 3/30

4 Science goalsMission requirements Dark matter search R1: Better statistical measurements of e/γ between 100 GeV to 10 TeV Origin of Galactic Cosmic rays R2: Better spectral and composition measurements of CRs between 300 GeV to PeV* with a large geometrical factor HERD: High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detector Secondary science: γ-ray astronomy  monitoring of GRBs, microquasars, Blazars and other transients  down to 100 MeV for γ -rays  plastic scintillator shields for γ -ray selection *complementary to high altitude cosmic-ray observations 4/30

5 HERD Cosmic Ray Capability Requirement P ( ~ 1) He ( ~ 4) L ( ~ 8) M ( ~ 14) H ( ~ 25) VH ( ~ 35) Fe ( ~ 56) Except for L, up to PeV spectra feasible with GF~2-3 in ~years: discriminate between models. N(E>E0; 2 yr) PeV Model 1 Light model Model 2 Heavy Model TeV PeV HERD Detection limit: N = 10 events 5/30

6 HERD 基线设计: 3 维量能器 5 面灵敏 HERD 比国内外类似实验性能提高 几十倍,但是重量是国际空间站 AMS 的 ~1/3 ,只比其它实验略重 CALO 量能器 电子 / 伽玛能量测量 宇宙线核子能量测量 电子 / 质子鉴别 侧面 STK( 钨板 + 硅微条 ) 顶面 STK( 钨板 + 硅微条 ) 电荷探测 宇宙线成分甄别 伽玛径迹探测 6/30

7 HERD 初步方案设计 载荷总重量约 2300 kg ,总包络尺寸为 1510×1480×1580 mm 3 ,总电子学路 数约 45 万路,总功 耗约 1430W 。 7/30

8 Characteristics of all components typesizeX0,λunitmain functions tracker (top) Si strips 70 cm × 70 cm 2 X07 x-y (W foils) Charge Early shower Tracks tracker 4 sides (baseline) Si strips 65 cm × 50 cm --3 x-yNucleon Track Charge CALO~10K LYSO cubes 63 cm × 63 cm 55 X0 3 λ 3 cm × 3 cm e/γ energy nucleon energy e/p separation HERD+ design: 5 sides with the same trackers  total weight ~2800 kg  an half-open-bay vehicle needed and will be available for HERD. 8/30

9 Expected performance of HERD γ/e energy range (CALO)tens of GeV-10TeV nucleon energy range (CALO)up to PeV γ/e angular resol. (top Si-strips)0.1 o nucleon charge resol. (all Si-strips) c.u γ/e energy resolution proton energy resolution (CALO)20% e/p separation power (CALO)<10 -5 electron eff. geometrical factor (CALO)3.7 m 2 GeV proton eff. geometrical factor (CALO)2.6 m 2 TeV 9/30

10 各空间实验主要性能参数对比 HERD 比国内外类似实验性能提高几十倍,但 是重量是 AMS 的 1/4-1/3 ,只比其它实验略重 10/30

11 Other detectors: Top down  “small” FoV ISS-CREAM: 2015 ISS-CALET: 2015 ISS-AMS: 2011 暗物质粒 子卫星 /30

12 Simulation results: energy resolutions Electron < 1%; Proton: ~20% Essential for spectral features! Electrons Protons 12/30

13 Energy Resolution for gamma-rays 500 MeV-100 GeV result 13/30

14 HERD Eff. Geometrical Factor: CALO All five sides 14/30

15 PAMELA: CALET: ; AMS: ; DAMPE: ; Fermi: ; HERD: HERD sensitivity to gamma-ray line HERD 1 yr 15/30

16 DM annihilation line of HERD 16/30

17 Expected HERD Proton and He Spectra Horandel model as HERD input Only statistical error Protons He 17/30

18 Expected HERD Spectra of C and Fe C Fe 18/30

19 Gamma-ray Sky Survey Sensitivity Narrow FoV 19/30

20 量能器读出方案 20/30

21 闪烁体信号读出方案 WLSF 将 LYSO 晶体闪烁光子引出 光纤输出至 ICCD 系统 像增强器 光锥 ICCD 系统 光纤缠绕 晶体封装 21/30

22 HERD 关键技术攻关 2×2×6 CsI 颗粒阵列(光纤引出) 上下各为一符合探测器 典型宇宙线事例的 ICCD 图像 高能所进行光纤耦合和晶体封装方式研究、晶体性能研究、 方案初步验证、量能器整体设计方案研究等 进行光纤性能研究、晶体-光纤单元光输出研究 CsI(Na) 阵列 +ICCD 的宇宙线测试装置 LYSO 晶体基本性质测试 正在利用所内 E2 束线进行晶体发光线性测量 22/30

23 Size: 600(L) x 460(W) x 350(H)mm Weight: 50Kg units Size: 600(L) x 460(W) x 350(H)mm Weight: 50Kg units Weight: ~ 120 kg, Size: 450×450×670 (mm) units Weight: ~ 120 kg, Size: 450×450×670 (mm) units Taper Relay Lens Signal Readout: Two Types of Coupling 23/30

24 Performance Characteristics of Principle Prototype :  512×512 back illuminated CCD;  Adjustable CCD gain and MCP gain ;  Fame rate : 280 frame/second;  External trigger mode Performance Characteristics of Principle Prototype :  512×512 back illuminated CCD;  Adjustable CCD gain and MCP gain ;  Fame rate : 280 frame/second;  External trigger mode Relay Lens Tests 24/30

25 25 Taper Coupling Tests 25/30

26 Requirement of dynamic range Simulation  dynamic range of 10 6 –Crystal’s linearity is OK: To be verified in BEPC beam test –Image intensifier: ~ 10 4 –CCD: FWC/sqrt(ENC) < 10 4 (FWC=full well charge) 2 outputs with different energy ranges from crystals –Option 1: 2 fibers on the surface of crystals –Option 2: Fiber splitter outside the calorimeter 26/30

27 计划 2015 年 1/20 样机 CERN 束流试验 CERN/SPS 束流, H2 、 H4 、 H8 适合 HERD 使用 – 原初注入质子,打靶产生次级粒子,经过多极磁体对 能量挑选 – 动量范围:质子 10 – 400 GeV/c ;电子 5 – 300GeV/c –~1 分钟一个束团,每个束团持续 8 秒 27/30

28 1st HERD workshop, Oct.17-18, 2012, IHEP, Beijing 28/30

29 2 nd HERD 2013/12/2-3 29/30

30 The HERD Proto-Collaboration Team Chinese institutions (more welcome!) –Institute of High Energy Physics, Purple Mountain Observatory, Xi’an Institute of Optical and Precision Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Nanjing University, Peking University, Yunnan University, China University of Geosciences, Ningbo University, Guangxi University International institutions (more welcome!) –Switzerland: University of Geneva –Italy: Università di Pisa/INFN, IAPS/INAF, University of Florence/INFN, University of Perugia/INFN, University of Trento/INFN, University of Bari/INFN –Sweden: KTH –USA: MIT/Harvard 30/30


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