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Presentation for TCUP Meeting San Antonio, Tx. Jan 3, 2014 Culturally Based Research Topics: Introduction : Dr. Kerry E. Hartman College and Tribe Information.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation for TCUP Meeting San Antonio, Tx. Jan 3, 2014 Culturally Based Research Topics: Introduction : Dr. Kerry E. Hartman College and Tribe Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation for TCUP Meeting San Antonio, Tx. Jan 3, 2014 Culturally Based Research Topics: Introduction : Dr. Kerry E. Hartman College and Tribe Information ND Tribal Colleges Research Model College/TAT Research Collaborations Research Projects Question/Discussion


3 Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara Nation: MHA Nation - Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nations MHA Nation - Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nations

4 Fort Berthold Community College Home Page http://www.fortbertholdcc.ed u Fort Berthold Community College Home Page http://www.fortbertholdcc.ed u College Information

5 College/TAT Research Collaborations (More on these later) Rural Water/ Groundwater Quality Lead Presence in Drinking Water Radon Presence in Households Pesticides in Tributaries Cultural Site Monitoring Invasive Species & Biocontrol Mercury in Fish Deer Population and Health Contents of Oil Flares Oil Development Surface Impact Fracking and Groundwater Where Elders Rest

6 Tribal College Faculty Research Model - ND EPSCoR Tribal College Faculty Research Model - ND EPSCoR acultyResearchModel_ acultyResearchModel_ Review and Share Discussion

7 Tribal College Research Model

8 Model

9 Undergraduate Research ND EPSCoR Funded Undergrad. Research, Sunday Academy, and Summer Science Culture Camp Community Driven and Focused Participatory: Students, Elders, TAT, Student’s Choice of Subject Qualitative and Quantitative Student Collaborations Mentoring TCC and UND/NDSU

10 Juneberry Project Cultural: Requested by Elders during Talking Circle Dissertation: Re-Establish! Topics/Projects: Transplant Success Variables Weed Control Propagation Methods Cultivars Nutrient Analysis Next: Pollinators and Pests



13 Cultural Site Monitoring Cultural: Collaboration with TAT, C.of E. Classes GPS and GIS

14 T. White Hat Grady Yarrow T. White Hat Grady Yarrow TOTALLY CULTURAL! Next Slide is Poster Interviewed Grandfather Got approval


16 Where The Elders Rest Newest Cultural: Requested by Elders GPS, GIS, and Remote Sensing …evolving

17 TCUP Graduates Following Posters: Cultural AND TCUP or collaboration N. Scott N. Seg. CEO Liz B. TAT Chair Office Destiny B. TAT Game and Fish Tanya D FBCC Faculty Ron C. Petrol. Company Env. Div. Jolene L. Law School App.

18 Methane Oxidation: Methanotrophic Bacteria’s Response to Methane Addition in a Northern Temperate Lake BIOS 35502: Practicum in Environmental Field Biology Noel S. Baker Advisor: William West 2012

19 Destiny Baker Midi Agu Adesh (Appears on the Water) Fort Berthold Community College Dr. Kerry Hartman

20 Investigation of Sources of Metal Contamination on the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation H. LaRocque, E. Bluestone, A. LaVallie (faculty); Turtle Mountain Community College Abstract Introduction A grant through the ATSDR/CDC provided funding for investigation into soil metal contaminants in 2009 on the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation. NSF REU funding in 2010 allowed further investigation of the same sites where contaminant dumping was suspected. A further dimension was added in that Pb contamination of local sloughs was a possibility when leech researchers at TMCC found that lead weights had been used by private trappers for 25 or more years on hundreds of leech traps in several sloughs. Students resampled close to the 2009 sample sites on the local landfill, a new high school reportedly built over an ol d landfill, an illegal dump, a destroyed housing area and a manufacturing plant. Evaluation of contamination by Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Ag and Fe was accomplished via microwave digestion and atomic absorption spectrometry. Students collected samples and recorded site locations with Garmin eTrex Legend HCx GPS units and later plotted the sites on GIS maps. The control samples were crushed mildly with mortar and pestle, only to loosen all granules, and then baked in a 110 C oven for about one hour. Dried samples of 0.5 g were digested with HCl, HNO 3 and H 2 0 2 in the hood overnight and then transferred to Teflon reaction vessles, which were then installed into a Milestone Ethos model microwave. Vessels were subjected to a program which ramped from room temperature to 180 C for 5.5 minutes, maintained at 180 C for another 4.4 minutes and then allowed to cool. The entire solution sample was removed from each reaction vessel and was diluted with distilled water to produce 100 ml of sample with a 5% HNO 3 background. Lanthanum suppressant was added to each sample. Stock standards from Buck Scientific were used to prepare instrumental standards for Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr and Ag. Laboratory prepared standards for Fe were provided. Methodology Standards curves for the atomic absorption spectrometer were calculated as known concentration of analyte in solution versus absorption level readout on the spectrometer. Ni, Cr and Ag curves were linear up to 5 ppm, while Cd and Pb curves were linear up to 2 and 15 ppm respectively.. The detection limits for the metal analytes were estimated at three times the standard deviation for several baseline readings (instrument wavelength and flame type are also listed): Analyte detection limit(ppm) g (nm) flame type Pb 0.6 217.0 oxidizing Cd 0.01 228.8 oxidizing Ni 0.02 232.0 oxidizing Cr 0.01 357.9 reducing Ag 0.02 328.1 oxidizing Results /Conclusions EPA generic soil screening levels (to be used as guidelines; actual limits must be based on soil conditions): Metal ingestion groundwater limit (ppm) limit (ppm) Pb 400 - Cd 78 8 Ni 1600 130 Cr 390 38 Ag 390 34 Fe (can occur naturally in soils up to 20%) Slough and lake edge sediments yielded the following average evels of analyte in ppm: High Fe, even at 58,000 ppm, translated to 6%, well within normal soil levels. A level of 940 ppm NI was displayed at MC site 7 in 2009 and 2010 Ni tests at 1 ft, 2 ft and 3 ft to the east of the same site showed Ni levels of 18 to 71 ppm, perhaps indicating a very small, localized problem. The generic soil screening level for Ni is 400 ppm for residential areas; Ni can be problematic in high acid areas or if industrial areas become residential. A&L Eastern Laboratories, Inc. “Interpreting Soil Heavy Metals;” retrieved March 2009 from Day, Robert W (2000). Soil-Testing Manual (1 st Ed.) McGraw-Hill. EPA method 7000b: Analysis of Metals in Solution by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (2009). Retrieved April 2009 from Jury, William and Horton, Robert (2004). Soil Physics (6 th Ed.). Wiley. Liu, David and Liptak, Bela (1999). Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution (1 st Ed.). CRC Press. NIOSH method “Lead by FAAS;” Retrieved March 2009 from Soil series maps for Rolette County, N.D. Retrieved Nov. 2008 from: Sumner, M, (editor, 1999). Handbook of Soil Science (1 st Ed.). CRC Press. USEPA Generic SSLs (1996); retrieved March 2009 from Table A- 1 USEPA Regional Screening Levels (2009); retrieved March 2009 from References Funded by an NSF undergraduate research grant (REU), tribal college students from Turtle Mountain Community College and Fort Berthold Community College investigated metal contamination sources on the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation. The sources of possible contamination included two separate media- open soil and wetland sediments. Open soil sites had been previously tested in a 2009 CDC study and further samples were sought for corroborative purposes. These sites included the landfill and adjacent sites, two former dumps, a destroyed public housing site, an illegal dump and a local manufacturing plant; the latter location had previously shown high nickel and iron quantities. Wetland sediments were tested primarily for lead contamination when Dr. Debra Hunter, a leech research project investigator at TMCC, found that extensive leeching with leech traps weighted with lead weights had been ongoing for years in numerous sloughs on the reservation. Students recorded all sample locations (latitude and longitude) with Garmin eTrex Legend HCx GPS units and later plotted the sites on GIS maps. Samples were crushed mildly if needed, and baked at 110 C for 30 minutes for thorough drying. Samples were digested first by acid and peroxide treatment in the hood and then further digested in an Ethos Milestone microwave by ramping to 180 C over 5.5 minutes and maintained at this temperature for another 4.4 minutes. Samples were diluted to a specified volume by %5 HNO 3 with a small percentage of lanthanum suppressant present. Standards curves for Pb, Ni, Cr, Ag, Cd and Fe were calculated for a Buck 200A atomic absorption spectrometer, and field samples were then evaluated for these metals. Results showed that Pb, Ag, and Cd were not high (above limit of detection) in any open soil samples, according to EPA soil screening generic levels for ingestion. However, several Cd and Cr samples were over the EPA generic soil screening levels for groundwater; however, absolute comparison could not be done without doing a soil evaluation. Slough sediment lead levels were determined to be under the EPA generic soil screening limit of 400 ppm in all samples, although lead was elevated in some sloughs compared to others, suggesting some additions to various bodies of water by some source, possibly leeching. Sample Area Pb Ni Cr Cd Ag N. Jarvis Lake 41 - - 21 16 N. Jarvis slough 61 67 121 30 31 Gordon L slough 56 55 128 19 28 Wheaton Lake 39 39 59 23 31 BIA 7 slough east 122 21 14 23 36 BIA 7 slough west 104 12 46 23 34 S. Jarvis Lake 103 73 110 26 30 N. Belcourt Lake 109 - - 27 36 Slough sediment samples did not exceed any EPA generic soil screening levels for ingestion for any of the evaluated metals, including lead. Since slough material was essentially in contact with ground water, it was noted that generic soil levels had been exceeded for Cd, Cr and Ag in terms of groundwater risk due to leaching. Interestingly, Pb levels were higher in some areas of known leeching (BIA 7 sloughs), but relatively low in others (N Jarvis Lake). Soil field samples contained the following average analyte concentrations: Sample Soil conc. (ppm) Soil conc. (ppm) 2009 range 2010 range Pb 50- 198 0 - 204 Cd 7- 14 24 – 50 Ni 0- 940 0 – 71 Cr 43- 1016 43 - 78 Ag 0- 32 21 - 35 Fe 0 – 58700 0 - 36000 The MC study area sites located by GPS and transferred to GIS maps.

21 NAPIRE 2012 Jolene Lockwood Nueta, Hidatsa, Sahnish College


23 Investigation of Fracking Fluids in Groundwater Wells on Fort Berthold Reservation Kristen Mason Dr. Kerry Hartman Fort Berthold Community College Introduction Discussion. References/Acknowledgements Methodology. The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation is centered in the middle of the Bakken formation. According to the U.S. Geological Survey’s assessment (April 2008), the Bakken Formation is the largest ‘continuous’ oil accumulation the agency has ever assessed and is larger than all other current USGS in the lower 48. It is estimated that new horizontal drilling techniques may allow up to 4.3 billion barrels of oil to be recovered from the 10k ft deep Bakken. This technique is called hydraulic fracturing (fracking). Fracking is used to create fractures that extend from the well bore into rock or coal formations. These fractures allow the oil or gas to travel more easily from the rock pores, where the oil or gas is trapped, to the proppants (sand or ceramic beads) and chemicals is pumped into the rock or coal formation. We plan to sample water wells over the course of 5 years. There will be a collection of samples from over 900 rural wells on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation. Our samples will be pretested for presence of toxins and contaminants. Sampling will begin by accumulating our target water wells throughout the reservation. This will be done by using maps from local tribal entities. Home visits will also be dependent on acquiring testing sites. We will take 5 samples from each from each segment or district. U.S. EPA. June, 2004. p. a1-4 I.D. Palmer, S.W. Lambert and J.L. Spitler. 1993. “Coalbed methane well completions and stimulations”. AAPG Studies in Geology 38. Chapter 14, pp. 303-341. U.S. EPA. August, 2002. p. 6-8. We have targeted 30 wells for our initial sampling set, but hope to do over 100. The project is expected to last through the summer of 2014 Sampling will be according to EPA’s QAPP guidelines. This is the same procedure being implemented by the Killdeer Aquifer doing the same type testing of there groundwater. Abstrac t I believe that our study will fail to detect any compounds in the groundwater related to oil development and fracking.

24 Impacts of Oil Development on Land Cover of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation Tanya Driver Dr. Kerry Hartman Fort Berthold Community College Abstract Digitizing and Ground Truthing Introduction Results. 2006 Imagery of Fort Berthold Well Locations References/Acknowledgements. The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation (FBIR) is located at the center of the area currently being overrun by the development of the Bakken oil reserve. The number of oil wells in North Dakota has doubled from 3,200 to 6,400 in the last 5 years, with 90% of the new wells being in the Bakken field. This explosion of development has caused widespread destruction of thousands of acres of land. The purpose of this study was to quantify the disturbance of native grasslands impacted by the ongoing oil development on the FBIR. The remaining native grasslands were emphasized due to the cultural relevance of this pristine vegetation. GPS, GIS, and Remote Sensing were utilized for locating, mapping, and determining area of oil well pad sites in a sample area from (2008) to the (2011). Oil development has a substantial effect on the land on and surrounding the Bakken and Three Forks Oil Reserves. The amount of land used for oil development has drastically increased in the last several years and the full effect on the environment is unknown. Using ASTER images and EROS methodologies to monitor and quantify the land cover disruption caused by the development of oil. Data exploration consisted of satellite and aerial map images ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer ), Landsat (land remote-sensing satellite (system ), and NAIP (national agricultural imagery program). GPS, GIS, and Remote Sensing were utilized for locating, mapping, and determining area of oil well pad sites. Arcview 9.3.1 mapping software was used in conjunction of images and digitzing. Up to date oil and gas data was acquired from the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC). Database files were filtered according to the following status: status had to be “active” well type had to be “oil and gas” spud date had to be listed We then generated database spreadsheets two years prior to 2008 and four years after. Each year was seperated as a dbase file into arcview and mapped accordingly.. North Dakota Oil and Gas Division USGS EROS- Dr. Eric Wood NDATC-GCCE NASA- ND Space Grant Consortium 2011 Imagery of Fort Berthold Well Locations Fort Berthold Indian Reservation Consists Of 980,000 Acres and contains counties of Mountrail, Dunn, McKenzie, and McLean. Land cover on east side of Lake Sakakawea is Agriculture containing approximately 460,800 acres. On the west side of Lake Sakakawea there is 368, 640 acres of rangeland utilized for ranching. Methods In the past the industry in cooperation with the Forest Service has reclaimed more than 700 wells and 280 miles of roads in the National Grasslands. This represents 5,300 acres returned to vegetation. Currently, there are more than 17% of North Dakota’s producing wells located on grasslands. (North Dakota Petroleum Council, 2010) According to the above numbers, 7.57 acres were used on the average for each well historically. Ground Truthed Site Land Cover Chart of Growth Due to the pristine condiition of grasslands located west of Lake Sakakawea our sample area encopmassed 6 townships totalling 138,240 acres and containing 100 producing wells. That turns out to be 757 acres of disturbance. This area will be holding more wells in 2012.

25 The End Questions???? Discussion.

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