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THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America: Past and Present Chapter 30.

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Presentation on theme: "THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America: Past and Present Chapter 30."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America: Past and Present Chapter 30

2 Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War n John F. Kennedy a "Cold Warrior" n Kennedy advisors support U.S. hard line against Russia

3 Flexible Response n Arms buildup – Conventional armed forces – The nuclear arsenal – Special Forces n U.S. strength tempts new administration to challenge U.S.S.R.

4 Crisis over Berlin n 1961--Khrushchev renews threat again to give Berlin to East Germany n Kennedy’s response – Announce crisis on nationwide television – Call up the National Guard n Soviets retreat n Berlin Wall built

5 Containment in Southeast Asia n Kennedy sees Southeast Asia as focus of U.S.-Soviet rivalry – Support Saigon’s Diem regime – Sends 16,000 American military "advisors" n November, 1963--coup against Diem – Kennedy accepts – Coup further destabilizes South Vietnam n U.S. involvement in Vietnam deepened

6 Containing Castro: The Bay of Pigs Fiasco n Kennedy supports “anti-Castro forces in exile” n Bay of Pigs invasion a part of 1960 CIA plan under Eisenhower n April, 17 1961—Invasion –1,400 Cuban exiles land without expected U.S. military support –Defeated within 48 hours n Kennedy takes responsibility in defiant speech against “communist penetration”

7 Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis n October, 1962--Soviet nuclear missiles confirmed in Cuba n Plan to blockade, invade Cuba n October 22--Kennedy informs Americans of Cuban Missile Crisis n October 28--Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles

8 Effects of the Missile Crisis n Political – Kennedy’s popularity soars – Democrats gain in Congressional elections n Diplomatic effects – Moderation of the Cold War – Russians begin naval, nuclear buildup

9 The New Frontier at Home n Kennedy staff competent, activist n Seeks legislative and economic reform n JFK the administration's greatest asset

10 The Congressional Obstacle n Congress controlled by Southern Democrat-Republican coalition n Coalition blocks far-reaching reform n Kennedy does not challenge Congress

11 Economic Advance n Economic stimulation – Increased space, defense spending – Informal wage and price guidelines n 1962--U.S. Steel forced to lower prices n 1963--tax cut spurs one of the longest sustained advances in U.S. history n Kennedy's economic policies double growth, cut unemployment

12 Moving Slowly on Civil Rights n Downplay civil rights legislation to avoid alienating Southern Democrats n May, 1961--federal marshals sent to protect Birmingham freedom riders n 1962--federal marshals, National Guard to U. of Mississippi n 1963--deputy attorney general faces down George Wallace at U. of Alabama

13 "I Have a Dream" n May, 1963--violent police suppression of nonviolent protestors in Birmingham – Kennedy intervenes on side of blacks – Congress asked for civil-rights laws n August, 1963--MLK leads March on Washington n Kennedy record disappointing to supporters, ultimately effective

14 The Supreme Court and Reform n Defendants’ rights in criminal cases n Legislative reapportionment of states n 1962--Baker v. Carr establishes "one man, one vote" n Greater social justice achieved – Rights of the underprivileged protected – Dissent and free expression protected

15 "Let Us Continue" n November 22, 1963--JFK assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald n Lyndon Johnson promises to continue Kennedy's programs n Johnson ultimately exceeds Kennedy’s record on economic, racial equality

16 Johnson in Action n Poor image on television n Effective manager of Congress n Spring, 1964--Kennedy's tax cut passed n July 2-- Civil Rights Act – bans public segregation – protects voting rights

17 The Election of 1964 n 1964--Johnson launches “war on poverty” to – encourage self-help – reduce poverty n Johnson wins landslide election against Republican Barry Goldwater

18 The Triumph of Reform n 1965 Great Society legislation advances beyond New Deal n Medicare n Medicaid n Elementary and Secondary Education Act n Voting Rights Act

19 Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War n Hawkish foreign policy continued n 1965--troops sent to Dominican Republic n Determined not to "lose" Vietnam to the Communists

20 The Vietnam Dilemma n 1964--Saigon on the verge of collapse n Johnson’s initial response – Refuse to send American combat forces – Economic aid – Military advisers – Covert actions n August, 1964--Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

21 Escalation n Johnson seeks to avoid diverting resource from Great Society to Vietnam n U.S. effort intended to bring Hanoi into peace negotiations n Policy of secrecy and deceit to assure Americans of Vietnam’s insignificance

22 Stalemate n 1968--500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam n War of attrition increases American losses, enrages South Vietnamese n January, 1968--Tet Offensive demonstrates futility of U.S. efforts n May, 1968--Johnson announces scaling back of war, efforts for peace

23 U.S. Troop Levels in Vietnam (as of Dec. 31 each year)

24 Years of Turmoil n Exceptional unrest at home n Continued escalation of Vietnam war

25 The Student Revolt n 1964--student protest movement launched at Berkeley n Challenge older generation’s materialism n Vietnam War targeted n Widespread cultural uprising

26 Protesting the Vietnam War n October, 1967--100,000 protesters besiege the Pentagon n Demonstrations suppressed by a combination of force, concessions

27 The Cultural Revolution n Rejection of older values through – sexual expression – clothing – drugs – music n Some extremism provokes outrage n Serious challenge to hypocrisy of American society

28 "Black Power" n 1964-1967--riots in northern cities n Rise of militant leaders – Black separatism – Armed struggle n MLK leads anti-poverty crusade n April, 1968--MLK assassinated n Militancy increases African-American pride

29 Ethnic Nationalism n Multiple groups emulate African American movement n 1965--César Chávez organizes National Farm Workers' Association n Chicanos win federal mandate for bilingual education

30 Women's Liberation n 1963--Friedan's The Feminine Mystique n New feminist activism – 1964 Civil Rights Act used to attack inequality in employment – Pro-choice advocacy on abortion – Seek to toughen enforcement of rape laws n 1972--Congress sends Equal Rights Amendment to the states

31 The Return of Richard Nixon n 1968 a year of turmoil – Presidential election – Turning point in the Vietnam War – Massive protests in the streets n Richard Nixon election demonstrates desire for national reconciliation

32 Vietnam Undermines Lyndon Johnson n 1968--Tet Offensive leads to conclusion that Vietnam war cannot be won n March--Johnson announces he will not seek another term as president

33 The Democrats Divide n Rivals – Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy – Robert Kennedy – Party leaders favor Hubert Humphrey n Kennedy assassinated during campaign n ‘68 Democratic convention in Chicago besieged by antiwar protestors n Democrats wounded in public opinion

34 The Republican Resurgence n Republicans unite on Richard Nixon n George Wallace’s third party candidacy draws Democratic votes n Nixon wins narrow victory n Consequences – Ends thirty-year era of liberal reform, activist foreign policy – Americans seek less intrusive government

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