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IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Super-beam work package in the Euro ν DS: status and plans Marco Zito Dapnia-Saclay On behalf of the SB wp team IDS.

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Presentation on theme: "IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Super-beam work package in the Euro ν DS: status and plans Marco Zito Dapnia-Saclay On behalf of the SB wp team IDS."— Presentation transcript:

1 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Super-beam work package in the Euro ν DS: status and plans Marco Zito Dapnia-Saclay On behalf of the SB wp team IDS CERN 30/3/2007 Thanks to C. Densham and M. Dracos for providing materials!

2 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Outline Superbeam : status About this workpackage Focusing on the most challenging/crucial problems : –The target –The collector –The target/collector integration –Neutrino beam simulation Deliverable: a CDR for the Superbeam! Participating institutes: IN2P3, CEA, CCLRC, Cracow U. of Technology + other additional partners (inside and outside Europe)

3 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Super-Beams projects projet BNL projet Fermilab Cf talks by M.Bishai and N. Saoulidou

4 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito neutrino decay volume MR tunnel Linac from front end Linac from down stream Linac to RCS Extraction from RCS RCS to MLF Status 4

5 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Work at RAL on T2K target, windows for 750 kW operation -> Beam dump designed for 3-4 MW operation -> Continue studies for 3-4 MW operation e.g. beam window, target limits Target within magnetic horn Helium cooling of target

6 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Superbeam in Japan : T2K phase 2 Beam Power (MW) Japanese Fiscal Year (Apr-Mar) MeV LINAC from FY2011 line const. commissi oning phys run MR Power (Default) RCS Power MR (  2 #bunch) MR (  2 #bunch,  1.5 Rep. Rate) MR (  2 #bunch,  2 Rep. Rate) T2K needs Serious Upgrade

7 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito What Euro ν DS Superbeam is about-1 Consider as baseline the SPL to Frejus concept MEMPHYS Far detector R/D, feasibility, etc. is covered by the Laguna DS

8 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito What Euro ν DS Superbeam is about-2 Proton driver and target : many issues in common between Super-beam and NF Decide to join forces and tackle these problems in this WP The NF WP will focus on the muon front-end The conclusion of this WP will then be incorporated in the SB and NF CDR’s

9 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito ~300 MeV  Neutrinos small contamination from e (no K at 2 GeV!)Super-Beam Focus of this DS

10 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito SPL See presentation by Roland Garoby CDR for SPL already available Refinements, R/D, further studies in other frameworks (HIPPI, IA …) Changes to this proton-driver design only from the optimization of the target and collection or from the physics and detector studies

11 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito CERN Super-Beam (SPL) recent document

12 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito CERN Super-Beam (SPL) Possible energy upgrade to 5 GeV could be the subject of a 3rd CDR (CDR3) R.

13 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito 5 GeV version of the SPL SPL (CDR3) characteristics Ion speciesH-H- Kinetic energy5GeV Mean current during the pulse40mA Mean beam power4MW Pulse repetition rate50Hz Pulse duration0.4ms Bunch frequency352.2MHz Duty cycle during the pulse62 (5/8)% rms transverse emittances0.4  mm mrad Longitudinal rms emittance0.3  deg MeV Length535 m Increasing the energy of the SPL (CDR2) is obtained by adding 105 m of  =1 superconducting accelerating structures and 14 klystrons [704 MHz – 5 MW]. R.

14 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito The target J cm-3/pulse Severe problems from : sudden heating, stress, activation Safety issues ! Baseline for NF is mercury jet, for superbeam is solid target Extremely difficult problem : need to pursue two approaches : –Liquid metal target (Merit experiment) –Solid target (extensive R/D program at CCLRC) Envisage alternative solutions

15 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito MERIT MERIT experiment will test Hg jet in 15-T solenoid –24 GeV proton beam from CERN PS scheduled Spring T solenoid during tests at MIT Hg delivery and containment system under construction at ORNL. Integration tests scheduled this Fall at MIT.

16 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito

17 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Solid target study programme at RAL Future Programme Continue wire tests with Tungsten and Graphite. Continue modelling computations. VISAR measurements to asses the properties of tungsten, and any changes, during the wire tests. (Effect of thermal shock.) Tests with a proton beam to confirm wire tests and VISAR measurements – but limited number of pulses. Radiation damage studies. Test alloys of tungsten. Design & build a model of the target bar system. Design the solenoid. Design and cost the complete target station including the beam dump.

18 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Target Parameters Proton Beam pulsed50 Hz pulse length~40  s energy ~10 GeV average power ~4 MW Target (not a stopping target) mean power dissipation1 MW energy dissipated/pulse20 kJ (50 Hz) energy density300 J cm -3 (50 Hz) 2 cm 20 cm beam R.

19 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Pulsed Power Supply kV; A 100 ns rise and fall time 800 ns flat top Repetition rate 50 Hz or sub-multiples of 2 Coaxial wires Test wire, 0.5 mm Φ Vacuum chamber, 2x x10 -6 mbar Schematic circuit diagram of the wire test equipment R.

20 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito R.

21 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Some Results of 0.5 mm diameter wires Beam Power MW 4.2x10 6 +PLUS+ >6.5x10 6 >1.6x10 6 >3.4x x10 6 No. of pulses to failure Max. Temp K Not broken; still pulsing Stuck to top Cu connector Broke when increased to 7200A (2200K) Tungsten Tantalum is not a very good material – too weak at high temperatures Tantalum Target dia cm Rep Rate Hz Pulse Temp. K Pulse Current A Lngth cm Material “Equivalent Target”: This shows the equivalent beam power (MW) and target radius (cm) in a real target for the same stress in the test wire. Assumes a parabolic beam distribution and 4 micro-pulses per macro-pulse of 30  s. Equivalent Target R.

22 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Chain Sprocket for the rear of the bars Target BarChain Links Schematic arrangement of the chain mechanism for the target bars Chain Sprocket for the front of the bars R.

23 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito A new Nufact/SuperBeam target concept being studied at RAL: fluidised jet of particles A Fluidised jet of tungsten or tantalum particles in He could be used as a neutrino factory target –It could have high Z + high volume density –Can be effectively removed from the solenoid field hence reducing the pion reabsorption –Can be replenished as particles wear out –Particles can be easily cooled (in an external fluidised bed) C. Densham

24 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Attractions of fluidised target concept Combines the advantages of the solid target with those of the liquid target Solid displacement without moving parts Shock waves constrained within the material (no cavitation, no splashing) Highly effective cooling of the target material Favourable material geometry for the stress waves Target easily replenished and reasonably safely contained Nothing else on the beam line apart from the target material BUT: Is it technically feasible? - Study needed C. Densham

25 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Outline Targets Programme Results of MERIT experiment at CERN eagerly anticipated. This will answer many technical questions regarding liquid metal jet targets and will inform future Nufact targets programme Continue solid target studies Continue fluidised particle jet target studies Begin studies of target integration with collection system both for Nufact (solenoid) and for SuperBeam (magnetic horn) Important synergies with R/D in US labs

26 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito The collector Focus on the magnetic horn collection method Initial design at CERN followed by optimization and redesign Currents: 300 kA (horn) and 600kA (reflector) Horn : 3mm to minimize energy deposition 50 Hz (vs a few Hz up to now) Longevity in a high power beam Large em wave, thermo-mechanical stress, vibrations, fatigue, radiation damage

27 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Collector Main challenges: design of a high current pulsed power supply (300 kA/100 μs/50 Hz), cooling system in order to maintain the integrity of the horn despite of the heat amount generated by the energy deposition of the secondary particles provided by the impact of the primary proton beam onto the target, definition of the radiation tolerance, integration of the target.

28 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco ZitoCollectors horns Or solenoid In operation completed built MiniBooNE CNGSK2K (SB) NUMI In operation M. Dracos

29 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Previous Studies S. Gilardoni: Horn for Neutrino Factory and comparison with a solenoid A. Cazes: Horn for SPL

30 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Focusing system: magnetic horn Protons Current of 300 kA To decay channel  Hg Target B  1/R B = 0 M. Dracos

31 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Horn prototype ready for tests M. Dracos

32 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Proposed design Particle at target In collaboration with LAL 2.2 GeV protons M. Dracos

33 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito New Geometry 2.2 GeV proton beam : – = 405MeV/c – = 60° 3.5 GeV proton beam : – = 492MeV/c – = 55° z(m) r(m) I = 300 kAmp 30 cm 4 cm z(m) r(m) I = 300 kAmp 30 cm 4 cm M. Dracos

34 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Power Supply for horn pulsing (major issue) values considered by CERN M. Dracos

35 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito the power supply Due to the high price go to a modular system and increase small by small the current M. Dracos

36 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Neutrino Beam simulation Needed to optimize the target, collector, decay tunnel Use modern tools (GEANT 4) and recent data (HARP) Input to the physics work package for the performance evaluation Need to develop in synergy with similar studies in existing SB and in the IDS community

37 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito "Physics" studies to be restarted energy deposition z (cm) P (kW) z (cm) corne corne 2 M. Dracos

38 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Sensitivity 3.5GeV sin 2 2   m %CL 95%CL 99%CL Minimum:  13 = 1.2° (90%CL) Preliminary A.Cazes thesis

39 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Conclusions SuperBeam work package of the Euro ν DS is focusing on the key issues for this project The SPL to Fréjus project is the baseline The SPL CDR2 study is an excellent starting point for the proton driver Feasibility and conceptual solutions for the target and collector (horn) will be studied A strong European collaboration is ready to contribute to this field

40 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Scenario for accumulation and compression (2/13) Accumulati on Duratio n = 400  s Compressio n t = 0  s t = 12  s t = 24  s t = 36  s etc. until t = 96  s Accumulator [120 ns pulses - 60 ns gaps] SPL beam [42 bunches - 21 gaps] Compressor [120 ns bunch - V(h=3) = 4 MV] Target [2 ns bunches – 6 times] R.

41 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Scenario for accumulation and compression (4/13) Kinetic energy [GeV]5  E Total [MeV] 10 l bunch total [ns] at injection120 Time interval between centres of consecutive bunches [ns] ~ 354 Time interval between transfers [  s] ~ 12 Duration of bunch rotation for 1 bunch [  s] ~ 3 x 12 Number of protons per bunches Bunch characteristics at injection in the compressor Kinetic energy [GeV]5  E Total [MeV] ~ 170 MeV  bunch [ns] at ejection ~ 2 ns Time interval between ejection [  s] ~ 12 Number of bunches6 Duration of full burst to the target [  s] ~ 60 Number of protons per bunches Bunch characteristics at ejection to the target R.

42 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Focussing power corne corne 2 (réflecteur) focalisation CNGS

43 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Result of a geological survey: Very good rock quality 3-4 shafts Φ=70m (250k m 3 each, fiducial 150KT) 5 years excavation 80 ME x N(shaft) PMT R/D ongoing A possible timeline 2010 decisions for cavity excavation, SPL and Eurisol Memphys

44 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito

45 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito K. Irvine

46 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito K. Irvine

47 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito K. Irvine

48 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Flux summary, 2.2 GeV positive focusingnegative focusing Flux (/100m 2 /y) Majoritary composition Flux (/100m 2 /y) Majoritary composition   + (99%)  + (99%)   - (99%)  - (99%) e  +  + (80%)  +  + ( 38%); K + (37%) ;K 0 (25%) e K 0 (55%);  -  - (45%)  -  - ( 90%)  (+8%)  + (99%) (-0.4%)  - (99%)  (+6%)  - (99%) (+8.5%)  + (100%) e (+50%)  +  + (90%) (+8.5%)  +  + (40.%) K + (35%) ;K 0 (25%) e (+14.5%) K 0 (50%)  -  - (50%) (+40%)  -  - ( 95%) Decay tunnel :20m Decay tunnel :80m

49 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Flux summary, 3.5 GeV positive focusingnegative focusing Flux (/100m2/y) Majoritary composition Flux (/100m2/y) Majoritary composition   + (100%)  - (98%)   - (99%)  + (99.5%) e  +  + (84%) K + (50%);K 0 (30%)  +  + ( 20%) e K 0 (70%)  -  - (30%)  -  - (80%)  (+6%)  + (99%) (+10%)  - (98%)  (+8%)  - (98%) (+6%)  + (100%) e (+38%)  +  + (89%) (+9%) K + (45%);K 0 (30%)  +  + ( 25%) e (+11%) K 0 (60%)  -  - (40%) (+38.5%)  -  - (85%) Decay tunnel :20m Decay tunnel :80m

50 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito  13 Sensitivity Use Mauro Mezzetto code. detector: –Water Cerenkov –440 kt –at Fréjus (130 km from CERN) Run: –2 years with positive focussing. –8 years with negative focussing. Computed with  CP =0 (standard benchmark) and   = 0 parameter… –  m 23 = eV 2 –  m 12 = eV 2 sin 2 (2  23 ) =1 sin 2 (2  12 ) =0.8

51 IDS CERN March 30, 2007 Marco Zito Sensitivity 2.2GeV sin 2 2  13  m %CL 95%CL 99%CL Minimum:  13 = 1.6° (90%CL) Preliminary


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