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TRADE-MARKS University of Toronto IP298HS Cynthia Mason – – March 17, 2005© Cynthia Mason,

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Presentation on theme: "TRADE-MARKS University of Toronto IP298HS Cynthia Mason – – March 17, 2005© Cynthia Mason,"— Presentation transcript:

1 TRADE-MARKS University of Toronto IP298HS Cynthia Mason – – March 17, 2005© Cynthia Mason,

2 2 Outline Trade-mark Searching Procedure for Trade-mark Registration Registrable Trade-marks

3 3  Types of trade-mark searches  Opinions Trade-mark Searching

4 4  Locate Search Trade-marks Office register Identical trade-marks Types of Trade-mark Searches

5 5 Registrability Search  Trade-marks Office register  Similar or confusing trade-marks Phonetic equivalents Visually similar marks Marks in similar channels of trade

6 6  Availability Searches Trade-marks Office register Common law sources Business names Trade directories Magazine and newspaper articles Internet Specialty sources – pharmaceutical indices, catalogues Types of Trade-mark Searches

7 7 After the Search Opinion  Limitations of search Follow up investigation File trade-mark application

8 8 Procedure for Registering Trade-marks Application Examination Approval/Advertisement Allowance Registration

9 9 Application Trade-marks Act, RSC 1985, c. T-13  Section 30 – Contents of Application Trade-marks Regulations (1996), SOR/  Sections 24 to 29 – Formalities  Sections 30 to 33 - Amendments

10 10 Application 1. Applicant’s Name and Address Individual Partnership Joint venture Corporation Association

11 11 Application 2. Trade-mark  Words  Designs  Patterns on 3D objects  Shapes of wares or packaging (distinguishing guise)  Certification mark  Official mark

12 12 Application 3.Wares or Services Specific and ordinary commercial terms Amendments

13 13 Application 4.Basis for Application  Use in Canada  Making Known in Canada  Foreign Application or Registration and Use  Proposed Use in Canada

14 14 Application 5. Priority Claim  Foreign application filing date 6. Entitlement Claim 7. Representative for Service in Canada 8. Filing Fee

15 15 Examination Formal requirements Description of wares and services – Act, s. 30(a) Foreign registration certificate – Act, s. 31(1) Drawing – Regulations, ss, 27 and 28 Translation and Transliteration – Regulations, s. 29 Registrability Entitlement to registration

16 16 Examination Entitlement to registration Trade-mark confusing with a co-pending application Trade-marks Act, s. 16

17 17 Approval/Advertisement Trade-marks Journal Amendments Opposition  Trade-marks Act, s. 38  Trade-marks Regulations, ss. 35 to 47

18 18 Allowance/Registration Declaration of Use in Canada Fee Continued use  Trade-marks Act, s. 45 Renewal

19 19  Names or Surnames  Clearly descriptive or deceptively misdescriptive  Confusing with registered trade-mark  Prohibited marks  Distinguishing guises Registrable Trade-marks

20 20 Registrable Trade-marks Names and Surnames  Trade-marks Act, s, 12(1)(a) – primarily merely the name or surname of an individual who is living or has died within preceding 30 years.  Rationale Fairness Inability of names and surnames to distinguish

21 21 Registrable Trade-marks Names and Surnames  “primarily merely” Principal meaning is nothing more than a name or surname Perspective of Canadian of ordinary intelligence and education Other meanings Examples – Brown, Swan Acquired secondary meaning (distinctiveness) Trade-marks Act, s. 12(2) or s. 14 Examples – Coles, McDonalds

22 22 Registrable Trade-marks Names and Surnames (continued)  Disclaimer Trade-marks Act, s. 35  Well known historical persons Example – George Washington  Fictitious Names Example – Peter Cottontail

23 23 Registrable Trade-marks Clearly Descriptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive  Trade-marks Act, s. 12(1)(b) – whether written, depicted or sounded, either clearly descriptive or deceptively misdescriptive of character, quality, conditions of production or place of origin of wares or services  Rationale Fairness Inability of descriptive words to distinguish

24 24 Registrable Trade-marks Clearly Descriptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive  “Clearly” Self-evident, plain or easy to understand First impression Perception in connection with wares and services Perspective of ordinary everyday dealer in or purchaser of wares or services

25 25 Registrable Trade-marks Clearly Descriptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive  Character Feature, trait, function or result Examples – KOOL ONE (beer), BRIGHTS CHILLABLE RED (wine), THE GOOD SLICE (cheese)  Quality Laudatory epithets Examples – BEST BUY, SUPER SCRABBLE

26 26 Registrable Trade-marks Clearly Descriptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive  Conditions of production or persons employed in production Examples – KILNCRAFT (wares), KREBS ENGINEERS  Place of Origin TORONTO LIFE (magazines), SWISS FORMULA (lotions)

27 27 Registrable Trade-marks Clearly Descriptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive  Whether depicted, written or sounded Descriptive designs Descriptive word/design composite marks Best Canadian Motor Inns Ltd. v. Best Western International, Inc., 2004 FC 135.

28 28 Registrable Trade-marks Clearly Descriptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive  Deceptively misdescriptive Marks that would deceive consumers into making false buying decisions Examples – SHAMMI (gloves with no chamois), LIVER DINNER (cat food)

29 29 Registrable Trade-marks Clearly Descriptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive  Disclaimer Trade-marks Act, s. 35  Acquired distinctiveness Trade-marks Act, s. 12(2) or s. 14 Clearly descriptive words are registrable if they have been used by an applicant so as to have become distinctive Examples – CANADIAN (beer)

30 30 Registrable Trade-marks Confusing with Registered Trade-mark Trade-marks Act, s. 12(1)(d) Confusion Trade-marks Act, s. 6(2) Use of trade-marks in same area would be likely to lead to the inference that they have the same origin

31 31 Registrable Trade-marks Confusing with Registered Trade-mark Trade-marks Act, s. 6(5) Factors to consider in determining confusion “all the surrounding circumstances” including Inherent distinctiveness and extent to which marks known Length of time in use Nature of wares or services Nature of trade Degree of resemblance in appearance, sound or ideas suggested Other circumstances

32 32 Registrable Trade-marks Prohibited Marks Trade-marks Act, ss. 12(1)(e), 9 and 10 Marks consisting of or so nearly resembling as to be likely to be mistaken for  Royal crests, arms, etc.  Government arms, crests, flags, RCMP  Red Cross, United Nations, other international symbols  Scandalous, obscene or immoral words or designs  Matter falsely suggesting connection with individual, portraits and signatures  Official marks

33 33 Registrable Trade-marks Prohibited Marks Official marks  Trade-marks Act, s. 9(1)(n)  Badges, crests, emblems or marks adopted and used by Canadian Forces, any university, or any “public authority”  “Public authority” Subject to significant degree of government control Public benefit

34 34 Registrable Trade-marks Prohibited Marks Official marks  Not limited to specific wares and services  Not removable from register  Can be registered and used by others with consent of public authority

35 35 Registrable Trade-marks Prohibited Marks  Well known commercial symbols of quality, quantity, value, and place of origin (Trade-marks Act, s. 10) Examples – XXX (beer), Canadian Champagne  Plant varieties (Trade-marks Act, s. 10.1)  Geographical indications for wine and spirits (Trade-marks Act, ss. 12(1)(g) and (h))

36 36 Registrable Trade-marks Distinguishing guises  Trade-marks Act, s. 13  Registrable only if distinctive and its exclusive use is not likely to unreasonably limit the development of any art or industry  Examples

37 37 Registrable Trade-marks Distinguishing guises

38 TRADE-MARKS University of Toronto IP298HS Cynthia Mason – – March 17, 2005© Cynthia Mason,


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