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Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen

4 3 Contents CHAPTER FOCUS SECTION 1The Portuguese SECTION 2The Spanish SECTION 3Northwest Passage CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ASSESSMENT Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

5 4 Chapter Focus 1 Overview Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter 30 discusses European trade and exploration from the 15th to the 17th centuries.  –Section 1 discusses Portuguese explorations and discoveries.  –Section 2 describes the Spanish race for new trade routes and overseas claims.  –Section 3 explains how England, France, and the Netherlands established claims in the Americas.

6 5 Chapter Focus 2 Objectives explain why Europeans searched for a sea route to India.  After studying this chapter, you will be able to: list Portuguese discoveries.  cite discoveries financed by Spain.  discuss how the search for a northwest passage affected the Americas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

7 6 Chapter Focus 3 Read to Discover Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 467 of your textbook. Why the Europeans searched for a direct sea route to Asia  What Portuguese explorers accomplished  How explorers financed by Spain sailed to the Americas and beyond  How the search for a northwest passage affected the history of the Americas

8 7 St. Lawrence River  Hudson River Chapter Focus 4 compass  astrolabe  caravel  mutiny  papal line of demarcation  conquistadores  sea dogs  Henry the Navigator  Vasco da Gama  Christopher Columbus  Ponce de León  Ferdinand Magellan  Terms to Learn People to Know Cape of Good Hope  Places to Locate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words.

9 8 By the 1500s, Italy controlled Europe’s trade with India and other parts of Asia. To break the Italian hold on trade, other European nations began to search for an all-water route to the east. They hoped their journeys would enrich their countries and spread Christianity. A number of developments–such as more accurate maps, improved ships, and better navigation instruments–aided European explorers. One instrument was the compass, which has a magnetic needle that always points north. Another was the astrolabe, which measures the angle of the stars and helps sailors find latitude. These journeys changed world history forever. Chapter Focus 5 Why It’s Important Click the Speaker On button to replay the audio.

10 End of Chapter Focus

11 10 Section 1-1 The Portuguese The desire for new trade routes led to a great age of exploration in the 1400s.  The Portuguese were among the first to travel beyond the Mediterranean Sea.  The accomplishments of Prince Henry the Navigator and the discoveries of Bartolomeu Dias and Vasco da Gama opened the way for later explorations. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1 begins on page 467 of your textbook.

12 11 Section 1-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Prince Henry the Navigator, son of the king of Portugal, was eager to explore the African west coast to search for gold and also hoped to find a new route to the Far East for spices.  In the early 1400s, Henry set up the first European school for navigators in Sagres, Portugal.  Henry also worked with others to design and build better ships, resulting in the Portuguese caravel. Prince Henry

13 12 Section 1-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. When Henry sent explorers south along Africa's west coast, they discovered the Gold Coast, Cape Verde, the Azores, Madeira, and Canary islands.  When Henry died in 1460, Portuguese caravels had only gone part of the way down the west coast of Africa. Prince Henry (cont.)

14 13 Section 1-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Exploration continued, and in 1473, the Equator was crossed.  In 1487, Bartolomeu Dias touched several points on Africa's west coast and went on to reach Africa's east coast, after his ships were blown around the tip of the continent by a storm. Bartolomeu Dias

15 14 Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the summer of 1497, a Portuguese noble named Vasco da Gama led a convoy, or group, of four ships from Lisbon, Portugal.  Da Gama's convoy rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed north along the east coast of Africa toward the island of Mozambique, a Muslim trading center.  Da Gama's voyage opened the way for later explorations and for an era of increased trade. Vasco da Gama

16 15 Section 1-Assessment 1 Section Assessment Why was Dias’s trip important? It was important because the Portuguese now knew they could reach the Far East by sailing around Africa. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

17 16 Section 1-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) What were the results of da Gama’s voyage to India? It opened the way for later explorations and for a new era of increased trade, and made Lisbon a major trading center. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

18 17 Section 1-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Predicting Consequences How do you think the lives of African Americans today might be different if Prince Henry the Navigator had not sent explorers to West Africa? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

19 18 Answers will vary. Section 1-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 471 of your textbook, and use it to show the accomplishments of Portuguese leaders in exploration. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

20 End of Section 1

21 20 Section 2-1. Section 2 begins on page 471 of your textbook. The Spanish By 1492, Spain had become a Christian country united under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella and was now ready to enter the race for new trade routes.

22 21 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Christopher Columbus was a skilled navigator from Genoa, Italy.  Columbus believed he could reach Asia by sailing west, and he tried for eight years to convince rulers from different nations to finance an expedition.  Finally, Queen Isabella agreed to finance the voyage.  Columbus set sail from Spain in August 1492, with three small ships–the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria–and a crew of about 90 sailors. Christopher Columbus

23 22 Section 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After a while into the voyage, Columbus's crew became afraid, urged their captain to turn back, and threatened mutiny, or an overthrow of officers.  Columbus landed in the Bahamas, probably Watling Island, but because he thought he had reached the Indies, Columbus called the people Indians.  In Cuba, Columbus found Native Americans smoking cigars; this was the first European contact with tobacco. Christopher Columbus (cont.)

24 23 Section 2-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Columbus made four voyages in all and also explored the coasts of Venezuela and Central America.  Christopher Columbus (cont.) He died in 1504, never realizing that he had discovered the Americas.

25 24 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. As the Spanish monarchs were worried that Portugal might try to take riches Columbus had discovered, they asked Pope Alexander VI for help.  In 1493, the Pope drew a papal line of demarcation, or an imaginary line from the North Pole to the South Pole, giving the Spanish the land west of this line and the Portuguese the lands to the east. The Treaty of Tordesillas

26 25 Section 2-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Portuguese protested this line of demarcation, leading to the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494.  Most countries simply ignored the line and treaty. The Treaty of Tordesillas (cont.)

27 26 Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Over the next few years, Spanish conquistadores, or conquerors, set out to find the gold Columbus had talked about and to explore new lands.  In 1513, Ponce de León sailed north from the island of Puerto Rico to explore Florida.  That same year, Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the isthmus of Panama and became the first European to see the Great South Sea. The Conquistadores

28 27 Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Between 1519 and 1521, Hernando Cortés invaded Mexico.  In 1532, Francisco Pizarro invaded Peru and conquered the Inca Empire.  In 1539, Hernando de Soto sailed from Cuba to Florida and explored westward and up the Mississippi River.  In 1540, Francisco Coronado led an army overland from Mexico into the present-day United States, reaching the Grand Canyon. The Conquistadores (cont.)

29 28 Section 2-9 Thus, between 1492 and 1550, Spain explored an area from North America through Central America and the West Indies to South America. The Conquistadores (cont.)

30 29 Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1517, Portugal controlled the profitable eastern route to the Indies.  This angered the Spanish king. So, when a Portuguese sailor named Ferdinand Magellan offered to find Spain a western route to the Indies, the King accepted the offer.  In 1519, Magellan sailed through a stormy strait at the tip of South America.  Magellan sailed on into the Great South Sea and renamed it the Pacific Ocean. Ferdinand Magellan

31 30 Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Magellan set a southwest course for the Philippine Islands.  By circumnavigating the earth the voyage was a great accomplishment in proving that Earth is round.  It also proved that Columbus did not land in Asia but in the Americas. Ferdinand Magellan (cont.)

32 31 Section 2-Assessment 1 Section Assessment What were some discoveries made by the Spanish between 1513 and 1540? They discovered Florida, Mexico, Peru, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon, and the Pacific Ocean. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

33 32 Section 2-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) What did Magellan’s voyage prove? His voyage proved that the world was round. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

34 33 Section 2-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Making Comparisons Which of Spain’s explorers do you think advanced knowledge of the world the most? Explain. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

35 34 Section 2-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 476 of your textbook, and use it to show some of the effects of Columbus’s voyages. Sample effects: opened contact between Europe and the Americas, led to the exploration and conquest by the conquistadores, changed the course of Native American history, and paved the way for a Spanish empire in the Americas Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

36 End of Section 2

37 36 Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3 begins on page 476 of your textbook. Northwest Passage Even after the Americas were reached, the English, French, and Dutch continued to look for another route to the Far East.  English merchants persuaded their king to send John Cabot, an Italian navigator, to the Far East by a northwest route.  In 1523, the French hired Giovanni da Verrazano, another Italian navigator, who sailed along the Atlantic coast from North Carolina to New York.

38 37 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Northwest Passage (cont.) Jacques Cartier, a French navigator, sailed up the St. Lawrence River as far as present- day Montreal, giving the French a claim to eastern Canada.  In 1576, Sir Martin Frobisher, an English sea dog, or sea captain, sailed the coast of Greenland and discovered the bay that today bears his name.  In 1609, the Dutch sent Henry Hudson, an English navigator, to locate the passage.

39 38 Section 3-3 While all of these voyages failed in their search to find a northwest passage to the Far East, they did establish claims in the Americas for England, France, and the Netherlands. Northwest Passage (cont.)

40 39 Section 3- Assessment 1 How did English, French, and Dutch explorers plan to reach Asia? They planned to reach Asia by a northwest passage. Section Assessment Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

41 40 Section 3- Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) What lands in the Americas were claimed by England? By France? By the Netherlands? England claimed Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia. France claimed lands along the St. Lawrence River. The Netherlands claimed lands along the Hudson River. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

42 41 Section 3- Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment What characteristics or kinds of personalities do you think the English, French, and Dutch explorers had to have to achieve what they did? Answers will vary. These explorers needed to be brave, adventurous, or greedy, or they liked traveling. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

43 42 Sample responses: Causes–Spanish and Portuguese control of southern sea lands, desire of other European nations for sea routes to the Far East; Effects–exploration of North America’s Atlantic coast; land claims by England, France, and the Netherlands Section 3- Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 478 of your textbook, and use it to show the causes and effects of the search for a northwest passage. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

44 End of Section 3

45 44 Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary & Study Guide By the 1300s, Europeans tried to break the Italian hold on trade by searching for an all- water route to India and beyond.  The development of better maps, ships, and navigation instruments helped Europeans in their search.  In the early 1400s, Prince Henry of Portugal opened the first school in Europe for navigators. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

46 45 Chapter Summary 2 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) By 1473, Portuguese ships had crossed the equator. By 1498, they had reached India.  Between 1492 and 1504, Columbus made four voyages to what he thought was Asia but was really the Americas.  In 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas divided non-Christian lands between Spain and Portugal, but other nations ignored the agreement. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

47 46 Chapter Summary 3 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) In the first half of the 1500s, Cortés and Pizarro conquered the Aztec and Inca empires, encouraging other explorers to search for other empires in the Americas.  Between 1519 and 1522, Magellan’s expedition sailed around the world, proving that Columbus did not land in Asia.  Between 1497 and 1609, England, France, and the Netherlands sent explorers to find a northwest passage through the Americas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

48 47 Chapter Summary 4 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Early English, French, and Dutch voyages paved the way for future claims in North America.

49 End of Chapter Summary

50 49 Chapter Assessment 1 Understanding the Main Idea What were some of the problems that European explorers faced on their voyages of discovery? storms, scurvy, spoiled food and water, and starvation Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

51 50 Chapter Assessment 2 What was the first European settlement in the Americas? a fort built with wood from the Santa Maria Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

52 51 Chapter Assessment 3 What are three bodies of water named after European explorers? Strait of Magellan, Frobisher Bay, and Hudson River Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

53 52 Chapter Assessment 4 How long did it take Magellan’s ship to sail around the world? three years Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

54 53 Chapter Assessment 5 What did voyages in search of a northwest passage to Asia accomplish? claims in the Americas for England, France, and the Netherlands Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

55 54 Chapter Assessment 6 Why do you think Queen Isabella of Spain agreed to support Columbus when others had turned him down? She thought finding a new route to Asia would make Spain richer. Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

56 55 Chapter Assessment 7 How do you think Native Americans felt about the conquistadores? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

57 56 Chapter Assessment 8 How did competition between nations affect European voyages of exploration? Each nation wanted to extend its trade and power, and to be richer than other nations. They thought they could do this by finding a new route to the Far East. The search led to the discovery of the Americas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

58 57 Chapter Assessment 9 Movement The lengths of voyages made by explorers were very different. Whose voyage from Portugal to India was longer in miles (or kilometers)–da Gama’s or Cabral’s? How many miles (or kilometers) long was it? da Gama’s; about 2,900 miles (or 4,666 km) longer Geography in History Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

59 58 Chapter Assessment 10 How did discoveries by non- Europeans help Europeans begin their voyages of exploration? Make a cause-and-effect chart showing these relationships. Add a summary statement to explain your chart.

60 End of Chapter Assessment

61 60 History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.humanheritage.glencoe.com

62 61 Global Chronology 1 1492 Columbus reaches the Americas 1487 Dias rounds the tip of Africa 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

63 62 Global Chronology 2 1519 Magellan begins journey across the Pacific 1498 Vasco da Gama reaches India 1521 Hernando Cortés invades Mexico Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

64 63 People in History 2.1 Born a noble, Magellan sailed on early Portuguese voyages to India. However, when he sought permission to look for a new western route to this region, Portuguese rulers turned him down. He moved to Spain, where he received funding for his voyage. Sailing as a Spanish citizen, Magellan charted a journey that proved what the Greeks had guessed–that the world was round and that the continents of the earth were linked by bodies of water. Ferdinand Magellan c. 1480–1521 Portuguese Navigator

65 64 Fun Facts 2.1 Columbus’s interest in seafaring may have been shaped by the geography of his birthplace, the Republic of Genoa. As the city lacked fertile land and was surrounded by powerful rival cities like Milan and Florence, many Genoans looked to the Mediterranean Sea to find their fortune. Looking to the Sea

66 65 Then & Now 1.1 Goa, on the southwest coast of India, was a Portuguese colony from 1510 until 1961 when it became part of India. Catholic and Hindu traditions blended there. Today the people of Goa celebrate festivals such as Carnival in much the same way as people in Brazil, also once a Portuguese colony. Goa

67 66 Then & Now 2.1 Did you have orange juice for breakfast? If you did, it may be because of Columbus’s second voyage to the Americas in 1493. The citrus seeds that he brought to the West Indies took root in the islands and later were grown in Mexico and Florida. Seeds Across the Sea

68 67 Map Skills 1.1 Reviewing Map Legends Legends, as explained in the map skill on page 75 of your textbook, are used to identify information shown on maps.  Legends provide the key to the meaning of an unlimited number of symbols and colors that can be used on maps.  Sometimes, however, one legend may be used in several ways. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

69 68 Map Skills 1.2 For example, on the “European Voyages of Discovery” map on page 475 of your textbook, five colors are used in the legend.  On this particular map, these colors are used to show two different things.  First, they point out the five European countries that took part in the voyages of discovery. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Reviewing Map Legends Continued on next slide.

70 69 Map Skills 1.3 Second, the colors show the different routes taken by explorers from these countries.  For example, Portugal is shown in yellow.  The routes that the Portuguese explorers took are also shown in yellow. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide. Reviewing Map Legends

71 70 Map Skills 1.4 Continued on next slide. Study the map on page 475 of your textbook. Then answer the questions that follow. Reviewing Map Legends

72 71 Map Skills 1.5 What two countries had explorers sail around the world? Spain and England Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continued on next slide. Reviewing Map Legends

73 72 Map Skills 1.6 What country did not send any explorers south of 25º N latitude? France Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Map Legends

74 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

75 End of Slide Show


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