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**Torque on a Current Loop, 2**

There is a force on sides 2 & 4 since they are perpendicular to the field The magnitude of the magnetic force on these sides will be: F2 = F4 = I a B The direction of F2 is out of the page The direction of F4 is into the page

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**Torque on a Current Loop, 3**

The forces are equal and in opposite directions, but not along the same line of action The forces produce a torque around point O

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**Torque on a Current Loop, Equation**

The maximum torque is found by: The area enclosed by the loop is ab, so τmax = IAB This maximum value occurs only when the field is parallel to the plane of the loop

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**Torque on a Current Loop, General**

Assume the magnetic field makes an angle of q < 90o with a line perpendicular to the plane of the loop The net torque about point O will be τ = IAB sin q Use the active figure to vary the initial settings and observe the resulting motion PLAY ACTIVE FIGURE

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**Torque on a Current Loop, Summary**

The torque has a maximum value when the field is perpendicular to the normal to the plane of the loop The torque is zero when the field is parallel to the normal to the plane of the loop where is perpendicular to the plane of the loop and has a magnitude equal to the area of the loop

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Direction The right-hand rule can be used to determine the direction of Curl your fingers in the direction of the current in the loop Your thumb points in the direction of

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**Magnetic Dipole Moment**

The product I is defined as the magnetic dipole moment, , of the loop Often called the magnetic moment SI units: A · m2 Torque in terms of magnetic moment: Analogous to for electric dipole

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**Sources of the Magnetic Field**

Chapter 30 Sources of the Magnetic Field

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**Biot-Savart Law – Introduction**

Biot and Savart conducted experiments on the force exerted by an electric current on a nearby magnet They arrived at a mathematical expression that gives the magnetic field at some point in space due to a current

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**Biot-Savart Law – Set-Up**

The magnetic field is at some point P The length element is The wire is carrying a steady current of I Please replace with fig. 30.1

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**Biot-Savart Law – Observations**

The vector is perpendicular to both and to the unit vector directed from toward P The magnitude of is inversely proportional to r2, where r is the distance from to P

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**What does this tell you about the magnetic field, ?**

It goes like the scalar dot product of and It goes like X is usually zero 0 of 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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**Biot-Savart Law – Observations, cont**

The magnitude of is proportional to the current and to the magnitude ds of the length element The magnitude of is proportional to sin q, where q is the angle between the vectors and

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**Biot-Savart Law – Equation**

The observations are summarized in the mathematical equation called the Biot-Savart law: The magnetic field described by the law is the field due to the current-carrying conductor Don’t confuse this field with a field external to the conductor

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**Permeability of Free Space**

The constant mo is called the permeability of free space mo = 4p x 10-7 T. m / A

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Total Magnetic Field is the field created by the current in the length segment ds To find the total field, sum up the contributions from all the current elements I The integral is over the entire current distribution

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**Biot-Savart Law – Final Notes**

The law is also valid for a current consisting of charges flowing through space represents the length of a small segment of space in which the charges flow For example, this could apply to the electron beam in a TV set

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Compared to Distance The magnitude of the magnetic field varies as the inverse square of the distance from the source The electric field due to a point charge also varies as the inverse square of the distance from the charge

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Compared to , 2 Direction The electric field created by a point charge is radial in direction The magnetic field created by a current element is perpendicular to both the length element and the unit vector

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Compared to , 3 Source An electric field is established by an isolated electric charge The current element that produces a magnetic field must be part of an extended current distribution Therefore you must integrate over the entire current distribution

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**Which variable can be pulled out of the integral?**

ds sinθ r2 None of them 0 of 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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**How are θ and Φ related? Φ = θ – π/2 Φ = θ Φ = π/2 – θ Φ = θ + π/2**

0 of 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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**for a Long, Straight Conductor, Special Case**

The field becomes

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**for a Long, Straight Conductor, Direction**

The magnetic field lines are circles concentric with the wire The field lines lie in planes perpendicular to to wire The magnitude of the field is constant on any circle of radius a The right-hand rule for determining the direction of the field is shown

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**for a Curved Wire Segment**

Find the field at point O due to the wire segment I and R are constants q will be in radians

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**What about the contribution from the wires coming in and going out?**

They are distant enough to neglect their contribution X = 0 The two currents cancel each other 0 of 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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**for a Curved Wire Segment**

Find the field at point O due to the wire segment I and R are constants q will be in radians

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**for a Circular Loop of Wire**

Consider the previous result, with a full circle q = 2p This is the field at the center of the loop

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**for a Circular Current Loop**

The loop has a radius of R and carries a steady current of I Find the field at point P

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**What can we pull out of the integral this time?**

Sin θ ds nothing 0 of 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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**for a Circular Current Loop**

The loop has a radius of R and carries a steady current of I Find the field at point P

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Comparison of Loops Consider the field at the center of the current loop At this special point, x = 0 Then, This is exactly the same result as from the curved wire

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Magnetic Field due to a Current-Carrying Wire Biot-Savart Law

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