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Chapter 30 Economic and Social Change in the Late 20th Century Web.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 30 Economic and Social Change in the Late 20th Century Web."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 30 Economic and Social Change in the Late 20th Century Web

2 A Changing People An Aging population Population growth slowing Median age of population rising Rise of the sunbelt South and West gained population Rise of tourism Proliferation of new retirement communities Growth of high-tech industries

3 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Population Shifts Towards the”Sunbelt”

4 New Immigration Asia and Latin American largest sources Immigration Act of 1965 Major impetus to new immigration Refugee Act of 1980 Admission for political refugees Prohibition against those seeking merely economic improvement Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986 Stiffened penalties for employers who hired illegal aliens Residency procedures for long-time alien workers

5 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. New Immigrants, 1970-1990

6 Urbanization and Suburbanization Most Americans living in metropolitan areas by 1990 Suburbs melted into “urban corridors” Central cities becoming financial, administrative, and entertainment centers Declining tax revenues and deteriorating schools and infrastructures plagued most urban centers

7 Economic Transformations New technologies Biotechnology, high-performance computing, communications Big Business Computers transformed the way business was done E-commerce, automated teller machines, debit cards, electronic banking Franchising and chain stores Standardized products throughout the nation (and even world) Production facilities moved out of U.S. and into other countries Foreign ownership of U.S. Companies became widespread

8 Economic Transformations Economic Transformations (cont.) Postindustrial restructuring Corporate downsizing after 1970s Merger boom in 1980s and 1990s Loss of jobs in traditional manufacturing and extractive sectors Proliferation of jobs in service, high technology, and information and entertainment sectors Decline in union membership

9 The Environment Environmental activism Improving people’s health and maintaining ecological balance Air, water, soil quality all in danger Government policy in 19770s Environmental Protection Agency established Resources Recovery act (19770) Clean Air Act (1970) Water Pollution act (1970) Pesticides Control Act (1972) Endangered Species (1973) Controversy over Love Canal, New York

10 The Environment The Environment (cont.) Creation of Superfund Sagebrush Rebellion during 1980s Clinton administration environmental efforts Revelations of past government abuses Radiation experiments during 1940s and 1950s Focus on global ass well as national concerns

11 Energy Policy Environmental problems often caused by patterns of energy use Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Exposed U.S. dependence on fossil fuels Department of Energy created, 1977 Research and development on nuclear power Three Mile Island 1979 Put brakes on nuclear power industry

12 Media and Culture: Television “Narrowcasting” targeted specific demographic audiences Independent stations began to challenge the big three networks VCR allowed viewers to take control Rise of cable television threatened traditional networks’ position Different programs for specific audiences Further fragmented television viewing

13 Media and Culture:Changing Media Environment Movie studios focused on churning out blockbusters Studios played it safe ands recycled story lines and special effects that had made money in the past Intertwining of Hollywood and television, once big rivals Proliferation of VCRs, DVDs, and cable movie channels People able to transform televisions into home move theaters Changes in pop music industry MTV aesthetic Introduction of CDs transformed nature of the music product and the listening experience Internet and MP3 technology technology offered news medium for listening to music

14 Media and Culture: The New Mass Culture Debate Debate over “family programming” Cultural analysts elevated popular culture as legitimate field of study New Filed of “Cultural studies” How people reworked images from the mass media Television programs as vehicles for discussing social and political issues Accompanied by “multiculturalism” Legitimized works by women, political outsiders, and non- Western writers and artists

15 Social Activism: Women’s Issues Old ideas of domesticity clashed with realities women found themselves in Gender issues came to pervade civil rights and antiwar movements Women often found traditional sexism among male leaders “Consciousness raising” sessions during 1970s Intertwining of political and personal power issues Women’s movement became highly diverse Pursued variety of goals Utilized variety of strategies

16 Social Activism: Sexual Politics Gender/sexuality debates divided over issues involving gays and lesbians Stonewall Inn, 1969 Turning point for gay rights movement AIDS crisis Medical and political issue’ Early research was insignificant Gays in the military controversy, 1992 “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy

17 African-American Activism Civil rights and black power struggles had fostered strong sense of cultural identity Stressed pride in African-American heritage Conflict among black women Saw some male rap music ads misogynistic Clarence Thomas nominated to supreme Court Flash point for concerns about sexism in African-American community and about general racism in American society Racial profiling and unfair practices in legal system Retention of confederate flag by some Southern states and institutions Congressional Black Caucus established 1970

18 American Indian Activism Both tribal-specific and pan-Indian concerns American Indian Movement Occupation of Alcatraz 1969 Pine Ridge confrontation 1973 Indian Bill of Rights 1968 Tribally Controlled College Assistance Act, 1978 Native American Rights Fund Pushed claims stemming from old treaties Fishing and agricultural rights Protection for religious ceremonies Return of skeletal remains held/displayed by museums Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, 1990 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 1988

19 Activism in Spanish-Speaking Communities Spanish speakers are nation’s fast-growing ethnic group Different opinions over labels “Hispanic”, “Latino”, “Chicano” Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund Communities Organized for Public Service (COPS) United Neighborhood Organization in Los Angeles National Network of Hispanic Women Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education fund

20 Asian American Activism Pan-Asian movement of immigrants of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Filipino backgrounds Asian Pacific Planning Council Asian Law Caucus Committee Against Anti-Asian Violence National Asian Pacific American Network Council Broad approach did raise some questions of inclusion and exclusion Filipino and Hmong immigrants especially independent about pursuing their own agenda

21 Dilemmas of Anti-discrimination Efforts Idea of “affirmative action” So that groups that had historically experienced discrimination could begin to share in benefits Jobs, public spending, educational programs Representative number of people from different groups had to have access, not just a few individuals Group identity that was most important Aroused ire of Republicans and conservatives in general Considered it a dangerous form of interest-group politics Smacked of racist quotas Asserted that it would lead to “reverse discrimination” California’s Proposition 209, 1996

22 The New Right Neo-Conservatives and new conservative institutions American Enterprise Institute Heritage Foundation Committee on the Present Danger The New Religious Right Fundamentalist and evangelical support The Conservative political agenda National Conservative Political Action committee (NCPAC) Conservative caucus Committee for the Survival of a Free Congress Moral Majority The New Religious Right and the media Cable television reached huge,receptive audiences Web

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