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America: Past and Present Chapter 30

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1 America: Past and Present Chapter 30
THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America: Past and Present Chapter 30


3 Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War
John F. Kennedy a "Cold Warrior" Kennedy advisors support U.S. hard line against Russia

4 Flexible Response Arms buildup
conventional armed forces the nuclear arsenal Special Forces U.S. strength tempts new administration to challenge U.S.S.R.

5 Crisis over Berlin 1961--Khrushchev renews threat again to give Berlin to East Germany Kennedy’s response announce crisis on nationwide television call up the National Guard Soviets retreat Berlin Wall built

6 Containment in Southeast Asia
Kennedy sees Southeast Asia as focus of U.S.-Soviet rivalry support Saigon’s Diem regime sends 16,000 American military "advisors" November, coup against Diem Kennedy accepts coup further destabilizes South Vietnam U.S. involvement in Vietnam deepened

7 Containing Castro: The Bay of Pigs Fiasco
Kennedy supports “anti-Castro forces in exile” Bay of Pigs invasion a part of 1960 CIA plan under Eisenhower April, —Invasion 1,400 Cuban exiles land without expected U.S. military support Defeated within 48 hours Kennedy takes responsibility in defiant speech against “communist penetration”

8 Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis
October, Soviet nuclear missiles confirmed in Cuba Plan to blockade, invade Cuba October 22--Kennedy informs Americans of Cuban Missile Crisis October 28--Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles

9 Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis (2)
Political Kennedy’s popularity soars Democrats gain in Congressional elections Diplomatic effects moderation of the Cold War Russians begin naval, nuclear buildup

10 The New Frontier at Home
Kennedy staff competent, activist Seeks legislative and economic reform JFK the administration's greatest asset

11 The Congressional Obstacle
Congress controlled by Southern Democrat-Republican coalition Coalition blocks far-reaching reform Kennedy does not challenge Congress

12 Economic Advance Economic stimulation
increased space, defense spending informal wage and price guidelines 1962--U.S. Steel forced to lower prices 1963--tax cut spurs one of the longest sustained advances in U.S. history Kennedy's economic policies double growth, cut unemployment

13 Moving Slowly on Civil Rights
Downplay civil rights legislation to avoid alienating Southern Democrats May, federal marshals sent to protect Birmingham freedom riders 1962--federal marshals, National Guard to U. of Mississippi 1963--deputy attorney general faces down George Wallace at U. of Alabama

14 "I Have a Dream" May, violent police suppression of nonviolent protestors in Birmingham Kennedy intervenes on side of blacks Congress asked for civil-rights laws August, MLK leads March on Washington Kennedy record disappointing to supporters, ultimately effective

15 The Supreme Court and Reform
Defendants’ rights in criminal cases Legislative reapportionment of states 1962--Baker v. Carr establishes "one man, one vote" Greater social justice achieved rights of the underprivileged protected dissent and free expression protected

16 "Let Us Continue" November 22, JFK assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald Lyndon Johnson promises to continue Kennedy's programs Johnson ultimately exceeds Kennedy’s record on economic, racial equality

17 Johnson in Action Poor image on television
Effective manager of Congress Spring, Kennedy's tax cut passed July 2-- Civil Rights Act bans public segregation protects voting rights

18 The Election of 1964 1964--Johnson launches “war on poverty” to
encourage self-help reduce poverty Johnson wins landslide election against Republican Barry Goldwater

19 The Triumph of Reform 1965 Great Society legislation advances beyond New Deal Medicare Medicaid Elementary and Secondary Education Act Voting Rights Act

20 African American Voter Registration Before and After Passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1964

21 The Second Great Migration: A Theoretical Example


23 Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War
Hawkish foreign policy continued 1965--troops sent to Dominican Republic Determined not to "lose" Vietnam to the Communists

24 The Vietnam Dilemma 1964--Saigon on the verge of collapse
Johnson’s initial response refuse to send American combat forces economic aid military advisers covert actions August Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

25 Southeast Asia and the Vietnam War

26 Escalation Johnson seeks to avoid diverting resource from Great Society to Vietnam U.S. effort intended to bring Hanoi into peace negotiations Policy of secrecy and deceit to assure Americans of Vietnam’s insignificance

27 Stalemate 1968--500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam
War of attrition increases American losses, enrages South Vietnamese Johnson’s tactics fail to win the war Americans gradually turn against the war

28 U.S. Troop Levels in Vietnam (as of Dec. 31 each year)

29 Years of Turmoil Exceptional unrest at home
Continued escalation of Vietnam war

30 The Student Revolt 1964--student protest movement launched at Berkeley
Challenge older generation’s materialism Vietnam War targeted Widespread cultural uprising

31 Protesting the Vietnam War
October, ,000 protesters besiege the Pentagon Demonstrations suppressed by a combination of force, concessions

32 The Cultural Revolution
Rejection of older values through sexual expression clothing drugs music Some extremism provokes outrage Serious challenge to hypocrisy of American society

33 "Black Power" 1964-1967--riots in northern cities
Rise of militant leaders black separatism armed struggle MLK leads anti-poverty crusade April, MLK assassinated Militancy increases African American pride

34 Ethnic Nationalism Multiple groups emulate African American movement
1965--César Chávez organizes National Farm Workers' Association Chicanos win federal mandate for bilingual education

35 Women's Liberation 1963--Friedan's The Feminine Mystique
New feminist activism 1964 Civil Rights Act used to attack inequality in employment pro-choice advocacy on abortion seek to toughen enforcement of rape laws 1972--Congress sends Equal Rights Amendment to the states

36 The Return of Richard Nixon
1968 a year of turmoil presidential election turning point in the Vietnam War massive protests in the streets Richard Nixon election demonstrates desire for national reconciliation

37 Vietnam Undermines Lyndon Johnson
1968--Tet Offensive leads to conclusion that Vietnam war cannot be won March--Johnson announces he will not seek another term as president

38 The Democrats Divide Rivals Kennedy assassinated during campaign
Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy Robert Kennedy party leaders favor Hubert Humphrey Kennedy assassinated during campaign 1968 Democratic convention in Chicago besieged by antiwar protestors Democrats wounded in public opinion

39 The Republican Resurgence
Republicans unite on Richard Nixon George Wallace’s third party candidacy draws Democratic votes Nixon wins narrow victory


41 The End of an Era Election of 1968 ends thirty-year era of liberal reform, activist foreign policy Americans seek less intrusive government

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