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THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America: Past and Present Chapter 30.

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Presentation on theme: "THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America: Past and Present Chapter 30."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America: Past and Present Chapter 30

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3 Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War John F. Kennedy a "Cold Warrior"John F. Kennedy a "Cold Warrior" Kennedy advisors support U.S. hard line against RussiaKennedy advisors support U.S. hard line against Russia

4 Flexible Response Arms buildupArms buildup conventional armed forcesconventional armed forces the nuclear arsenalthe nuclear arsenal Special ForcesSpecial Forces U.S. strength tempts new administration to challenge U.S.S.R.U.S. strength tempts new administration to challenge U.S.S.R.

5 Crisis over Berlin Khrushchev renews threat again to give Berlin to East Germany1961--Khrushchev renews threat again to give Berlin to East Germany Kennedy’s responseKennedy’s response announce crisis on nationwide televisionannounce crisis on nationwide television call up the National Guardcall up the National Guard Soviets retreatSoviets retreat Berlin Wall builtBerlin Wall built

6 Containment in Southeast Asia Kennedy sees Southeast Asia as focus of U.S.-Soviet rivalryKennedy sees Southeast Asia as focus of U.S.-Soviet rivalry support Saigon’s Diem regimesupport Saigon’s Diem regime sends 16,000 American military "advisors"sends 16,000 American military "advisors" November, coup against DiemNovember, coup against Diem Kennedy acceptsKennedy accepts coup further destabilizes South Vietnamcoup further destabilizes South Vietnam U.S. involvement in Vietnam deepenedU.S. involvement in Vietnam deepened

7 Containing Castro: The Bay of Pigs Fiasco Kennedy supports “anti-Castro forces in exile”Kennedy supports “anti-Castro forces in exile” Bay of Pigs invasion a part of 1960 CIA plan under EisenhowerBay of Pigs invasion a part of 1960 CIA plan under Eisenhower April, —InvasionApril, —Invasion 1,400 Cuban exiles land without expected U.S. military support1,400 Cuban exiles land without expected U.S. military support Defeated within 48 hoursDefeated within 48 hours Kennedy takes responsibility in defiant speech against “communist penetration”Kennedy takes responsibility in defiant speech against “communist penetration”

8 Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis October, Soviet nuclear missiles confirmed in CubaOctober, Soviet nuclear missiles confirmed in Cuba Plan to blockade, invade CubaPlan to blockade, invade Cuba October 22--Kennedy informs Americans of Cuban Missile CrisisOctober 22--Kennedy informs Americans of Cuban Missile Crisis October 28--Khrushchev agrees to remove missilesOctober 28--Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles

9 Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis (2) PoliticalPolitical Kennedy’s popularity soarsKennedy’s popularity soars Democrats gain in Congressional electionsDemocrats gain in Congressional elections Diplomatic effectsDiplomatic effects moderation of the Cold Warmoderation of the Cold War Russians begin naval, nuclear buildupRussians begin naval, nuclear buildup

10 The New Frontier at Home Kennedy staff competent, activistKennedy staff competent, activist Seeks legislative and economic reformSeeks legislative and economic reform JFK the administration's greatest assetJFK the administration's greatest asset

11 The Congressional Obstacle Congress controlled by Southern Democrat-Republican coalitionCongress controlled by Southern Democrat-Republican coalition Coalition blocks far-reaching reformCoalition blocks far-reaching reform Kennedy does not challenge CongressKennedy does not challenge Congress

12 Economic Advance Economic stimulationEconomic stimulation increased space, defense spendingincreased space, defense spending informal wage and price guidelinesinformal wage and price guidelines U.S. Steel forced to lower prices1962--U.S. Steel forced to lower prices tax cut spurs one of the longest sustained advances in U.S. history1963--tax cut spurs one of the longest sustained advances in U.S. history Kennedy's economic policies double growth, cut unemploymentKennedy's economic policies double growth, cut unemployment

13 Moving Slowly on Civil Rights Downplay civil rights legislation to avoid alienating Southern DemocratsDownplay civil rights legislation to avoid alienating Southern Democrats May, federal marshals sent to protect Birmingham freedom ridersMay, federal marshals sent to protect Birmingham freedom riders federal marshals, National Guard to U. of Mississippi1962--federal marshals, National Guard to U. of Mississippi deputy attorney general faces down George Wallace at U. of Alabama1963--deputy attorney general faces down George Wallace at U. of Alabama

14 "I Have a Dream" May, violent police suppression of nonviolent protestors in BirminghamMay, violent police suppression of nonviolent protestors in Birmingham Kennedy intervenes on side of blacksKennedy intervenes on side of blacks Congress asked for civil-rights lawsCongress asked for civil-rights laws August, MLK leads March on WashingtonAugust, MLK leads March on Washington Kennedy record disappointing to supporters, ultimately effectiveKennedy record disappointing to supporters, ultimately effective

15 The Supreme Court and Reform Defendants’ rights in criminal casesDefendants’ rights in criminal cases Legislative reapportionment of statesLegislative reapportionment of states Baker v. Carr establishes "one man, one vote"1962--Baker v. Carr establishes "one man, one vote" Greater social justice achievedGreater social justice achieved rights of the underprivileged protectedrights of the underprivileged protected dissent and free expression protecteddissent and free expression protected

16 "Let Us Continue" November 22, JFK assassinated by Lee Harvey OswaldNovember 22, JFK assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald Lyndon Johnson promises to continue Kennedy's programsLyndon Johnson promises to continue Kennedy's programs Johnson ultimately exceeds Kennedy’s record on economic, racial equalityJohnson ultimately exceeds Kennedy’s record on economic, racial equality

17 Johnson in Action Poor image on televisionPoor image on television Effective manager of CongressEffective manager of Congress Spring, Kennedy's tax cut passedSpring, Kennedy's tax cut passed July 2-- Civil Rights ActJuly 2-- Civil Rights Act bans public segregationbans public segregation protects voting rightsprotects voting rights

18 The Election of Johnson launches “war on poverty” to1964--Johnson launches “war on poverty” to encourage self-helpencourage self-help reduce povertyreduce poverty Johnson wins landslide election against Republican Barry GoldwaterJohnson wins landslide election against Republican Barry Goldwater

19 The Triumph of Reform 1965 Great Society legislation advances beyond New Deal1965 Great Society legislation advances beyond New Deal MedicareMedicare MedicaidMedicaid Elementary and Secondary Education ActElementary and Secondary Education Act Voting Rights ActVoting Rights Act

20 African American Voter Registration Before and After Passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1964

21 The Second Great Migration: A Theoretical Example

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23 Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War Hawkish foreign policy continuedHawkish foreign policy continued troops sent to Dominican Republic1965--troops sent to Dominican Republic Determined not to "lose" Vietnam to the CommunistsDetermined not to "lose" Vietnam to the Communists

24 The Vietnam Dilemma Saigon on the verge of collapse1964--Saigon on the verge of collapse Johnson’s initial response Johnson’s initial response refuse to send American combat forcesrefuse to send American combat forces economic aideconomic aid military advisersmilitary advisers covert actionscovert actions August Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionAugust Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

25 Southeast Asia and the Vietnam War

26 Escalation Johnson seeks to avoid diverting resource from Great Society to VietnamJohnson seeks to avoid diverting resource from Great Society to Vietnam U.S. effort intended to bring Hanoi into peace negotiationsU.S. effort intended to bring Hanoi into peace negotiations Policy of secrecy and deceit to assure Americans of Vietnam’s insignificancePolicy of secrecy and deceit to assure Americans of Vietnam’s insignificance

27 Stalemate ,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam ,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam War of attrition increases American losses, enrages South VietnameseWar of attrition increases American losses, enrages South Vietnamese Johnson’s tactics fail to win the warJohnson’s tactics fail to win the war Americans gradually turn against the warAmericans gradually turn against the war

28 U.S. Troop Levels in Vietnam (as of Dec. 31 each year)

29 Years of Turmoil Exceptional unrest at homeExceptional unrest at home Continued escalation of Vietnam warContinued escalation of Vietnam war

30 The Student Revolt student protest movement launched at Berkeley1964--student protest movement launched at Berkeley Challenge older generation’s materialismChallenge older generation’s materialism Vietnam War targetedVietnam War targeted Widespread cultural uprisingWidespread cultural uprising

31 Protesting the Vietnam War October, ,000 protesters besiege the PentagonOctober, ,000 protesters besiege the Pentagon Demonstrations suppressed by a combination of force, concessionsDemonstrations suppressed by a combination of force, concessions

32 The Cultural Revolution Rejection of older values throughRejection of older values through sexual expressionsexual expression clothingclothing drugsdrugs musicmusic Some extremism provokes outrageSome extremism provokes outrage Serious challenge to hypocrisy of American societySerious challenge to hypocrisy of American society

33 "Black Power" riots in northern cities riots in northern cities Rise of militant leadersRise of militant leaders black separatismblack separatism armed strugglearmed struggle MLK leads anti-poverty crusadeMLK leads anti-poverty crusade April, MLK assassinatedApril, MLK assassinated Militancy increases African American prideMilitancy increases African American pride

34 Ethnic Nationalism Multiple groups emulate African American movementMultiple groups emulate African American movement César Chávez organizes National Farm Workers' Association1965--César Chávez organizes National Farm Workers' Association Chicanos win federal mandate for bilingual educationChicanos win federal mandate for bilingual education

35 Women's Liberation Friedan's The Feminine Mystique1963--Friedan's The Feminine Mystique New feminist activismNew feminist activism 1964 Civil Rights Act used to attack inequality in employment1964 Civil Rights Act used to attack inequality in employment pro-choice advocacy on abortionpro-choice advocacy on abortion seek to toughen enforcement of rape lawsseek to toughen enforcement of rape laws Congress sends Equal Rights Amendment to the states1972--Congress sends Equal Rights Amendment to the states

36 The Return of Richard Nixon 1968 a year of turmoil1968 a year of turmoil presidential electionpresidential election turning point in the Vietnam Warturning point in the Vietnam War massive protests in the streetsmassive protests in the streets Richard Nixon election demonstrates desire for national reconciliationRichard Nixon election demonstrates desire for national reconciliation

37 Vietnam Undermines Lyndon Johnson Tet Offensive leads to conclusion that Vietnam war cannot be won1968--Tet Offensive leads to conclusion that Vietnam war cannot be won March--Johnson announces he will not seek another term as presidentMarch--Johnson announces he will not seek another term as president

38 The Democrats Divide RivalsRivals Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthyMinnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy Robert KennedyRobert Kennedy party leaders favor Hubert Humphreyparty leaders favor Hubert Humphrey Kennedy assassinated during campaignKennedy assassinated during campaign 1968 Democratic convention in Chicago besieged by antiwar protestors1968 Democratic convention in Chicago besieged by antiwar protestors Democrats wounded in public opinionDemocrats wounded in public opinion

39 The Republican Resurgence Republicans unite on Richard NixonRepublicans unite on Richard Nixon George Wallace’s third party candidacy draws Democratic votesGeorge Wallace’s third party candidacy draws Democratic votes Nixon wins narrow victoryNixon wins narrow victory

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41 The End of an Era Election of 1968 ends thirty-year era of liberal reform, activist foreign policyElection of 1968 ends thirty-year era of liberal reform, activist foreign policy Americans seek less intrusive governmentAmericans seek less intrusive government


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