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Patrick F. Bassett, NAIS President What’s New…and True: Conversations We Need To Have.

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Presentation on theme: "Patrick F. Bassett, NAIS President What’s New…and True: Conversations We Need To Have."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Patrick F. Bassett, NAIS President What’s New…and True: Conversations We Need To Have

3 The NAIS/Harvard Seminars 11/12-14/07  A Vision of Students Today (www.YouTube.com): College-prep: Preparation for what????? A Vision of Students Today  Mindsets: The New Psychology of Success (Carol Dweck) Mindsets:  The Clue Train Manifesto - 95 Theses on Marketing (www.cluetrain.org) The Clue Train Manifesto  Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (Daniel Tapscott & Anthony Williams) Wikinomics:  Finland’s World-class Education (McKinsey Report, Oct 18, 2007 Economist & Microsoft International Summit for the School of the Future, Helsinki, Oct, 2007) Finland’s World-class Education

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5 A Vision of Students Today What’s the students’ message about college classrooms? What’s the message to “college-prep” secondary schools? Will Our Graduates Be Leaders in the More Flat, Global and Competitive Future? See Two Million Minutes.SeeTwo Million Minutes Parker Palmer’s distinction: “pursuit of truth” in a detached “academic” manner or “leaning into it”? Do students pursue truth or vice-versa?

6 The NAIS/Harvard Seminars 11/12-14/07  A Vision of Students Today (www.YouTube.com): College-prep: Preparation for what????? A Vision of Students Today  Mindsets: The New Psychology of Success (Carol Dweck) Mindsets:  The Clue Train Manifesto - 95 Theses on Marketing (www.cluetrain.org) The Clue Train Manifesto  Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (Daniel Tapscott & Anthony Williams) Wikinomics:  Finland’s World-class Education (McKinsey Report, Oct 18, 2007 Economist & Microsoft International Summit for the School of the Future, Helsinki, Oct, 2007) Finland’s World-class Education

7 Two Mindsets:  Fixed Mindset: Intelligence is a fixed trait (nature)  Growth Mindset: Intelligence is a malleable quality; a potential that can be developed (nurture) Mindsets: The New Psychology of Success Source: Carol Dweck, NAIS Board Meeting, 11/11/07

8 People with Fixed Mindsets Source: Carol Dweck, NAIS Board Meeting, 11/11/07  Why do so many bright students quit working when experience a setback?  Why can’t many athletes take feedback/criticism without exploding?  Why do so many employees, especially the Millennials, need daily rewards and recognition? Because…  They have a fixed mindset, thinking that intelligence, or athletic ability or professional competence are set.  Fixed mindset people organize their lives around trying to look talented and trying never to look inept. Blame others for setbacks. (The young John McEnroe).

9 People with Growth Mindsets Source: Carol Dweck, NAIS Board Meeting, 11/11/07  Believe that intelligence/ability is a malleable quality, a potential that can be developed with hard and persistent work and resolve.  Presented with setback, see a challenge and learning opportunity, not a defeat.  Presented with success, they seek improvement: e.g., the mature Tiger Woods, who dismantled his winning swing, began losing, stuck with the growth plan, and has returned with an even better swing and more success.

10 People with Growth Mindsets Source: Carol Dweck, NAIS Board Meeting, 11/11/07  Understand that Einstein wasn’t Einstein when he was born, and didn’t become Einstein until after years of dedicated, passionate study. In fact, Einstein was a delayed learner.  Note Gladwell’s Outliers (study of high-performing individuals-Mozart, Gates, etc. and high-performing cultures-Asian: Not genetics but hard work + persistence + opportunity to do hard work the basis of success. (See Gladwell YouTube Interview on Outliers.) GladwellYouTube

11 What Do Mindsets Do? Blackwell, Trzesniewski, & Dweck, 2007 Mindset Revealed by One’s Goals Learning Goal = The Growth Mindset “It’s much more important for me to learn things in my classes than it is to get the best grades.” Performance Goal = Fixed Mindset “The main thing I want when I do my school work is to show how good I am at it.” Stanford Study of th graders over 2 years in math.

12 What Mindsets Do Source: Carol Dweck, NAIS Board Meeting, 11/11/07 Mindset Revealed by One’s Beliefs on Effort Growth Mindset - Effort is positive: “The harder you work at something, the better you’ll be at it.” Fixed Mindset - Effort is negative: “To tell the truth, when I work hard at my school work it makes me feel like I’m not very smart.”

13 Mindset Revealed by Reaction to Failure Mastery-Oriented Growth Mindset: “I would work harder in this class from now on.” “I would spend more time studying for the tests.” Helpless Fixed Mindset: “I would spend less time on this subject from now on.” “I would try not to take this subject ever again.” “I would try to cheat on the next test.” PFB: Fight or flight reactions. Asking children what they would do if they did poorly on a test in a new class they liked:

14 Mindset Revealed by Reaction to Setbacks Dweck as advisor to high-powered Stanford Golf Team…  Kids are champions when they arrive (and often valedictorians): They expect to be perfect and winners…and struggle when discover the competition is fierce. “Duck syndrome”: on the surface appear calm, but paddling for their life under the surface.  Their coach emphasizes it’s good to struggle; creating safety to struggle and fail is tremendously liberating— and encourages the growth mindset.  Dweck also advises NASCAR racers: Those with growth mindset find it easier to “stay in the zone” in long races—mistakes are inevitable and opportunities to make adjustments— and win more races.

15 How Are Mindsets Communicated? Students told the test measures their aptitude lose interest as difficulty increased; some lie about their scores on an anonymous survey. Students told the test poses a challenge that develops their learning ask for more problems. Answer = 7

16 How Are Mindsets Communicated? Teachers and Parents: Those with fixed mindsets promote fixed mindsets: fixed teaching style & strategies; fixed assumption about which students can learn and IQ; fixed belief that great teachers are born not made. Ways schools contribute to fixed mindsets? “Please remove that student from my class: she’s not a good match for my teaching style.” Nature of Communicating Mindsets Important:  Weaving biography into math and science: Edison the perfect example of inventiveness being “10% inspiration and 90% perspiration.” Einstein failed algebra but eventually “fell in love with math.”  Vs. emphasizing the “genius” of prodigies.  Those told the former did better in math than those told the latter.

17 How Are Mindsets Communicated? Self-Esteem Movement: Undeserved Praise Creates False Expectations and Undermines Work Ethic:  PFB: Note PISA test results and attitudes, US vs. Asian; PBS Special, “Are American Kids Stupid?” Nature of Praise Communicates Mindsets:  Intelligence Praise: “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.”  Effort Praise: “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must have tried really hard. It was easy? We’ll let’s have some fun and do some hard ones so you grow.”  Control Group: “Wow, that’s a really good score.

18 Number of problems solved on Trial 1 (before failure) and Trial 3 (after failure). Number of Problems Solved Type of praise impacted confidence, effort, performance… (& honesty) Random mindset sampling in all 3 groups: So type of teacher praise TRUMPS natural mindset, positively or negatively. Progressively harder trial tests

19 Fixed Mindset Instructions “The test you are about to take, the verbal portion of the MCAT, is a measure of your verbal intelligence and verbal reasoning ability….”

20 Growth Mindset Instructions “The test you are about to take… is not a measure of verbal ability; rather it is a measure of your current level of reading comprehension, retention, and speed. All of these can improve considerably with practice.”

21 Mindset Instructions on MCAT Problems (Dweck research at Columbia) 25.9% better

22 Dweck Research on Testing  Showing students performance and strategies of those who did much better and those who did much worse: The fixed mindset students focused on those who did worse, said “I feel much better now,” and performed worse on the next test. The growth mindset students focused on those who did better, said “I see now,” and performed better on the next test.  Related findings: introduction of gender or race as demographic question before testing depresses performance.  Performance is maximized for minority students when a growth mindset is highlighted.

23 Growth Mindset School Values  Stretching and engagement over talent  Feedback focused on process of learning: Constructive not judgmental criticism. Student-led parent/teacher conferences: “My goal is…. I’m not there yet-my plan is….” Message: Setbacks tell you what to do next  Grading for learning: Ungraded schools. “Not yet” as a grade in one school. Has Alfie Kohn been right all these years? Message: Keep on learning

24 Growth Mindset Parent Values Messages to your child;  Failures are useful. Message: Setbacks tell you what to do next  Grades measure progress not being. Message: Keep on learning  Successes come from hard work. Message: You’ll succeed as long as you continue to learn.

25 Growth Mindset Case Study Your daughter, 9, is lean and tall, built for gymnastics, which she has taken to with relish. She enters her first competition with dreams of a blue ribbon, and is devastated when it turns out she earns none, since the other girls were more skilled. What do you tell her? 1. “We thought you were the best.” 2. “You were robbed by poor officiating.” 3. “There are more important things than gymnastics.” 4. “You have the ability, and next time you will win.” 5. “You didn’t deserve to win this time.”

26 Growth Mindset Case Study 1. “We thought you were the best.”  Insincere, since you and she know otherwise. 2. “You were robbed by poor officiating.”  Blames others when she was just not as good. 3. “There are more important things than gymnastics.”  Message is to devalue what you don’t do well in. 4. “You have the ability and next time you will win.”  Desire not the same as ability. 5. “You didn’t deserve to win this time.”  The other girls have worked longer and harder. If you want this, you can do likewise.

27 Conclusions Source: Carol Dweck, NAIS Board Meeting, 11/11/07  Mindsets play a key role in motivation to learn.  They affect achievement.  Mindsets can be changed.

28 The NAIS/Harvard Seminars 11/12-14/07  A Vision of Students Today (www.YouTube.com): College-prep: Preparation for what????? A Vision of Students Today  Mindsets: The New Psychology of Success (Carol Dweck) Mindsets:  The Clue Train Manifesto - 95 Theses on Marketing (www.cluetrain.org) The Clue Train Manifesto  Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (Daniel Tapscott & Anthony Williams) Wikinomics:  Finland’s World-class Education (McKinsey Report, Oct 18, 2007 Economist & Microsoft International Summit for the School of the Future, Helsinki, Oct, 2007) Finland’s World-class Education

29 “The clue train stopped there four times a day for ten years and they never took delivery.” “Organizations sometimes set their base camp on Mount Delusional.” ~ Stan Slap 1999 Re-Thinking Communications for Web 2.0 (Source: Travis Warren-

30 95 1.Markets are conversations. 2.Markets consist of human beings, not demographic sectors. 3.Conversations among human beings sound human. They are conducted in a human voice. 4.Whether delivering information, opinions, perspectives, dissenting arguments or humorous asides, the human voice is typically open, natural, uncontrived. 5.People recognize each other as such from the sound of this voice. 6.The Internet is enabling conversations among human beings that were simply not possible in the era of mass media. 7.Hyperlinks subvert hierarchy. 8.In both internetworked markets and among intranet worked employees, people are speaking to each other in a powerful new way. 9.These networked conversations are enabling powerful new forms of social organization and knowledge exchange to emerge. 10.As a result, markets are getting smarter, more informed, more organized. Participation in a networked market changes people fundamentally. 11.People in networked markets have figured out that they get far better information and support from one another than from vendors. So much for corporate rhetoric about adding value to commoditized products. 12.There are no secrets. The networked market knows more than companies do about their own products. And whether the news is good or bad, they tell everyone. 13.What's happening to markets is also happening among employees. A metaphysical construct called "The Company" is the only thing standing between the two. 14.Corporations do not speak in the same voice as these new networked conversations. To their intended online audiences, companies sound hollow, flat, literally inhuman. 15.In just a few more years, the current homogenized "voice" of business—the sound of mission statements and brochures—will seem as contrived and artificial as the language of the 18th century French court. 16.Already, companies that speak in the language of the pitch, the dog-and-pony show, are no longer speaking to anyone. 17.Companies that assume online markets are the same markets that used to watch their ads on television are kidding themselves. 18.Companies that don't realize their markets are now networked person-to-person, getting smarter as a result and deeply joined in conversation are missing their best opportunity. 19.Companies can now communicate with their markets directly. If they blow it, it could be their last chance. 20.Companies need to realize their markets are often laughing. At them. 21.Companies need to lighten up and take themselves less seriously. They need to get a sense of humor. 22.Getting a sense of humor does not mean putting some jokes on the corporate web site. Rather, it requires big values, a little humility, straight talk, and a genuine point of view. 23.Companies attempting to "position" themselves need to take a position. Optimally, it should relate to something their market actually cares about. 24.Bombastic boasts—"We are positioned to become the preeminent provider of XYZ"—do not constitute a position. 25.Companies need to come down from their Ivory Towers and talk to the people with whom they hope to create relationships. 26.Public Relations does not relate to the public. Companies are deeply afraid of their markets. 27.By speaking in language that is distant, uninviting, arrogant, they build walls to keep markets at bay. 28.Most marketing programs are based on the fear that the market might see what's really going on inside the company. 29.Elvis said it best: "We can't go on together with suspicious minds." 30.Brand loyalty is the corporate version of going steady, but the breakup is inevitable—and coming fast. Because they are networked, smart markets are able to renegotiate relationships with blinding speed. 31.Networked markets can change suppliers overnight. Networked knowledge workers can change employers over lunch. Your own "downsizing initiatives" taught us to ask the question: "Loyalty? What's that?" 32.Smart markets will find suppliers who speak their own language. 33.Learning to speak with a human voice is not a parlor trick. It can't be "picked up" at some tony conference. 34.To speak with a human voice, companies must share the concerns of their communities. 35.But first, they must belong to a community. 36.Companies must ask themselves where their corporate cultures end. 37.If their cultures end before the community begins, they will have no market. 38.Human communities are based on discourse—on human speech about human concerns. 39.The community of discourse is the market. 40.Companies that do not belong to a community of discourse will die. 41.Companies make a religion of security, but this is largely a red herring. Most are protecting less against competitors than against their own market and workforce. 42.As with networked markets, people are also talking to each other directly inside the company—and not just about rules and regulations, boardroom directives, bottom lines. 43.Such conversations are taking place today on corporate intranets. But only when the conditions are right. 44.Companies typically install intranets top-down to distribute HR policies and other corporate information that workers are doing their best to ignore. 45.Intranets naturally tend to route around boredom. The best are built bottom-up by engaged individuals cooperating to construct something far more valuable: an intranet worked corporate conversation. 46.A healthy intranet organizes workers in many meanings of the word. Its effect is more radical than the agenda of any union. 47.While this scares companies witless, they also depend heavily on open intranets to generate and share critical knowledge. They need to resist the urge to "improve" or control these networked conversations. 48.When corporate intranets are not constrained by fear and legalistic rules, the type of conversation they encourage sounds remarkably like the conversation of the networked marketplace. 49.Org charts worked in an older economy where plans could be fully understood from atop steep management pyramids and detailed work orders could be handed down from on high. 50.Today, the org chart is hyperlinked, not hierarchical. Respect for hands-on knowledge wins over respect for abstract authority. 51.Command-and-control management styles both derive from and reinforce bureaucracy, power tripping and an overall culture of paranoia. 52.Paranoia kills conversation. That's its point. But lack of open conversation kills companies. 53.There are two conversations going on. One inside the company. One with the market. 54.In most cases, neither conversation is going very well. Almost invariably, the cause of failure can be traced to obsolete notions of command and control. 55.As policy, these notions are poisonous. As tools, they are broken. Command and control are met with hostility by intranet worked knowledge workers and generate distrust in internetworked markets. 56.These two conversations want to talk to each other. They are speaking the same language. They recognize each other's voices. 57.Smart companies will get out of the way and help the inevitable to happen sooner. 58.If willingness to get out of the way is taken as a measure of IQ, then very few companies have yet wised up. 59.However subliminally at the moment, millions of people now online perceive companies as little more than quaint legal fictions that are actively preventing these conversations from intersecting. 60.This is suicidal. Markets want to talk to companies. 61.Sadly, the part of the company a networked market wants to talk to is usually hidden behind a smokescreen of hucksterism, of language that rings false—and often is. 62.Markets do not want to talk to flacks and hucksters. They want to participate in the conversations going on behind the corporate firewall. 63.De-cloaking, getting personal: We are those markets. We want to talk to you. 64.We want access to your corporate information, to your plans and strategies, your best thinking, your genuine knowledge. We will not settle for the 4-color brochure, for web sites chock-a-block with eye candy but lacking any substance. 65.We're also the workers who make your companies go. We want to talk to customers directly in our own voices, not in platitudes written into a script. 66.As markets, as workers, both of us are sick to death of getting our information by remote control. Why do we need faceless annual reports and third-hand market research studies to introduce us to each other? 67.As markets, as workers, we wonder why you're not listening. You seem to be speaking a different language. 68.The inflated self-important jargon you sling around—in the press, at your conferences—what's that got to do with us? 69.Maybe you're impressing your investors. Maybe you're impressing Wall Street. You're not impressing us. 70.If you don't impress us, your investors are going to take a bath. Don't they understand this? If they did, they wouldn't let you talk that way. 71.Your tired notions of "the market" make our eyes glaze over. We don't recognize ourselves in your projections—perhaps because we know we're already elsewhere. 72.We like this new marketplace much better. In fact, we are creating it. 73.You're invited, but it's our world. Take your shoes off at the door. If you want to barter with us, get down off that camel! 74.We are immune to advertising. Just forget it. 75.If you want us to talk to you, tell us something. Make it something interesting for a change. 76.We've got some ideas for you too: some new tools we need, some better service. Stuff we'd be willing to pay for. Got a minute? 77.You're too busy "doing business" to answer our ? Oh gosh, sorry, gee, we'll come back later. Maybe. 78.You want us to pay? We want you to pay attention. 79.We want you to drop your trip, come out of your neurotic self-involvement, join the party. 80.Don't worry, you can still make money. That is, as long as it's not the only thing on your mind. 81.Have you noticed that, in itself, money is kind of one-dimensional and boring? What else can we talk about? 82.Your product broke. Why? We'd like to ask the guy who made it. Your corporate strategy makes no sense. We'd like to have a chat with your CEO. What do you mean she's not in? 83.We want you to take 50 million of us as seriously as you take one reporter from The Wall Street Journal. 84.We know some people from your company. They're pretty cool online. Do you have any more like that you're hiding? Can they come out and play? 85.When we have questions we turn to each other for answers. If you didn't have such a tight rein on "your people" maybe they'd be among the people we'd turn to. 86.When we're not busy being your "target market," many of us are your people. We'd rather be talking to friends online than watching the clock. That would get your name around better than your entire million dollar web site. But you tell us speaking to the market is Marketing's job. 87.We'd like it if you got what's going on here. That'd be real nice. But it would be a big mistake to think we're holding our breath. 88.We have better things to do than worry about whether you'll change in time to get our business. Business is only a part of our lives. It seems to be all of yours. Think about it: who needs whom? 89.We have real power and we know it. If you don't quite see the light, some other outfit will come along that's more attentive, more interesting, more fun to play with. 90.Even at its worst, our newfound conversation is more interesting than most trade shows, more entertaining than any TV sitcom, and certainly more true-to-life than the corporate web sites we've been seeing. 91.Our allegiance is to ourselves—our friends, our new allies and acquaintances, even our sparring partners. Companies that have no part in this world, also have no future.xa 92.Companies are spending billions of dollars on Y2K. Why can't they hear this market timebomb ticking? The stakes are even higher. 93.We're both inside companies and outside them. The boundaries that separate our conversations look like the Berlin Wall today, but they're really just an annoyance. We know they're coming down. We're going to work from both sides to take them down. 94.To traditional corporations, networked conversations may appear confused, may sound confusing. But we are organizing faster than they are. We have better tools, more new ideas, no rules to slow us down. 95.We are waking up and linking to each other. We are watching. But we are not waiting. C LUETRAI N MANIFESTO

31 1. “Markets are conversations.” C L U E T R A I N Web 2.0: Two-way dialogue, not one- way canned messaging.

32 3. “Conversations sound human.” C L U E T R A I N Web 2.0: Real voices and stories, laced with humor, passion and “edge” (vs. artificial and pompous voice of corporate marketing: PR has a PR problem: seen and heard as “phony.”)

33 6. “The Internet is enabling conversations among human beings that were simply not possible in the era of mass media.” 6. “The Internet is enabling conversations among human beings that were simply not possible in the era of mass media.” C L U E T R A I N Web 2.0: Conversations that are global, the “restoration of the banter of the bazaar”

34 7. “Hyperlinks subvert hierarchy.” C L U E T R A I N Web 2.0: Command and control no longer possible, nor preferable. Hyperlinks are like conversations, taking one on various paths as the moment dictates.

35 15. “The sound of mission statements and brochures—will seem as contrived and artificial as the language of the 18th century French court.” C L U E T R A I N Web 2.0: There is no demand for messages—the customer doesn’t want to hear scrubbed clean propaganda from management. “Messaging” heard as noise: “It’s an interruption. It’s the anti- conversation.”

36 94. “Networked conversations may appear confused, may sound confusing. But, they are organized and have better tools, more new ideas, no rules to slow them down.” C L U E T R A I N Web 2.0: Word of mouth on steroids. Metcalf’s Law: value of a network increases as the square of the number of participants in it.

37 What are the implications?  Monologue has given way to dialog  Greater user control over content  Websites re-thought around participation  Less distinction between content and tools (McLuhan: Medium is the message.)

38 Facebook ImpactImpact Number of Alumni/ae Class Year E X A M P L E 1

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40 web-based, free content encyclopedia project

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43 Rank No. 4 Rank No. 285,366 a) Searching for Exeter videos on YouTube b) Searching for Videos on

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45 Tips for Web 2.0 Marketing (Source: Inside High Ed, “Facelifts for the Facebook Generation,” 9/14/07)Inside High Ed  The Facebooking of college/school websites. Using social networking to embrace prospective students where they are and to keep in touch with students after they graduate (and to maintain databases for fund raising).  Showing, not telling. Student preference for more “showing” and less “telling, "less text and more video for the iPod generation.” NC State website produces five to seven new videos a month that tell student-centered stories and offer a glimpse at life on campus.  Blogs and more blogs. One way universities have found to more directly reach applicants is to find current students to blog about their lives on campus. Head blogs growing phenomenon on school websties.  Bringing lectures to your iPod. With iTunes U, and TeacherTube, showcase your best teachers’ best lessons.iTunes U TeacherTube

46 About Henry A fifteen-year-old ninth grader from Manchester, Massachusetts, Henry is an affable, bright, positive kid, who volunteered to blog as a service to the community. 45 E X A M P L E 5

47 The NAIS/Harvard Seminars 11/12-14/07  A Vision of Students Today (www.YouTube.com): College-prep: Preparation for what????? A Vision of Students Today  Mindsets: The New Psychology of Success (Carol Dweck) Mindsets:  The Clue Train Manifesto - 95 Theses on Marketing (www.cluetrain.org) The Clue Train Manifesto  Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (Daniel Tapscott & Anthony Williams) Wikinomics:  Finland’s World-class Education (McKinsey Report, Oct 18, 2007 Economist & Microsoft International Summit for the School of the Future, Helsinki, Oct, 2007) Finland’s World-class Education

48 Technology and “The Wisdom of the Crowd” What does the Web 2.0 future look like, and how might it impact NAIS and member schools?

49 Wikipedia

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52 Wikinomics: Ten Themes 1. Welcome to Wikinomics: The flat world, demanding customers, emerging technologies = a new organizational m.o. based on collaboration + external ideas and human capital. 2. New Web Net Gen = Perfect Storm where “converging waves of change and innovation are toppling conventional economic wisdom.” 3. The Open Source Future: “Peer pioneer” collaborations exploit the connectedness of dispersed but engaged communities: peer production of Linux & Wikipedia (“wiki” being Hawaiian for “quick”). OLPC XO computers for all the world’s children.OLPC 4. Ideagoras (Internet open market “idea bazaars”) connect buyers and sellers of innovation, problems presenters with problem solvers, questions in need of solutions and solutions in need of questions, instead of developing them in-house. (See HBR 06/07 “A Buyer’s Guide to the Innovation Bazaar”: P&G’s Connect + Develop; Intel’s Capital; Nokia’s Concept Lounge; etc.)

53 Wikinomics: Ten Themes 4. Prosumers: customers who co-innovate and design; develop modifications to products that appeal to mainstream markets. Second Life and Lego Mindstorm entrepreneurs. (New Perspectives for New Times, Ben Cameron, Sarasota Arts Council: Value will no longer be consumed. Value will be co- created. We already see the power of consumer participation in other industries. The monolithic power of the restaurant critic has been shattered by Zagat where the collective consumer passes judgment and defines a restaurant value. “Dancing with the Stars,” “So You Think You Can Dance,” “American Idol”—all are predicated on the active involvement of the consumer.)New Perspectives for New Times 5. The New Alexandrians: Fuzzy boundary between the public foundation (shared knowledge) and private enterprise (proprietary knowledge): e.g. Photosynth: collecting the world’s photographs and integrating into new resources for all.Photosynth 6. Platforms for Participation: Open platforms enable communities to share in the creation and use of value (e.g., Google & Amazon): NAIS School of Future Ning site.Ning site

54 Wikinomics: Ten Themes 8. The Global Plant Floor: Innovation now about coordinating good ideas across the international factory floor: leveraging your hedgehog and figuring out how to plug into others to create something new. Orchestrating, not building: Boeing & BMW. 9. The Wiki Workplace: Networking technologies to change organizational structures, decentralize decision making, and capture knowledge across departmental and organizational boundaries: e.g., Best Buy’s Geek Squad. Not “set the agenda” but “discover the agenda and serve it.” 10. Collaborative Minds: Profound changes favor the innovator or the organizations that learn to think differently: value migrates towards innovation (e.g., from horses to iron horses; from telegraph to telephone; from static Web1.0 to dynamic Web2.0).

55 School Ideagoras: Let’s Get Started…. Join the Independent School Educators NetworkIndependent School Educators Network

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60 / PFB: The Ideagora: “As you explore our website, please feel free to the Research Team at with questions and comments or if you would like to get involved.” PFB: Chris Dede, HGSE, created this MUVE multi -user virtual environment mystery to solve: why inhabitants in this fictional town are getting sick.

61 The Death of the Printed Textbook Open Source Content: The BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium makes available open educational resources that teachers can use to help high school and college students study biology by posing and solving problems and communicating with their peers, just as real scientists do.BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium The Creative Commons is the nonprofit author of Creative Commons licenses, which allow content creators to tell others which rights to their specific works they reserve and which rights they waive for the benefit of other creators.Creative Commons FreeReading is an open instructional program to help teach early literacy through a 40-week scope and sequence of concepts and activities.FreeReading The Math Open Reference is a free interactive math textbook, which covers high school geometry and plans to expand to other areas of math.Math Open Reference The Open Educational Resources Commons is a comprehensive open- learning network where teachers from pre-K to higher education can share course materials and collaborate on educational issues.Open Educational Resources Commons

62 The NAIS/Harvard Seminars 11/12-14/07  A Vision of Students Today (www.YouTube.com): College-prep: Preparation for what????? A Vision of Students Today  Mindsets: The New Psychology of Success (Carol Dweck) Mindsets:  The Clue Train Manifesto - 95 Theses on Marketing (www.cluetrain.org) The Clue Train Manifesto  Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (Daniel Tapscott & Anthony Williams) Wikinomics:  Finland’s World-class Education (McKinsey Report, Oct 18, 2007 Economist & Microsoft International Summit for the School of the Future, Helsinki, Oct, 2007) Finland’s World-class Education

63 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) Perennial top scores on OECD’s annual PISA testing. What’s NOT Driving Finland’s Success:  It’s not high pay for teachers, since Finn teachers are not paid that well, and the countries that do pay their teachers the most (Spain, Switzerland, and Germany) do not perform as well.  It’s not more years of schooling, since compulsory school education starts at grade 1 (age 7) and ends in grade 9 (age 16). 95% go on to secondary school, academic or vocational.  It’s not small class sizes, since Finn classes are often thirty students with only one teacher (and few specialists, the teachers expected to teach all skills and subjects).

64 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) What’s NOT Driving Finland’s Success:  It’s not a longer school day or longer school year, since school runs from 8:00 am – noon or 2:00 pm, depending on the age of students, and the school season is no longer than in the US.  It’s not nationally centralized control (like that of the French) but rather national curriculum standards with local implementation. Little “supervision”; lots of improvisation.  It’s not accreditation. There is none in Finland, the federal ministry trusting the local authorities to meet the national standards. Russian proverb in play: “Trust…but check.”

65 The Finland’s Success Model What’s NOT Driving Finland’s Success:  It’s definitely not high stakes testing.  Periodic sampling testing by the government of students to make certain the students, their schools and the system continue to perform highly.  Aggressive intervention if a school falls behind.  Government refuses to publish the test results for the press or public, eschewing the mania of League Tables in Great Britain and school rankings in the US based on test scores.  Most of the testing that occurs is formative, not summative.  Someone from another culture observed about American preoccupation with testing: “When we want the elephant to grow, we don’t keep weighing it… …we feed it.”

66 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) What IS Driving Finland’s Success (and that of other high- performing countries?) McKinsey Report Principle #1: Get the Best Teachers  Most important factor for student and school success is “high quality faculty”: –The U.S. public system identifies “high quality” as “highly qualified,” meaning “certified” NB: Touch Choices or Tough Times reports that American public schools typically recruits teachers from the bottom third of college graduates. –Independent schools in the U.S. identifies “high quality” teachers as those who have a degree in the subject they love and teach (i.e., math and physics majors teaching math and physics, not education majors), preferably from selective colleges and universities.

67 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland)  Most important factor for student and school success is “high quality faculty” (cont.): –Also the strategy of Teach for America, which attracts the top echelon of graduates from America’s most selective universities to teach in public schools. –South Korean official notes that, “The quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers” –The Economist cites studies in Tennessee and Dallas: pupils of average ability and give them to teachers deemed in the top fifth of the profession, they end up in the top 10% of student performers; if you give them to teachers from the bottom fifth, they end up at the bottom.

68 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland)  Most important factor for student and school success is “high quality faculty” (cont.): –South Korea which recruits primary-school teachers from the top 5% of graduates and Singapore and Hong Kong from the top 30%, and the top 10% in Finland (which also requires a master’s degree for all teachers). –All restrict access to teaching to the most talented: the attraction increases. –In Finland, it’s not the money but the status and prestige of teaching that attracts the best and brightest into the profession.

69 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) McKinsey Report Principle #1: Get the Best Teachers (cont.) –Ditto for Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, where teachers are also revered –True as well for independent schools in the US, where faculty status, power, and influence are high and unionization virtually non-existent.  Takeaway #1: Develop a strategy for winning the war for talent. –For cultures that don’t give high status to teaching, more money will have to do. –We have an opportunity to front-end load higher starting salaries as our more highly paid veteran boomer teachers are about to retire. –Recruit on the campuses of the 250 or so colleges and universities in the US with highly selective admissions standards for the undergraduate academic and leadership elite who “want to give back.” –Pay college loan principal & interest while teachers stay at your school.

70 NAIS Advocacy: Recruiting Teachers from TFA

71 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) What IS Driving Finland’s Success (and that of other high-performing countries?) McKinsey Report Principle #2: Get the Best Out of Teachers  “Professionalizing the profession.” –“Professional learning communities” (PLCs) common outside of the US. –Singapore provides teachers with 100 hours of training a year and appoints senior teachers to oversee professional development in each school. –In Japan and Finland, groups of teachers visit each others' classrooms and plan lessons together, in a system call “lesson studies” that include “rounds” just like the medical profession. –In Finland, they get an afternoon off a week for professional development (including for school substitutes). –PLC could be virtual: e.g., the online journal or the online book club club

72 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) McKinsey Report Principle #2: Get the Best Out of Teachers  Takeaway #2: American schools are way too underinvested in professional training. – We could benefit immensely from creating true PLCs focused on peer learning, peer observations, and collaborative lesson-planning. –Improvement in professionalizing the profession would occurs if teacher evaluations were linked to engagement in PLCs and demonstrations of what is learned. –Example: The Irish initiative for ePortfolios.

73 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) What IS Driving Finland’s Success (and that of other high- performing countries?) Principle #3: Step in When Pupils Start To Lag Behind  Frequent diagnostic testing (“formative testing”) at early stages (like M.A.P., Measurement of Academic Progress)  Early and powerful intervention when a student begins to fall behind: one special needs teacher for every seven special needs students in some schools. In Finland, about a third of students receive remediation, a fifth in Singapore.  In Finland, education spending is weighted in the middle school years, when in the US and other countries, kids begin to fail and drop out. In Finland, there are no dead end streets down the education highway.

74 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) McKinsey Report Principle #3: Step in When Pupils Start To Lag Behind (cont.)  Takeaway #3: –It turns out truly that all kids can learn, given good teachers, early and intensive intervention, and a supportive school and peer culture. –What has to happen in US schools is to move from a medical model (learning disabilities) to a diversity model (learning differences), with a re-orientation to identifying, valuing, and using a student’s strengths as “workarounds” and palliatives to weaknesses. –Teachers and students with “growth mindset” rather than “fixed mindset” makes success for all a given. (Cf. Carol Dweck’s Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.)

75 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) What IS Driving Finland’s Success (and that of other high-performing countries?)  PFB’s Observations: Other Factors in Play in Finland. –Finland is a small, homogenous country of five million, with a common value of valuing education. –Literacy and fluency are a national priority, contributing to good results in literacy examinations. –Children see adults reading all the time, since Finns check out on average 18 books per year. (It’s minus forty degrees for long spells in the winter, so indoor activities like reading are popular.) –The Finns by policy are committed to fluency in foreign language, as there are two national languages, Finnish and Swedish, taught throughout school. –Everyone I met also spoke English, in part because Finnish TV uses no dubbing—only subtitles, so children hear English all the time.

76 The Finland’s Success Model Sources: The Economist, July 18, 2007 “How To Be Top” (based on the McKinsey Report) & October 30, 2007 Microsoft School of the Future Summit presentation by Finnish officials, Helsinki, Finland) What IS Driving Finland’s Success (and that of other high-performing countries?)  PFB’s Observations: Other Factors in Play in Finland. –Children feel safe and supported in Finnish schools: the environment is colorful, filled with light and the children have a single teacher in multi-age learning groups “where differences are taken for granted,” and no grading is used in assessments. –Few textbooks are used, the Finns preferring project- and problem- based approaches integrated with learning in the larger community, and tempered with lots of practical education elements, and daily chores at the school. –ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is integrated at all levels, including media literacy. –The Finns are naturalists and the eco-system important to them, so field trips focus on nature & produce a country of environmentalists. –Play is important. There is universal support for high-quality pre- schools which most students attend, but whose emphasis is play, not early-prep. In schools, 30-minute recess for unstructured play every day, including all winter long. –After school, students walk to nearby recreation centers for more sports and play. Return

77 The End

78 Creators Creators Publish web pages, write blogs, upload videos to sites like You Tube Source: Business Week Forrester Data June, 2007 b. ’90-’95 b. ’86-’89 b. ’81-’85 b.’65-’80 b. ‘55-’64 b. ‘45-’54 b. prior to ’45 Millenials Millenials Millenials Gen X Boomers Boomers GI Generation

79 Critics Critics Comment on blogs, post ratings and reviews Source: Business Week Forrester Data June, 2007

80 Joiners Joiners Use social networking sites Source: Business Week Forrester Data June, 2007

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84 Return

85 Film Clip

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87 The XO Computer

88 Chapter 1: Wikinomics  Implications for Schools: The customer is changing (demographics; value proposition; values): Are we being responsive? The practice of education is changing (classroom- school operation): future focused or strapped to the steam engine? The educational mission is changing: Can we afford to be parochial in our outlook?  Implications for NAIS: The way we manage the why (we do what we do) and the how (we do what we do) is changing: can we lead by modeling?

89 Chapter 2: The Perfect Storm  Themes: New Web + Net Gen = Perfect Storm where “converging waves of change and innovation are toppling conventional economic wisdom.” New Web is foundation for dynamic community offering creative expression, connectivity, meaning to individuals.  Implications for Schools: Schools must harness open source technology in classroom AND in relationship building with their constituents. World is moving from competitive to collaborative; schools must redesign systems that will reward collaboration ( and open, playful, mobile workplace).

90 Chapter 2: The Perfect Storm Students already there (MySpace, YouTube, Napster) vs. “fear” reaction and suppression instinct of schools: Prof Boyd (Berkeley): More articles on online predators than actual reported incidents online. No more passive consumers.  Implications for NAIS: Future NAIS website will be global commons where members (and competitors) can co-create experiences, communities, services. NAIS must be nimble, networked, and connected to external resources (partnerships!) if it wishes to ride the Perfect Storm. Mass collaboration online will change NAIS business model and systems as we use the wisdom of the crowds to set policies and priorities.

91  Themes: The Open Source Future: Collaborations that exploit the connectedness of dispersed but engaged communities: peer production of Linux & Wikipedia (“wiki” being Hawaiian for “quick”). Driven by desire to build and share information, not by desire for profit-making, though profit-making opportunity exists. Spurs faster cycles of continuous improvement and value creation.  Implications for Schools: Teaching and/or hiring for skills in teaming, collaborating, sharing that drive open-source development. Chapter 3: The Peer Pioneers

92 Teaching responsible “wiki”-making. Creating/utilizing educational and/or administrative software based on open-source platforms.  Implications for NAIS: Explore potential to engage in open-source development of key software applications while protecting core IP and “brand.” Daily monitoring our wikis? Potential for reduced costs by harnessing external peer contributions (among techies, students in schools?) instead of costly vendors: SSS, SOL, book writing implications. Chapter 3: The Peer Pioneers

93 Chapter 4 - Ideagoras  Themes The use of Ideagoras (Internet open market “idea bazaars”) to connect buyers and sellers of innovation, problems presenters with problem solvers, questions in need of solutions and solutions in need of questions and to acquire outside ideas instead of developing them in-house. (HBR 06/07 “A Buyer’s Guide to the Innovation Bazaar”: P&G’s Connect + Develop; Intel’s Capital; Nokia’s Concept Lounge; etc.)  Implication for Schools The challenge of convincing schools to break down deep-rooted biases that inhibit them from seizing opportunities to open up innovation.

94 Chapter 4 - Ideagoras  Implications for NAIS The opportunities/challenges of NAIS serving as the Ideagora for member schools to excite free flow of ideas and leverage other people’s talents, ideas, assets, and enthusiasm. Like the senior leadership at DuPont, NAIS can’t and shouldn’t do everything itself: Tap into InnoCentive, an “eBay for innovation” or create our version of it? Opportunity exists for NAIS to use Ideagoras to expand work in core areas and divert others to non-core activities, conserving resources for cutting-edge challenges and opportunities. Use as a Ideagora for potential new products/services NAIS offers and for new initiatives, such as the Schools of the Future project.

95 Chapter 5: The Prosumers  Themes: Prosumers: customers who co-innovate and design; develop modifications to products that appeal to mainstream markets. Second Life and Lego Mindstorm entrepreneurs. Media industry under siege since it won’t let go of the old model and roll with the remix and download culture: all industries need to find the right mix of free goods, consumer control, versioning, and ancillary products & services. (PFB Note the Radio Head experiment: only 37% complied with “pay what you think is right” for the download of their new album.)

96 Chapter 5: The Prosumers  Implications for Schools: Allow customers (parents and students) to be involved early in design of curricula or any innovations (changes) in educational systems. Then listen to customers!  Implications for NAIS: Allow customers (members and nonmembers) to be involved early in products’ and services’ design. Then listen to customers!

97 Chapter 6: The New Alexandrians  Themes: The power of openness and collaboration: e.g., The Genome Project Precompetitive Knowledge Commons: one “library”- not in one location A new balance between the public foundation (shared knowledge) and private enterprise (proprietary knowledge)

98 Chapter 6: The New Alexandrians  Implications for Schools: Learning how to differentiate what they offer from others Knowing the future is now  Implications for NAIS: Partnerships are critical Deciding if building the library part of our brief. Knowing where the balancing point between proprietary information and public information lies.

99 Chapter 7: Platforms for Participation All the World’s a Stage & You’re the Star  Themes: Open platforms enable communities to share in the creation and use of value (e.g., Google & Amazon) Leverage and power to innovate is unprecedented: (e.g., grass roots environmental monitoring via GPS). Business viability requires balance of closed and open elements  Implications for Schools: Antithetical to foundations of school mindset. Teacher and school as enabler of learning platform vs. controller. Content and pedagogy can come from anywhere – students, podcasts, other schools. Global community of students can share and evaluate their work. (20/20)

100 Chapter 7: Platforms for Participation All the World’s a Stage & You’re the Star Competition from open communities of educational alternatives; commoditization of curriculum Enabler for efficient sharing of resources and ideas with peers and internal school communities  Implications for NAIS: Barriers of entry to community-building business are low and getting lower Associations were open platforms before it was cool. Just need to leverage new technology (API’s, etc) to accelerate value creation Can we relinquish control of value creation process? Can we close what needs to be closed to maintain business viability?

101 Chapter 8: The Global Plant Floor  Themes: Innovation now about coordinating good ideas across the international factory floor to come to a better / new / more innovative end Focusing on the hedgehogs of your parts/modules and figuring out how to plug into others to create something new: orchestrating, not building. Capitalizing on efficiencies of others without losing self: Boeing 787: suppliers now true partners and peers. World-wide design team. Dispersed manufacturing: Boeing = less manufacturer, more systems coordinator. BMW harnessing customers as key change agents.

102 Chapter 8: The Global Plant Floor  Implications for Schools: Education of the future may not come from one school for each student. Students will be key source of innovation in the future.  Implications for NAIS: Move association partners to a new mindset of leveraging each others strengths – via a transparent and egalitarian ecosystem. Need to also do this within the office – e.g., when we cross team most successfully. Need to identify those outside our field who can bring value.

103 Chapter 9: The Wiki Workplace  Themes: The use of networking technologies to change organizational structures, to decentralize decision making, and to capture knowledge across departmental and organizational boundaries: e.g., Best Buy’s Geek Squad. Not “set the agenda” but “discover the agenda and serve it.” Workplace less hierarchical to more self-organized, distributed, collaborative human capital networks that draw knowledge from inside and outside the organization. Boomer Gen values loyalty, seniority, security, authority; Net Gen values creativity, social connectivity, fun, freedom, speed, diversity.

104 Chapter 9: The Wiki Workplace  Implications for Schools: School workplace resides on Boomer Gen values: How to transform the environment to attract Net Gen?  Implications for NAIS: Resist the temptation to centralize and to “set the agenda.” Harness the collective knowledge of staff and constituents. Explore decentralizing where/when/how we meet. Gather to bowl.

105 Chapter 10: Collaborative Minds  Themes: Profound changes favor the innovator or the organizations that learn to think differently: value migrates towards innovation (e.g., from horses to iron horses; from telegraph to telephone; from static Web1.0 to dynamic Web2.0). Take cues from your lead users. Harnessing external sources of innovation & creativity by providing the infrastructure for collaboration.

106 Chapter 10: Collaborative Minds  Implications for Schools: How do schools practice and capitalize upon their students own instincts towards the four principles of the wiki-future (openness, peering, sharing, and acting globally).  Implications for NAIS: How do we harness outside innovators? How do we convert ourselves then train leaders in the four principles?


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