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A Qualitative Study Using Quantitative Data Colleen Bye Keith White Ian Sorensen

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Outcomes Assessment—Phase 1 Common Departmental Final Part multiple-choice/part free response Very subjective grading Large database from IRI Received periodically Analysis in Excel One/few people involved

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Outcomes Assessment—Phase 2 Too dependent on IRI Developed department measure Submitted by each faculty member for every course every semester Single page < 10 minutes to fill out Primary objectives: Own our assessment Encourage reflection

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Sample Form

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Department Data Semester-by-semester snapshots Pass/Success/Retention rates Compare Semesters Courses Other Departmental Final Last 3 years moved to multiple choice for standardization

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Sample Department Data

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Next Steps Data incomplete Longitudinal data Sequence data Instructor data Scary!!! IRB approved Professionally

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Outcomes Assessment—Phase 3 Created by colleague Ian Sorensen PCP passed original class and continued and passed next class in first attempt Department average = 29% PC-P only considers students that passed original class and continued onto next class and passed Department average = 61%

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Definitions Example 30 enrolled in original class (e.g. Pre- Algebra) 24 passed original class (e.g. Pre-Algebra) 20 continued to next class (e.g. Beginning Algebra) 18 passed next class (e.g. Beginning Algebra) 18/30 = 60% PCP 18/20 = 90% PC-P (change in denominator)

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Selection Process ~26 full-time faculty ~80 adjunct faculty Subjective Large n (> ~250) Above average PCP Above average PC-P

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Department Instructors

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Instructor Stats Dept Avg62%67%29%61% Inst ID# Teaching EventsPassContinuedPCPPC-PColor %74%36%65%Green %74%36%66%Green %82%38%70%Purple %71%39%62%Green %72%36%71%Purple %71%38%64%Green %71%38%64%Green %73%36%68%Purple %62%36%68%Purple %64%35%73%Purple %78%39%69%Purple %80%64%81%Purple

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Qualitative Study Design Process 1.Interviews 2.Identifying Themes 3.Observations Preliminary/Ongoing

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Biographical Data What is your educational background? How long have you been teaching? Developmental math? Did/do you teach K – 12? Who was most influential in your development as a math teacher?

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General Philosophy What is your philosophy of teaching? What are your objectives in teaching developmental math?

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Philosophical Specifics From data collected, a good percentage of your students have been successful in subsequent math courses. Why do you think that is the case? What personal strengths do you find especially helpful in your teaching? What do you think are the most important factors for a student to be successful working through the developmental math series?

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Practical Specifics How do you structure a class? Which element/activities would you say contribute most to the success of your students?

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Paul Axelrod’s Characteristics of Effective Teaching 1.Accessibility and Approachability 2.Fairness 3.Open-mindedness 4.Subject mastery and delivery 5.Enthusiasm 6.Humor 7.Knowledge and Inspiration Imparted Axelrod, Paul (2008). Student Perspective on Good Teaching: What History Reveals. Academic Matters: The Journal of Higher Education, February 2008, 24 – 27.

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Methods Literature-Recommended Strategies Flipping Classroom Active Learning Groups/Team Based Employ different Learning Styles Methods

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Interview Sample Data WHY SUCCESSFULBuild confidenceMore visualencourage get overBuild confidenceStructure of class forMakes connections Wrote up how to pass EncourageStop make sure anxietyChange mind set taking responsibiliIs able to spend moreYou tube vieos Taught 1050, so can students understandSRI: Mr. hart made Have positive experienceMore like 1050 time on moreTell them to get get them prepared for before moving on me feel like I c/bSuccessful experienceDon't rush problems challenging material help early on and connect nextClear methodologies successfulPractice exams for review class.Cover homework ?never go on w/oUsed skills learned w.lang Structure class keepMany examples class undertsandAdopt useful stratgies in mind struggles PERSONAL STRENGTempathy for struggleVery Patientphoto memory-learnNever belittle#1PatienceAbility to break down anxietyLove math show teach like coatchVisual and Artsy names quicklyBuild trustNon threateningAresenal of weapons to teach passion favorite math teacheasy goingEncourageRelaxed personLearned tech while teach spEnthusiasm motivatorability to simplifyPatienceObserve teachers/attendHumor encouragerelaxed personalityKindness conference keep learningNot rigid patienceGive PraiseCaringEncourage questions Musical abaility STRUCTUREeach unit hand outStart w/questions30 minutes q&astart w/demo probQ&A homework min hw questDaily quiz beginning mini syllabusLecture materiallecture broken up work individualstand lectureIntro new materialGo thru text exampl Come class questionsLet students gravitat w/finger stretchesq&a techniqueDon't skip steps by concept on boad Group work towards group that stories, you tubeWalk around room stopDon't rush problemsSample problem onEncourage questions Have them come to want to. videos at each deskLet students direct boardIf time at end do board/rotateMany times studentdiscussionEnd turn in few questOkay w/room beingOther problems at whatever student Teach each other/ will ask other worked as groups quite will wait desk walk around w/mentorTraditional lecture switch roles questions duringBreaks things upVolunteer to come to board Each day different review

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Connections All had minimum 10 years teaching All mentioned the importance of creating a safe atmosphere where students could ask questions Almost all emphasized need to build student confidence Most characterized themselves as patient 6 out of 7 started class with homework questions None used power point to deliver lecture

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Incongruities Homework – 4 paper and book / 3 online homework 2 stopped at Bachelor Degrees (both in math) Only 2 held Master’s Degree in Mathematics Group Work – 3 had groups / 4 did not Structure – 3 stated they were a traditional lecturer Attendance – 3 required / 4 did not

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Observations Had teachers select time to come in and observe class Looked for themes identified in interview Found specific techniques

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Knowledge is Power 27testedChapter 1-223testedChapter 322testedChapter 4 QuesMissedFocusQuesMissedFocusQuesMissedFocus 464Evaluate1584Vertical2754Liquid mixture 2657Solve linear equation1656Vertical142d=rt system 2755Complementary angles2550Perpendicular slopes1640System solve 2553Solve formula1447Eqt'n of slope, point2036Construct system 1549Create & Solve equation142Equation, 2 pts1433System addition 2449Solve inequality436Calc/compare slopes26 System solve 1938Percent1336Interpret intercept2425Cost system 2133Solve inequality1832Vertical823System substitution 1432Create & Solve equation2432Equation, 2 pts322System addition 628x divided by zero2130Calc/compare slopes221System addition 1026Solve linear equation2629Find slope of 2 pts1820Construct system 23 Solve inequality1126Parallel slope2520System substitution 920Solve linear equation2226Perpendicular slopes418System addition 1120English vs Algebra1924Vertical917System solve 1319Solve linear equation2723Equation, 2 pts1516Cost system 516Zero divided by x1022Sketch a graph2314Evaluate inequality 16 Simplify2322Parallel slope1913System addition 2216Solve inequality2019Rise/run611System solve 1214Solve linear equation718Horizontal1211System substitution 112Substitute & Solve516Vertical1711System solve 712Clear parentheses212Horizontal58System addition 2010Solve inequality1712Solve eqt'n for m, b107System addition 38Evaluate99 217System addition 86Solve linear equation38Horizontal76System addition 184Solve linear equation128Eqt'n of slope, intrcpt134System graph 20English vs Algebra86Sketch a graph110System evaluate 170No question64Evaluate220Joke

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Knowledge is Power 27testedChapter 1-2 QuesMissedFocus 464Evaluate 2657Solve linear equation 2755Complementary angles 2553Solve formula 1549Create & Solve equation 2449Solve inequality 1938Percent 2133Solve inequality 1432Create & Solve equation 628x divided by zero 1026Solve linear equation 23 Solve inequality 920Solve linear equation

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Knowledge is Power Qualification verified Gradebook Homework Average Daily Quiz Average Chapter Test Average Final Exam Score Score needed to pass Attendance percentage Grade with Test Corrections Grade w/o Test Corrections Did they sign up for next class? Did they pass next class?

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Board Work Innovation Have groups of three to four come to the board. One person rotates to next group for next problem. Group leaders come to the board and race. Quadratic Equation – One uses formula other completing square.

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Hard at Work

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Music and Math

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Future Work Additional instructors Course-by-course comparisons Course delivery comparisons Student surveys?

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