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Presentation on theme: "PEST CONTROL IN AGRICULTURE"— Presentation transcript:

Crop Protection Dr. Hadass Cohen

2 Course Description This course provides an holistic view on pest management, emphasizing the integration of different methods for maintaining pests, diseases and weeds below damaging levels, with the goal of minimizing the use of chemical pesticides that disrupt the environment.

3 Course Objectives Introduction: A short review on different approaches
to pest management

4 Course Objectives 2.Integrated Pest Management (IPM),principles.
3. IPM applications: Apple orchard program for the control of: insects, arthropods & diseases. 4. Cotton program for the control of weeds & insects. 5. Greenhouse latest engineering and their impact on crop protection. 6. Natural fertilizers.

5 The course concludes with a visit in an R&D facility, demonstrating some practices of IPM in fruit & vegetables.

6 Introduction: A short review on different approaches to pest management

7 Diversity of Pests & Disciplines
Virus - VIROLOGY Bacteria, Mycoplasma - MICROBIOLOGY Fungi - PHYTOPATHOLOGY Arthropods (mites) - ACAROLOGY Nematodes -PHYTONEMATOLOGY Insects - ENTOMOLOGY Weeds

8 Pest Control Methods Cultural Mechanical Physical Chemical Biological
Genetic Engineering of Plants

9 Intensive Farming Intensive farming is an agricultural system that aims to get maximum yield from the available land. Under this technique, food is produced in large quantities with the help of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that are appropriately used to save such agricultural land from pests and crop diseases

10 Intensive Farming - Advantages
Aids in solving the worldwide hunger problems to a great extent, contributes towards meeting the ever-growing demand for food supplies. It is cost effective, common people can afford a balanced and nutritious diet Intensive Farming - Advantages

11 Intensive Farming - Advantages
Have enabled a substantial increase in production. in contrast to many sorts of sustainable agriculture such as organic farming or extensive agriculture

12 Impacts of Intensive Farming on Soil
Soil erosion from farmland threatens the productivity of agricultural fields. The sub soils that remain tend to be: less fertile less absorbent, less able to retain pesticides less able to retain fertilizers less able to retain plant nutrients.

13 Impacts of Intensive Farming on Water
Increasing erosion and poisoning water with agricultural chemicals.

14 Impacts of Intensive Farming - Example
Cucumber growers in the Sharon region, Israel, have been growing the same crop for the last 3 decades. Plant protection problems have aroused: Decline of nutrients in soil Attack of new viruses, diseases & pests Resistance to pesticides

15 Impacts of Intensive Farming on Livestock
Involve very large numbers of animals raised on limited land which require large amounts of food, water and medical inputs, causes: Pollution Various diseases Infections Poor hygiene

16 Cultural Control in Intensive Farming
Crop Rotation Intercropping Phonological Asynchrony Sanitation Managed Application Resistant Varieties Trap Crops

17 Crop Rotation Intensive grazing affects animal health Crop rotation may contribute to overcome pest attacks Example Pasture rotation had eliminated cattle fever, in southern U.S., by avoiding the transmission of the disease by cattle ticks, Boophilus annulatus.

18 Intercropping May increase environmental diversity or abundance of natural enemies, such as predator spiders or parasitic wasps Example Inter-planted plants act as a food source or breeding ground for beneficial insects as they search out for pests.

19 Phonological Asynchrony
Altering the time of year for planting or harvesting. Example Sweet corn can escape most injury from corn earworms (Helicoverpa zea) if it is planted in early spring and harvested before larvae mature.

20 Sanitation Removing crop debris Example
Removing crop debris from cotton fields after harvest eliminates overwintering populations of pink bollworms. (Pectinophora gossypiella)

21 Managed Application Managed application of water or fertilizer can have a big impact on the survival of pest populations. Example Regular rainfall (or overhead irrigation) can significantly reduce infestations of twospotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in tree fruits.

22 Plant Resistant Varieties
Selection of plant resistant varieties Example Growing resistant varieties of wheat for reducing severity of wheat stem sawfly

23 Trap Crops French Marigold protect vegetables from nematodes.
 The idea is to lure certain pests away from the target crop onto the trap crops which then need to be removed once they are infected. Example French Marigold protect vegetables from nematodes.

24 Cultivation Exclusion using screens or barriers Trapping
Mechanical Control Cultivation Exclusion using screens or barriers Trapping

25 Cultivation Example Clean tillage between field rotations, or remove weeds by hand (home gardener, organic grower or researchers) , decreases the establishment of new weeds.

26 Exclusion Exclusion by using screens or barriers Example
Banding trees with Tangle foot to control cankerworms.

27 Trapping (suction devices, collecting machines)
Example Mass trapping of tea mosquito bugs with yellow sticky traps loaded with pheromone.

28 Physical Control Heat Burning surface residues, soil pasteurization.
Example Burning surface residues, soil pasteurization. Cold Cold storage of potatoes to prevent storage rot.

29 Chemical Control

30 Chemicals – Conventional Pesticides, Grouped According to Target Organism
Insecticides Herbicides Fungicides Rodenticids Acaracides(miticides) Molluscicides (snail control) Antimicrobials / biocides Microbial pesticides

31 Chemicals – Conventional Pesticides Types of pesticides – With Relation to Habitat
Narrow-spectrum /broad-spectrum Targeted organisms -no harm to non-target Kills a variety of organisms in addition to pest

32 First Generation Pesticides Historically Used Pesticides
Inorganic compounds (minerals) –Lead –Mercury –Arsenic Botanicals –Nicotine –Pyrethrum –Rotenone

33 Second Generation Pesticides, Synthetic
Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane(DDT) Synthesized in 1873 Insecticidal properties –Paul Müller, 1939 (Nobel Prize) used to control body lice Widespread use Banned in US in 1972 Currently there are thousands of synthetic pesticide products, made up of more than 1,000 different chemicals and combinations, not as environmentally, persistent as DDT

34 DDT is a powerful insecticide
DDT is a powerful insecticide. It binds to the voltage-gated sodium channel and locks it in the open state. Prolonged influx of sodium ions causes the nerves to fire repeatedly and this causes death of the insect

35 DDT is Blamed Causing the Decline of the Bald Eagle Population
Unfortunately, even though DDT is not immediately toxic to other animals it does have one disadvantage: it is extremely stable—its biological half-life is about eight years. Furthermore, DDT is stored in fatty tissues and its buildup in birds and fish resulted in considerable loss of these species. That, coupled with the evolution of DDT resistant insects, led to a ban of DDT in most countries by the 1970's

36 Synthetic Insecticides: Modes of Action (1)
Organochlorines & Pyrethroids Retards closure of ion channel in CNS, results in repetitive spontaneous nervous discharges. (DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane) (fenvalerate, permethrin) Organophosphates & Carbomates* Binds to hydroxyl group to inhibit formation of acetyl- cholinesterase. (Malathion, diazinon, methylparathion)(Carbaryl, carbofuran, methiocarb) * Insect growth regulators (fenoxycarb)

37 Insecticide Classification
1.Organochlorines 2. Organophosphates 3. Carbamates 4. Pyrethroids 5. Neonicotinoids 6. Biologicals 7. Semiochemicals (synthetic pheromones) 8. Others (CSI’s, IGR’s, Metabolic/Energy processes , repellents) 9. Botanical s

38 Synthetic Insecticides:
Modes of Action (2) Neonicotinoids Act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, spinosad ) Biologicals Complex of various modes and sites. (Bt, abamectin, carpo-virus) Semiochemicals (synthetic sex pheromones, attract & kill strategy).

39 Synthetic Insecticides:
Modes of Action (3) Growth & Development Chitin Synthetic Inhibitors Chitin synthesis inhibitors (cyromazine, diflubenzuron) Insect Growth Regulators Ecdison agonist, causing the insect to unable to molt. (tebufenozide, halofenozide) Juvenile hormone mimic, interfering in the insects metamorphoses (hydroprene, methoprene)

40 Synthetic Insecticides:
Modes of Action (4) Metabolic/Energy processes + Botanicals Oxidative phosphorylation disruptor – inhibitor (fenbutatin oxide, cyhexatin, pymetrozine) Horticultural oils Mechanical suffocation by blocking breathing or disruption of cellular membranes Nontoxic attack , feeding barrier (kaolin – repellent) Electron transport inhibitor (rotenone - botanical)

41 Synthetic Insecticides: Advantages
Protecting cultivated crops from most pest invasions Cost effective Marking a major advance in crop protection, replacing the inferior pesticides based on metallic salts

42 Synthetic Insecticides: Disadvantages Ecological and Medical Problems
Chemicals lace the food with residues Estimation: Only 0.1% of the chemicals used in crop protection reach the target pest Health risks associated with conventional pesticide residues in foods are well-established and subject to intensive regulatory efforts aimed at reducing exposure 99.9% of chemicals, enter the environment to cause hazards to non-target organisms including humans

43 . Global demand for fertilizer nutrients (a) & pesticide active ingredients (b),

44 . Global demand shares by region for fertilizer nutrients (a) & pesticide active ingredients (b), 2010

45 Global Use of Pesticides
There are currently more than 1,600 pesticides available and about 4.4 million tons used annually, at a cost of more than $20 billion. The United States accounts for more than 25 percent of this market.

46 Biological Control

47 Types of Natural Enemies
Parasitoids Pathogens Predators Weed Feeders

48 Parasitoids Major characteristics of insect parasitoids:
Specialized in their choice of host Smaller than host only the female searches for host Different parasitoid species can attack different life stages of host Eggs or larvae are usually laid in, on, or near host Immature remain on or in host; adults are free-living, mobile, and may be predaceous Immature almost always kill host

49 Entomoparasitoids Example Trichogramma nubilale wasp Trichogramma
lay their eggs inside the eggs of corn borers and other moths. When the Trichogramma hatch, they begin to eat the developing caterpillar inside the egg.

50 Pathogens Major characteristics of insect pathogens: Kill or reduce reproduction, slow growth, or shorten the life of pests. Usually specific to target species or to specific life stages. Effectiveness may depend on environmental conditions or host abundance. Degree of control may be unpredictable. Relatively slow acting (several days) to provide adequate control.

51 Entoemopathogen Example Verticillium lecanii produces a cyclodepsipeptide toxin called bassianolide, which has been shown to kill silkworm. The fungus produces other insecticidal toxins such as dipicolinic acid. The activity of V. lecanii depends on the strain of the fungus. V. lecanii strains with small spores infect aphids, whereas, fungal strains with large spores infect whiteflies.

52 Fungal Pathogens Producer Target Fungus Product Mycontrol ,Israel
Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma harzianum Trichoderma 2000 N.P.P. , France Fusarium oxysporium (deleterious) (microbial inoculant) Fusaclean Ecogen Inc.USA Botrytis spp., Penicillium spp. Candida oleophila Aspire Ecogen Inc.USAA Powdery mildews Ampelomyces quisqualis Q10 Biofungicide

53 Predators Major characteristics of arthropod predators: Adults and immature are often generalists rather than specialists Generally are larger than their prey Kill or consume many prey Attack immature and adult prey

54 Predatory beetles Example Cryptolaemus montrouzieri feeds on mealy bug
Beetles lay eggs directly into mealybug egg sacs. Larvae grow to 13 mm long and are covered in waxy filaments closely resemble their mealybug prey. All stages are predatory on mealybugs. The young predacious larva sucks out the body contents of its mealybug prey, passing through four instars before pupating on nearby. supports.

55 Weed-Feeding Natural Enemies
Insects - can control weeds by feeding on seeds, flowers, leaves, stems, roots, or combinations of these, or by transmitting plant pathogens, which will infect plants. Other natural enemies of weeds include plant pathogens: nematodes ,vertebrates , fungi

56 Weed-Feeding Fungi Example
The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. Aeschynomene, causes an anthracnose on Aeschynomene virginica and has been used as a biological control agent to control this weed in the U.S. Aeschynomene is known as a noxious weed which infests rice and soybean fields in North America.

57 Biological Control , Advantages
1. It poses little threat to non-target organisms 2. Once established, biological control agents are self perpetuating and can spread on their own, while other control methods require action or inputs periodically 3. The environmental impact is generally low 4. The pest is unable (or very slow) to develop a resistance.

58 Biolagical Control, Disadvantages
1. Control is slow. 2. Density dependent. 3. It will not exterminate the pest. 4. It is often unpredictable. 5. It is difficult and expensive to develop and supply. 6. It requires expert supervision.

59 Plant Resistance Plant disease induced resistance
Plant resistance to insects (genetic engineering) Plant resistance and tolerance to nematodes

60 Plant Disease Resistance
Plant disease resistance derives both from pre-formed defenses and from infection-induced responses mediated by the plant immune system

61 Plant Resistance to Nematodes
Resistance to some species of Meloidogyne in beans (large lima), cowpeas, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes are the only cases where plant resistance is currently used as a nematode management tactic. Resistant cultivars, especially of sweet potatoes and tomatoes, have been used mostly in conjunction with a preplant fumigation treatment.

62 Genetic Engineering of Plants
Most genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are altered to be herbicide-resistant (over 70% of all GMOs), others include insect - resistant . Example Transgenic Bt corn, cotton potato, tomato and rice are grown instead of Bt spray usage. The most common grown one is Bt cotton.

63 Insect-Resistant - Advantages
Economic benefits - crop yields are saved from loss to insect pests and money is saved by not applying insecticides that would have been applied to susceptible varieties. Ecological and environmental benefits - increases in species diversity in the agro-ecosystem, in part because of reduced use of insecticides, far less polluted and detrimental to natural resources.

64 Genetic Engineering of Pest
SIT – Sterile Insect Technique Example The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used to control fruit fly pests of economic significance, throughout the world


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