2ObjectivesExplain life and our existence in the universe in two simple sentences.Calculate the mass of the Sun using an abacus.Track the lineage of the British Monarchy from the time of William the Conqueror, down to ninth cousins.Explain the ending of Stanley Kubrick’s classic film, 2001: A Space Odyssey.Trace the influence of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle on Western Thought.
3Terms and People Judaism –dafd Moses are north Exodus were low. Ten Commandments – the.
4Part 1: Borders and Regions On the west, a desert separates south Asia from its nearest Muslim neighbor, Pakistan.To the north, beyond the highest mountains in the world, lies China.Part 1: Borders and RegionsOn the east, the Bay of Bengal separates this region from Indochina.This region is bordered on the south by the Indian Ocean.
5Five areas in this region. The HimalayasFive areas in this region.
6Across the north are the Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world. Kathmandu, Nepal’s biggest city, is a city of temples, shrines, and living gods.A village in Nepal
7The plain of the Ganges River is one of the most densely populated areas in the world.
8The Ganges River basin provides most of the fertile soil for feeding this area. Much of the farming here is “subsistence farming”(growing crops for self and family).Rice is the major crop of India.Too much of the area is polluted.
9The river itself is considered holy by the Hindu people. It is also home to the World’s only freshwater whale – the Ganges River dolphin.
10The second important river is the Brahmaputra. This area is the deltas of two major rivers.
11Three words describe Bangladesh well: crowded,wet,and poor.
12In the south, the Deccan Plateau is higher than the Ganges Plain and drier than the rest of south Asia.
13Why is the Deccan Plateau dry while the rest of South Asia is wet?
14Wet Sub-Tropical Wet Tropical Wet Tropical Wet Tropical The Oriental World is divided by the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world.Wet Sub-TropicalmonsoonmonsoonmonsoonmonsoonWet TropicalmonsoonWet TropicalIn southern Asia, the climate is controlled by annual rainstorms called “Monsoons”.Wet Tropical
15The mountains block the warm, wet weather from traveling north. High, Cold MountainsThe Tibetan PlateauWet Sub-TropicalmonsoonThe HimalayasmonsoonmonsoonmonsoonWet TropicalWet TropicalWet TropicalBhutan
16monsoonThe mountains called the Western Ghats also block the monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau.monsoon
17The south of India and the island nation of Sri Lanka are extremely fertile.
18India has many languages, but the most widely spoken is Hindu. Part 2: LanguagesIndia has many languages, but the most widely spoken is Hindu.
19Part 3: History South Asia has been invaded repeatedly. The Taj Mahal of India was built by the Muslims.It is not a mosque, but a tomb.The Muslims invaded in the 1500s and stayed until 1707.
20After the Muslims came the British. The British were more interested in building rail than elaborate tombs.After the Muslims came the British.
21India, however, did not stay together. Using only peaceful means, a man named Gandhi led the Indians in an effort to force the British to leave.Muslims moved to Pakistan; Hindus moved to India.Under the British, most of South Asia was united.
22Areas of Conflict Today TamilIndia and Pakistan have fought over control of this area.The Tamils want their own country.Singhalese
23Temples seem to be everywhere. Some are even underground. Part 4: ReligionTemples seem to be everywhere.Some are even underground.
24The most important religion of this area is Hinduism. VishnuGaneshKaliHindus worship many gods.
26The belief in karma is one of the basic principles of Hinduism. What goes aroundcomes around.
27Another important belief in Hinduism is the concept of reincarnation. Hindus believe that reincarnation (if a person is good) brings one higher and higher in their caste system.Although now against the law, the caste system is similar to the system of segregation in the United States.Another important belief in Hinduism is the concept of reincarnation.
28The other major religion of Southern Asia is Buddhism. Long ago in India, there was a was a spoiled, rich prince.As he journeyed away from his palace, he encountered the poor.When he thought about his life of luxury, he realized how empty it was.He became “enlightened” and gave away everything.
33In this section you will: ObjectivesIn this section you will:Learn about the landforms of South Asia.Discover the most important factor that affects climate in South Asia.Examine how people use the land and resources of South Asia.33
34Key Termssubcontinent (SUB kahn tih nunt) n. a large landmass that is a major part of a continentalluvial (uh LOO vee ul) adj. made of soil deposited by riverscash crop (kash krahp) n. a crop that is raised or gathered to be sold for money on the local or world market34
35Scientists believe that all of Earth’s continents were once joined, and the Indian subcontinent was attached to the east coast of Africa.They think that the Indian subcontinent broke from Africa and slid slowly toward Asia about 200 million years ago.35
36The Himalayas form a barrier between South Asia and the rest of Asia. About 50 million years ago, the Indian subcontinent collided with Asia, crumpling the land where they met and forming the Himalaya Mountains.The Himalayas form a barrier between South Asia and the rest of Asia.They stretch 1,550 miles from east to west and include Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world.36
37The Maldives (islands) Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka (island) Nations in South Asia include:BangladeshBhutanIndiaThe Maldives (islands)NepalPakistanSri Lanka (island)37
38South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Most of the people live in areas that have abundant rainfall, including coastal areas, northeastern India, and Bangladesh.About 70 percent of the population of South Asia live in rural areas, especially fertile river valleys.38
40The Ganges and the Indus—the two major rivers in South Asia—both begin in the Himalayas. The Ganges flows across northern India and empties into the Bay of Bengal, and the Indus flows west from the Himalayas into Pakistan.40
41Huge alluvial plains stretch from the mouth of the Indus River to the mouth of the Ganges River. The plains have fertile soil, so they are good for farming and are heavily populated.South of India’s plains lies the Deccan Plateau, which is framed by two mountain ranges, the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.41
43Monsoons are the single most important factor affecting the climate of South Asia. During the summer, steady monsoon winds blow from the southwest across the surface of the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.43
44The winds pick up moisture and drop it as rain over the hot western tip of India. The rain cools the land, so when the next air mass blows in, it travels further inland before dropping rain on the land.In this way, the monsoon rains work their way inland until they finally reach the Himalayas.44
45During the winter, the monsoons change direction, and the winds blow from the frigid northeast. The Himalayas block the cold air, so South Asia has dry, mild winter weather.45
46Some countries in South Asia grow cash crops such as tea, cotton, coffee, and sugar cane. Cash crops bring in money, but countries must be careful not to rely on them too much or their economies might suffer if global prices drop.46
47India has a vast supply of minerals, including iron ore, coal, copper, limestone, and bauxite. India has only a small amount of oil, though, so it relies heavily on hydroelectricity and nuclear power plants.47
48Ganges RiverIndus RiverBay of BengalHimalaya Mts.Alluvial PlainDeccan PlateauEastern and Western Ghats