Presentation on theme: "Phonetics Unit 1. Introduction - Review What is phonetics? What are the origins of phonetics? How can we define sounds? What are the stages of sound production."— Presentation transcript:
Phonetics Unit 1
Introduction - Review What is phonetics? What are the origins of phonetics? How can we define sounds? What are the stages of sound production and perception? Which activities have derived from these stages?
Introduction - Review What is involved in the production of sounds? Which human organs are involved when we speak? What are the two subystems involved in the process of speaking?
Introduction - Review How are lungs called in the speaking process? How can we produce –V and +V sounds? What’s another name for pharynx, nasal and oral cavities? How do we call the organs in the oral cavity? How can we describe sounds?
Description of speech sounds Articulation = physiological movements to modify the airstream Discrete sounds = segmentals (consonants vowels) Ways to articulate of segments: – Articulators completely close off the vocal tract – Narrow the space in the vocal tract – Modify the shape of vocal tract
Description of speech sounds Obstruction of airstream = consonantal sounds Absence of obstruction = vocalic sounds Sounds are described according to 2 parameters: – Point of articulation: describes which articulator is involved in the production of a sound. – Manner of articulation: describes the type of closure made by the articulators and the way the air is released.
Consonants: Point/place of articulation Bilabial: 2 lips obstruct the airstream /p, b, m/ pbmm – Examples: place, bathroom, mother Labio-dental: the inner edge of lower lip get into light contact with the upper teeth /f, v/ fv – Examples: false, very Dental: tip of tongue against the upper teeth /ө, ð/ thth – Examples: mouth, there
Alveolar: tip and blade of the tongue get into light contact with the alveolar ridge /d, t, n, l, s, z/ dtnlsz – Examples: dental, toe, narrow, low, sun, zone Retroflex: tip of tongue curled back next to the hard palate, but without contact /r/ r – Exampl: car Consonants: Point/place of articulation
Alveo-palatal: tip or blade of tongue at front of palate, near the alveolar ridge /ʃ, ʒ, ʧ, ʤ/ sscg – Examples: shoe, treasure, choice, gym Palatal: front of togue at palate /Spanish-r/ /j/ ry – Examples: pero, you Velar: obstruction of airstream with the back of the tongue at the soft palate or velum /k, g, ŋ/ cgng – Examples: clown, got, song Consonants: Point/place of articulation
Uvular: back of tongue at the uvula /French-r/ r – Example: pour Glottal: air passing through glottis causing friction in vocal folds but no vibration /h/ h – Example: home Consonants: Point/place of articulation
Point of articulation/ voicingBilabial +V -V Labio- dental +V -V Dental Alveolar Retro flex +V -V Alveo- palatal +V -V Palatal Velar Glottal Sounds b p m v f ð ө d t n s l z rʒ ʃ ʤ ʧ Spanish- r j g k ŋ h ExamplesBook Mouth Plot Funny Very Mouth There Drop Nice Love Buzz Tie Sun RainDoge Pleasure Shout Catch Carro Yet Goal King Key House Consonants: Point/place of articulation
Consonants: Manner of articulation Stops: complete closure at some point of vocal tract, releasing airstream abruptly /p, b, t, d, k, g/ Fricatives: almost closing vocal tract and pushing airstream through a passage producing friction /f, v, ө, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h/ Affricates: complete brief stopping of airstream with an obstructed release causing friction /ʧ, ʤ/
Laterals: obstuction at the center of vocal tract, airstream released through the sides of the contact /l/ Nasals: lowered velum and airstream flows though the nose /m, n, ŋ/ Flaps: a single rapid contact of the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge /ʕ/ Consonants: Manner of articulation
Trills: a series of rapid intermitent closures with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge /Spanish-r/ Approximants: influence of the vowel sound that follows /r/ and the semivowels /j, w/ Consonants: Manner of articulation
Place, manner, voicing Bilabial +V -V Labio- dental +V -V Dental Alveolar Retro flex +V -V Alveo- palatal +V -V Palatal Velar Glottal Stops b pd t k g Fricatives v f ð ө z s ʒ ʃ h Affricates ʤ ʧ Laterals l Nasals mnŋ Flaps ʕ Trills /Spanis h-r/ Approxi mants – Semi vowels r jw
Spelling of sounds /p/ voiceless bilabial stop, regularly represented by the letter “p” in writing. /b/ voiced bilabial stop, regularly represented by the letter “b” in writting. /t/ voiceless alveolar stop, represented in writing by: – t…………time- tt……….better – th………Thomas - ed……..washed