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Europe and the New World:

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Presentation on theme: "Europe and the New World:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Europe and the New World:
Chapter 14 Europe and the New World: New Encounters,

2 A 1536 Mercator projection map showing the route of Ferdinand Magellan’s first circumnavigation of the world. p. 413

3 On the Brink of a New World
Motives and Means Catholic Europe had been largely confined to the continent (exception of the Crusades, which failed) The Travels of John Mandeville (14th century)-Fantastic lands of legend and myth Access to the East The Polos-Popularized China in Europe through descriptions of Kublai Khan and Mongol courts Economic Motives-Primary motive for European exploration Religious Zeal-Particularly strong motivation for Portugal and Spain Centralized Monarchies Ptolemy’s Geography (1477) Development of seaworthy ships and new navigational techniques Old techniques, such as using the Pole Star to determine position was useless below the equator John Mandeville: Spoke of “other worlds” filled with precious stones and gold, realms of giants and evil women. Access to the East: Mongol conquests of Central Asia in the 13th century had reopened routes blockaded by the Muslims. Econ. Motives: Merchants, adventurers, and government officials held ambitious hopes of locating new areas of trade, especially in the spice market.

4 Ptolemy’s World Map. Contained in the Latin translation of Ptolemy’s Geography was this world map, which did not become available to Europeans until the late fifteenth century. Scholars quickly accepted it as the most accurate map of its time. The twelve ‘‘wind faces,’’ meant to show wind currents around the earth, were a fifteenth-century addition to the ancient map. p. 416

5 Portuguese Exploration
Portuguese fleets had begun sailing south along the western coast of Africa in early 15th century In search of commerce and trade Precious metals and goods such as gold and ivory from parts of Morocco and the “Gold Coast” 1440s-Portuguese begin profiting from the selling of African slaves through their maritime exploration

6 New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394 – 1460) Established first school for mariners in Portugal The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire Bartholomeu Dias Vasco da Gama Reaches India by rounding Cape of Good Hope Direct voyage from Europe to India Viceroys Alfonso d’Albuquerque (1462 – 1515) Commercial – Military bases Reasons for Portuguese Success Able to defeat Muslim opposition and control trade with India (Accomplished this with arms and technique)

7 Destruction of Muslims at Malacca
Encompassing and controlling Malacca and the Malay peninsula meant: Destroying Arab spice trade Providing a way station on route to the Spice Islands and China

8 Map 14.1: Discoveries and Possessions in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries.
Desire for wealth was the main motivation of the early explorers, though spreading Christianity was also an important factor. Portugal under Prince Henry the Navigator initiated the first voyages in the early fifteenth century; Spain’s explorations began at the century’s end. Q Which regions of the globe were primarily explored by Portugal, and which were the main focus of Spain’s voyages? Map 14-1, p. 417

9 Images of Everyday Life: Spices and World Trade.

10 Images of Everyday Life: Spices and World Trade.

11 Voyages of the New World
Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) Reached the Bahamas (Oct. 12, 1492) Additional voyages (1493, 1498, and 1502) Additional Discoveries John Cabot-Venetian that sailed for England Pedro Cabral-Discovered South America in 1500 Amerigo Vespucci- America=New Lands Nun˜ez de Balboa Ferdinand Magellan Ferdinand Magellan (1480 – 1521) First known circumnavigation of the earth Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)-divided the New World between Spain and Portugal

12 Christopher Columbus. Columbus was an Italian explorer who worked for the queen of Spain. He has become a symbol for two entirely different perspectives. To some, he was a great and heroic explorer who discovered the New World; to others, especially in Latin America, he was responsible for beginning a process of invasion that led to the destruction of an entire way of life. Because Columbus was never painted during his lifetime, the numerous portraits of him are more fanciful than accurate. The portrait shown here was probably done by the Italian painter Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. p. 420

13 The Spanish Empire in the New World
Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica The Maya (civilization of sophistication) The Aztec were the prominent rulers of much of Mexico at the time of Euro exploration The Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire Hernan Cortés (1485 – 1547) Best exemplifies Spanish exploration and expansion of the New World Moctezuma (Montezuma) Aztec Empire overthrownby Cortez Capital city (Tenochtitlan) located in Central Mexixo

14 The Maya. p. 421

15 The Aztecs. p. 422

16 The Spanish Empire (Cont)
The Inca (Ruler) and the Spanish Pachakuti-Inca leader (Led campaign bringing entire region under control) Inca buildings and roads Francisco Pizarro (c – 1541) Conquered and plundered Inca empire in 1531 Smallpox- European disease contributing to high mortality rates among natives of the New World Incas overthrown (1535)- Pizzaro establishes new Spanish Empire at the capital city of Lima No immunity for epidemic Death of the emperor Civil war between two sons of the Inca Emperor Incan soldiers outmatched Armed with stones, arrows, and light spears

17 The Spanish Empire (Cont)
Administration of the Spanish Empire Queen Isabella proclaimed the natives to be subjects of Castile Encomienda- Social and Economic System under Castile Conquistadors collected tribute from the natives and used their labor Spaniards abused Indians, ignoring their government Put to work on plantations and in gold and silver mines Bartolome de Las Casas was a major public critic of Spanish treatment of the Indians Viceroys Ruled over New Spain and Peru The Church Catholic Monarchs of Spain given extensive rights of Holy affairs in the New World

18 Slaughter of the Natives.
Fearful of growing Aztec resistance, the Spaniards responded by slaughtering many natives. This sixteenth-century watercolor by an unknown artist shows the massacre of the Cholula people, carried out on the orders of Cortés. The Cholula had refused to provide supplies to the forces of a Spanish expedition. p. 422

19 Chronology, p. 424

20 The Inca. p. 424

21 New Rivals Dutch, French, and English Dutch East India Company 1602
Established a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope Trade in slaves increases with European exploration and settlement Most Africans taken from coastal areas and shipped to plantations in the NW (Middle East and Europe previously) Discovery of the Americas changed the slave trade drastically

22 Africa: The Slave Trade
Sugar Cane and slavery European diseases set an early expiration date for many Indians Plantations needed more labor than natives could supply Growth in the Slave Trade Up to 10,000,000 African slaves taken to the Americas between the Sixteenth and Nineteenth Centuries New Atlantic Economy represented by Triangular Trade European Merchants from England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Dutch Republic Facilitated trade between European, African, and American continents

23 The Slave Trade (cont) Each cargo contained around 300-450
Rate of death could exceed 10% on longer journeys due to adverse conditions Suffering endured for Africans who survived the middle passage as they had little or no immunity to NW sicknesses

24 Effects of the Slave Trade
The Slave Trade increased war and violence in Africa among natives Prisoners of War Crippled African economies Depopulation of African communities Demoralization

25 Conflicting Views of Slavery
Western society tended to accept slavery Blacks viewed as inferior beings meant for dull labor Beginning in the 1770s the Society of Friends (Quakers) publicly abhorred slavery

26 Map 14.2: Triangular Trade Route in the Atlantic Economy.
As the trade in slaves grew, it became a part of the triangular trade route that characterized the Atlantic economy, involving the exchange of goods and slaves between the western coast of Europe, the slave depots on the African coast, and the ports of North and South America. Q What were the important source regions for slaves, and where were most of the slaves taken? Map 14-2, p. 427

27 The West in Southeast Asia
Portugal Too weak at home to dominate empire abroad Spain Established Pacific base in the Philippines The Dutch and the English Dutch seize the spice trade, in SE Asia, from Portugal in the early 17th century Dutch bring most of Indonesia under its control by the end of the 18th century

28 The West in Southeast Asia (cont)
Mainland SE Asia was not impacted as much by European arrival More success in resisting European intrusion because they had strong monarchies and were more politically cohesive Cooperation helped states drive Europeans out Local Kingdoms (Burma/Myanmar), Siam (Thailand), Angkor (Cambodia), and Vietnam)


30 Southeast Asia, c p. 429

31 Europe in Asia. As Europeans began to move into parts of Asia, they reproduced many of the physical surroundings of their homeland in the port cities they built there. This is evident in comparing these two scenes. Below is a seventeenth-century view of Batavia, which the Dutch built as their headquarters on the northern coast of Java in The scene at the right is from a sixteenth-century engraving of Amsterdam. This Dutch city had become the financial and commercial capital of Europe. It was also the chief port for the ships of the Dutch East India Company, which brought the spices of the East to Europe. p. 430

32 Europe in Asia. As Europeans began to move into parts of Asia, they reproduced many of the physical surroundings of their homeland in the port cities they built there. This is evident in comparing these two scenes. Below is a seventeenth-century view of Batavia, which the Dutch built as their headquarters on the northern coast of Java in The scene at the right is from a sixteenth-century engraving of Amsterdam. This Dutch city had become the financial and commercial capital of Europe. It was also the chief port for the ships of the Dutch East India Company, which brought the spices of the East to Europe. p. 430

33 The French and the British in India
The Mughal Empire Mongol in origin Babur-Founder of dynasty Akbar ( ) Grandson of Babur Brought more systematic and centralized rule to India Under Akbar and the Mughal Empire, India enjoyed economic progress and relative peace

34 The French and the British in India
The Impact of the Western Powers Portugal-Original European power in India England-Steady increase in British presence French-Major western rival to the British in India Sir Robert Clive Thwarted the French threat in India The East India Company Company in which stakes can be bought and owned by shareholders Local British population in India’s Fort William imprisoned in the black hole of Calcutta

35 The Mughal Empire. p. 432

36 China China Limited Contact with Europeans
In 16th century Portugal became the first European state to make direct contact with China since the travels of M. Polo Ming Dynasty (1369 – 1644) Qing Dynasty Originated from Manchuria and replaced the Ming in the 17th century Overthrow of the Ming created opportunity for Manchus who conquered Beijing and Li Zicheng Limited Contact with Europeans Lord Macartney compared the Chinese empire to “an old, crazy, first-rate man of war destined to be dashed to pieces on the shore” Due to incompetent leadership

37 Japan Japan Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543 – 1616)
Shogun, meaning general, achieved the unification of Japan Most powerful and longest lasting of all Shogunates Opening to the West The Portuguese Initially visitors welcomed Catholic Missionaries Interfered in local politics Tokugawa Ieyasu expelled all missionaries in Japan and persecuted Christians

38 The Qing Empire. p. 433

39 The Americas The Spanish and Portuguese were challenged by European rivals British and French found success in the W. Indies North America The Dutch settle the Hudson River Valley The English Jamestown (1607)-First permanent English settlement in N. America The French Canada- Jacques Cartier discovers St. Lawrence River in 1534 and claims Canada as a French possession

40 The West Indies. p. 435

41 Chronology, p. 436

42 The Impact of European Expansion: The Conquered
Devastating effects to local populations in America and Africa Less impact in Asia China and Japan were two nations barely impacted by European power and influence Multiracial society first appeared in Latin America Catholic Missionaries Conversion of native populations Hospitals, orphanages and schools The Jesuits Allowed new converts to practice ancestor worship Catholicism failed to disperse in China because of the opposition by the Pope to ancestor worship

43 The Impact of European Expansion: The Conquerors
Europeans lusted for gold and silver Opening of Potosi mines in Peru (1545) the value of precious metals imported into Europe quadrupled Exchange of plants and animals Columbian Exchange European brought cattle, horses, and wheat to NW Took potatoes, chocolate, corn, tobacco back to Europe European rivalries New views of the world Gerardus Mercator’s (1512 – 1594) work is the most famous map projection in history A Mercator projection shows the true shape of landmasses in a limited area

44 Map 14.3: The Columbian Exchange.
In addition to their diseases, which killed vast numbers of indigenous inhabitants of the Americas, Europeans transplanted many of their crops and domestic animals to the New World. Europeans also imported plants from the New World that increased food production and nutrition in Europe. Q Where were the main source regions for native plants imported into Europe? Map 14-3, p. 440

45 A Seventeenth-Century World Map.
This beautiful world map was prepared in 1630 by Henricus Hondius. The four portraits are of Caesar, the Roman statesman; Ptolemy, the second-century astronomer; Mercator, the Flemish cartographer whose map projection Hondius followed; and Hondius himself. By comparing this map with the map created by Ptolemy on p. 416, one can see how much Europeans had learned about the shape of the world by the seventeenth century. p. 441

46 Toward a World Economy Economic Conditions in the Sixteenth Century
Inflation Major economic problem in Europe; created price instability Wages failed to keep up with price increases Decline in the standard of living for working class The Growth of Commercial Capitalism Joint stock trading companies Commercial organization benefitted commercial expansion Individuals bought shares in companies and received dividends on their investments Raise of spectacular sums of capital for world trading

47 Toward a World Economy The financial center of Europe in the 17th century was Amsterdam New industries tied to banking firms Jacob Fugger was given a monopoly over silver, copper, and mercury mines in the Habsburg possessions of central Europe These possessions produced profits of 50%, annually

48 Mercantilism Total volume of trade unchangeable
Economic activity = war through peaceful means Importance of bullion (gold and silver) and favorable balance of trade Exported goods more valuable than imported goods State intervention Governments should stimulate and protect export industries and trade

49 Jacob Fugger the Rich. Jacob Fugger, head of one of the wealthiest banking firms of the sixteenth century, is pictured here with his faithful secretary, Matthaus Schwartz, who painted this scene in The cabinet in the background lists the names of the cities where Fugger’s firm had branch offices, including Milan, Innsbruck, Nuremberg, and Lisbon. p. 443

50 Overseas Trade and Colonies: Movement Toward Globalization
Transoceanic trade very valuable Goods consumed by affluent, merchants, and artisans Intra European trade By the end of the 17th century local, regional, and intra-European trade was greater than international trade Trade patterns interlocked Europe, Africa, the East and the Americas

51 Timeline, p. 445

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