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Chapter 14 Europe and the New World: New Encounters, 1500 - 1800.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Europe and the New World: New Encounters, 1500 - 1800."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Europe and the New World: New Encounters,

2 p. 413

3 On the Brink of a New World  Motives and Means  Catholic Europe had been largely confined to the continent (exception of the Crusades, which failed)  The Travels of John Mandeville (14th century)-Fantastic lands of legend and myth  Access to the East  The Polos-Popularized China in Europe through descriptions of Kublai Khan and Mongol courts  Economic Motives-Primary motive for European exploration  Religious Zeal-Particularly strong motivation for Portugal and Spain  Centralized Monarchies  Ptolemy’s Geography (1477)  Development of seaworthy ships and new navigational techniques  Old techniques, such as using the Pole Star to determine position was useless below the equator

4 p. 416

5 Portuguese Exploration  Portuguese fleets had begun sailing south along the western coast of Africa in early 15 th century  In search of commerce and trade  Precious metals and goods such as gold and ivory from parts of Morocco and the “Gold Coast”  1440s-Portuguese begin profiting from the selling of African slaves through their maritime exploration

6 New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires  Prince Henry the Navigator (1394 – 1460)  Established first school for mariners in Portugal  The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire  Bartholomeu Dias  Vasco da Gama  Reaches India by rounding Cape of Good Hope  Direct voyage from Europe to India  Viceroys  Alfonso d’Albuquerque (1462 – 1515)  Commercial – Military bases  Reasons for Portuguese Success  Able to defeat Muslim opposition and control trade with India (Accomplished this with arms and technique)

7 Destruction of Muslims at Malacca  Encompassing and controlling Malacca and the Malay peninsula meant:  Destroying Arab spice trade  Providing a way station on route to the Spice Islands and China

8 Map 14-1, p. 417

9 p. 418


11 Voyages of the New World  Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506)  Reached the Bahamas (Oct. 12, 1492)  Additional voyages (1493, 1498, and 1502)  Additional Discoveries  John Cabot-Venetian that sailed for England  Pedro Cabral-Discovered South America in 1500  Amerigo Vespucci- America=New Lands  Nun˜ez de Balboa  Ferdinand Magellan  Ferdinand Magellan (1480 – 1521)  First known circumnavigation of the earth  Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)-divided the New World between Spain and Portugal

12 p. 420

13 The Spanish Empire in the New World  Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica  The Maya (civilization of sophistication)  The Aztec were the prominent rulers of much of Mexico at the time of Euro exploration  The Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire  Hernan Cortés (1485 – 1547)  Best exemplifies Spanish exploration and expansion of the New World  Moctezuma (Montezuma)  Aztec Empire overthrownby Cortez  Capital city (Tenochtitlan) located in Central Mexixo

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16 The Spanish Empire (Cont)  The Inca (Ruler) and the Spanish  Pachakuti-Inca leader (Led campaign bringing entire region under control)  Inca buildings and roads  Francisco Pizarro (c – 1541)  Conquered and plundered Inca empire in 1531  Smallpox- European disease contributing to high mortality rates among natives of the New World  Incas overthrown (1535)- Pizzaro establishes new Spanish Empire at the capital city of Lima  No immunity for epidemic  Death of the emperor  Civil war between two sons of the Inca Emperor  Incan soldiers outmatched  Armed with stones, arrows, and light spears

17 The Spanish Empire (Cont)  Administration of the Spanish Empire  Queen Isabella proclaimed the natives to be subjects of Castile  Encomienda- Social and Economic System under Castile  Conquistadors collected tribute from the natives and used their labor  Spaniards abused Indians, ignoring their government  Put to work on plantations and in gold and silver mines  Bartolome de Las Casas was a major public critic of Spanish treatment of the Indians  Viceroys  Ruled over New Spain and Peru  The Church  Catholic Monarchs of Spain given extensive rights of Holy affairs in the New World

18 p. 422

19 Chronology, p. 424

20 p. 424

21 New Rivals  Dutch, French, and English  Dutch East India Company 1602  Established a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope  Trade in slaves increases with European exploration and settlement  Most Africans taken from coastal areas and shipped to plantations in the NW (Middle East and Europe previously)  Discovery of the Americas changed the slave trade drastically

22 Africa: The Slave Trade  Sugar Cane and slavery  European diseases set an early expiration date for many Indians  Plantations needed more labor than natives could supply  Growth in the Slave Trade  Up to 10,000,000 African slaves taken to the Americas between the Sixteenth and Nineteenth Centuries  New Atlantic Economy represented by Triangular Trade  European Merchants from England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Dutch Republic  Facilitated trade between European, African, and American continents

23 The Slave Trade (cont)  Each cargo contained around  Rate of death could exceed 10% on longer journeys due to adverse conditions  Suffering endured for Africans who survived the middle passage as they had little or no immunity to NW sicknesses

24 Effects of the Slave Trade  The Slave Trade increased war and violence in Africa among natives  Prisoners of War  Crippled African economies  Depopulation of African communities  Demoralization

25 Conflicting Views of Slavery  Western society tended to accept slavery  Blacks viewed as inferior beings meant for dull labor  Beginning in the 1770s the Society of Friends (Quakers) publicly abhorred slavery

26 Map 14-2, p. 427

27 The West in Southeast Asia  Portugal  Too weak at home to dominate empire abroad  Spain  Established Pacific base in the Philippines  The Dutch and the English  Dutch seize the spice trade, in SE Asia, from Portugal in the early 17 th century  Dutch bring most of Indonesia under its control by the end of the 18 th century

28 The West in Southeast Asia (cont)  Mainland SE Asia was not impacted as much by European arrival  More success in resisting European intrusion because they had strong monarchies and were more politically cohesive  Cooperation helped states drive Europeans out  Local Kingdoms (Burma/Myanmar), Siam (Thailand), Angkor (Cambodia), and Vietnam)


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33 The French and the British in India  The Mughal Empire  Mongol in origin  Babur-Founder of dynasty  Akbar ( ) Grandson of Babur  Brought more systematic and centralized rule to India  Under Akbar and the Mughal Empire, India enjoyed economic progress and relative peace

34 The French and the British in India  The Impact of the Western Powers  Portugal-Original European power in India  England-Steady increase in British presence  French-Major western rival to the British in India  Sir Robert Clive  Thwarted the French threat in India  The East India Company  Company in which stakes can be bought and owned by shareholders  Local British population in India’s Fort William imprisoned in the black hole of Calcutta

35 p. 432

36 China  China  In 16 th century Portugal became the first European state to make direct contact with China since the travels of M. Polo  Ming Dynasty (1369 – 1644)  Qing Dynasty  Originated from Manchuria and replaced the Ming in the 17 th century  Overthrow of the Ming created opportunity for Manchus who conquered Beijing and Li Zicheng  Limited Contact with Europeans  Lord Macartney compared the Chinese empire to “an old, crazy, first-rate man of war destined to be dashed to pieces on the shore”  Due to incompetent leadership

37 Japan  Japan  Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543 – 1616)  Shogun, meaning general, achieved the unification of Japan  Most powerful and longest lasting of all Shogunates  Opening to the West  The Portuguese  Initially visitors welcomed  Catholic Missionaries  Interfered in local politics  Tokugawa Ieyasu expelled all missionaries in Japan and persecuted Christians

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39 The Americas  The Spanish and Portuguese were challenged by European rivals  British and French found success in the W. Indies  North America  The Dutch settle the Hudson River Valley  The English  Jamestown (1607)-First permanent English settlement in N. America  The French  Canada- Jacques Cartier discovers St. Lawrence River in 1534 and claims Canada as a French possession

40 p. 435

41 Chronology, p. 436

42 The Impact of European Expansion: The Conquered  Devastating effects to local populations in America and Africa  Less impact in Asia  China and Japan were two nations barely impacted by European power and influence  Multiracial society first appeared in Latin America  Catholic Missionaries  Conversion of native populations  Hospitals, orphanages and schools  The Jesuits  Allowed new converts to practice ancestor worship  Catholicism failed to disperse in China because of the opposition by the Pope to ancestor worship

43 The Impact of European Expansion: The Conquerors  Europeans lusted for gold and silver  Opening of Potosi mines in Peru (1545) the value of precious metals imported into Europe quadrupled  Exchange of plants and animals  Columbian Exchange  European brought cattle, horses, and wheat to NW  Took potatoes, chocolate, corn, tobacco back to Europe  European rivalries  New views of the world  Gerardus Mercator’s (1512 – 1594) work is the most famous map projection in history  A Mercator projection shows the true shape of landmasses in a limited area

44 Map 14-3, p. 440

45 p. 441

46 Toward a World Economy  Economic Conditions in the Sixteenth Century  Inflation  Major economic problem in Europe; created price instability  Wages failed to keep up with price increases  Decline in the standard of living for working class  The Growth of Commercial Capitalism  Joint stock trading companies  Commercial organization benefitted commercial expansion  Individuals bought shares in companies and received dividends on their investments  Raise of spectacular sums of capital for world trading

47 Toward a World Economy  The financial center of Europe in the 17 th century was Amsterdam  New industries tied to banking firms  Jacob Fugger was given a monopoly over silver, copper, and mercury mines in the Habsburg possessions of central Europe  These possessions produced profits of 50%, annually

48 Mercantilism  Total volume of trade unchangeable  Economic activity = war through peaceful means  Importance of bullion (gold and silver) and favorable balance of trade  Exported goods more valuable than imported goods  State intervention  Governments should stimulate and protect export industries and trade

49 p. 443

50 Overseas Trade and Colonies: Movement Toward Globalization  Transoceanic trade very valuable  Goods consumed by affluent, merchants, and artisans  Intra European trade  By the end of the 17 th century local, regional, and intra-European trade was greater than international trade  Trade patterns interlocked Europe, Africa, the East and the Americas

51 Timeline, p. 445

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