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7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 1 Tailoring Project Management Processes Increasing The Efficiency Of Projects.

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Presentation on theme: "7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 1 Tailoring Project Management Processes Increasing The Efficiency Of Projects."— Presentation transcript:

1 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 1 Tailoring Project Management Processes Increasing The Efficiency Of Projects

2 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 2 Overview Background The Problem The Journey to Tailored PM Processes Tailored PM Processes –Classification –Process Selection –Example Suggested Implementation Steps Questions/Discussion

3 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 3 Background

4 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 4 My Background Education/Training: –MS Systems Management, USC –Defense Systems Management College –Many other PM short courses USAF Program Manager –EW/reconnaissance/intelligence program –Staff in Pentagon HQ USAF R&D –Acquisition consultant to senior AF leadership

5 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 5 My Background, cont’d –USAF PMO Director Unmanned Air Vehicle Program F-16 R&D & logistics

6 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 6 My Background, cont’d For-Profit Project Management –PM for electronics test systems (RF Integrated Chip, transmitter/receiver, satellites, avionics, national spectrum monitoring, etc.) –PM for wireless base station mfg test systems –Wireless test system business manager/PMO director –Aerospace/defense systems PMO Director –PM Consultant

7 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 7 The Problem

8 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 8 The Problem Consistent, common process issue encountered in every one of my PM organizations: How do you reasonably provide a PM with process flexibility that allows him/her to effectively and efficiently run a project while maintaining reasonable: - Management oversight - Functional responsibility & accountability - Executive decision-making prerogatives

9 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 9 The Journey

10 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 10 Journey to the Solution PMO basic PM processes and training Reorganization #1 result: best practices menu, “multiple processes” approach Reorganization #2 result: worst case cookbook, “single process” approach Reorganization #3 result: limited, flexible menu, “tailored processes” approach

11 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 11 PMO Situation (1999) Project teams develop and deliver unique systems to a wide range of customers –US and foreign government agency contracts –DOD prime contractors & subcontractors –Commercial vendors in a wide variety of different industries –None are “off-the-shelf”, all require some design and customization

12 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 12 PMO & Projects, cont’d Projects range widely in size and complexity ($100K - $12M) Some customers are concerned about cutting edge technical performance, others with schedule and/or price Essential PM processes and skills documented and training provided

13 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 13 Reorganization #1 Company reorganization in 2000 –Resulted in world-wide geographically dispersed organization with variety of system products, PM processes and maturity levels –Results of historical “fiefdom” organizational style 35 product lines within 8 organizations located at 10 different locations

14 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 14 Reorganization #1 Senior management understood the need for process improvements Tiger Team formed to address PM processes

15 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 15 Tiger Team Results (2001) Year-long tiger team completed documentation of “best practices” PM and associated processes –Full “cookbook” of processes and techniques successfully used within the organization’s 35 system product lines –Significant training for PMs and team members developed & delivered to ensure the organization understood alternative PM processes available

16 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 16 Process Journey

17 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 17 Reorganization #2 (2002) Another reorganization was put in place to simplify range of products and reduce geographic dispersion Chance to fix major complaints of stakeholders and team members: – Inconsistent PM process applications – Project results (cost, schedule, performance) weren’t improving as a result of initial process improvements

18 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 18 Reorg #2 PM Processes Single set of PM processes developed –Menu of the best practices with associated tools and techniques –“Worst case” approach—documented processes applicable to largest, most complex projects

19 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 19 Process Journey

20 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 20 Benefits of a Single Set of Processes One set may be considered a real win in some organizations The organization is aligned with a set of known processes and expectations for their use Training is minimized Basically, life is predictable! But…

21 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 21 Drawbacks of a Single Set of Processes If there are widely different size and complexity in projects: –Small, less complex projects may be saddled with processes that impede the completion and waste the organization’s resources –Larger, more complex projects may not have the oversight appropriate to the criticality to the organization and the risk to the organization if it isn’t successful

22 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 22 Symptoms Team members on a low complexity project grumble about wasting their time with non value- added activities that are mandated by the organization, and/or… Pressure to “cut costs to the bone” and eliminate important processes on a risky, highly complex project that is critical to the organization THE ORGANIZATION CAN ENABLE OR IMPEDE – THIS IS IMPEDING!

23 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 23 Organizational ”Aha” Insight Senior management either enables the PMO which enables the PM who enables the project team or impedes …. –Enabling is exercising oversight appropriate to the project importance and risk to the organization –Enabling isn’t carte blanche approval or disinterest and it isn’t micromanagement…., but it exists on various points on the continuum between them

24 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 24 The Solution For PMOs with a diversity of projects, develop a flexible set of PM processes that are tailored for projects based on; –Project complexity –Project size Align the organization around these processes Train and reinforce with the entire organization on these processes, not just the project teams SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND THE PMO CAN ENABLE!

25 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 25 Process Journey

26 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 26 Tailored Processes

27 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 27 Tailored Process Needs Need a way to classify each project to know which set of alternative processes to use Need to clearly identify the processes to tailor, i.e., start out tailoring those that have a high payoff in terms of efficiency or effectiveness

28 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 28

29 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 29 Don’t Try This At Home Warning This example is to illustrate a methodology that can be applied to other organizations IT IS NOT A SOLUTION THAT CAN BE COPIED DIRECTLY AND APPLIED IN ANY OTHER SITUATION

30 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 30 Classification Development The organization analyzed the types of projects and products and came up with a simple test of 4 characteristics to determine if a project was low, medium or high on the complexity scale The complexity scale determined which set of processes the project would use

31 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 31 Classification Factors Price Engineering Effort Contract Characteristics Customer Interaction

32 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 32 Classification Evaluation FactorsLow Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Medium Complexity Scale Project Characteristics High Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Estimated Price<$500K$500K - $1.5M>$1.5M Design Effort (full time equiv) <2 design engineers2-4 design engineers>4 design engineers Contract characteristics Std terms and conditions, std technical effort (testing, support, documents, etc.) Limited unique terms and requirements Significant unique terms, technical reqts or support reqts

33 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 33 Classification, cont’d Evaluation Factors Low Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Medium Complexity Scale Project Characteristics High Complexity Scale Project Characteristics Customer Interaction Teleconference reqts and design reviews, informal progress and interaction on technical issues. Formal acceptance tests Face-to-face, formal reqts and design review. Weekly written status summaries, formally documented technical interchange meetings. Formal acceptance tests Face-to-face, formal requirements review, preliminary and critical design reviews. Formal face-to-face mgt. reviews. Formal acceptance tests. Training/support on customer site.

34 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 34 Classification Rules Use the highest complexity characteristic to classify project processes to be used Determine classification before doing the work breakdown structure for the proposal basis of estimate and have sponsor buy-in If the characteristics change later, re- evaluate the project processes to be used, as well as the cost, schedule and risk assessment

35 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 35 Tailored Processes Goal: provide a clear set of standard processes and expectations documented for each of the three levels of complexity –Provide summaries of expected project team actions as well as templates and tools to accomplish –Forerunner of “lean” concept—eliminate non- value added activities

36 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 36 Inputs to Selecting the Initial Processes for Tailoring Team members and stakeholders recommendations Resources required for different functions Organization’s core strengths and competitive advantages Results from retrospectives from previous projects

37 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 37 Initial PMO Processes Tailored Number of formal decision points and associated decision-maker level Internal project information and documentation Product documentation Project external interfaces

38 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 38 Decision-Making Non-negotiable: each project phase has a formal review before proceeding to next phase The effort and time for a review can vary widely, depending upon the formality and decision-making level Goal: tailor reviews and decision-makers appropriate to the project complexity

39 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 39 Tailored Decision Making Project PhaseDecision PointLow ComplexityMedium Complexity High Complexity InvestigationResource Commitment.BM Requirements CaptureProceed to Proposal.BM ProposalOffer & Pricing.BM VP ExecutionProject Start Up.XXBM Preliminary Design.XXBM Critical Design.BM Production Readiness.PRM Factory Acceptance.XXX ImplementationOn-Site Installation & Acceptance Test.N/AXBM Warranty & SupportRetrospective.XXBM X = PM BM = Business Manager PRM = Production Manager VP = Vice President N/A = No decision

40 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 40 Project Information & Process Documentation Internal, stakeholders and external info Internal team documentation used to communicate, manage, document – –Share drives, company data bases –Working papers Content important, format less important Coordination, sign off, communication etc is informal

41 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 41 Project Information & Process Documentation, cont’d Formal team documentation used to communicate status, issues, etc. to stakeholders – or presentations Content and format both important Coordination, sign off, communication within the team is formal

42 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 42 Project Information & Process Documentation, cont’d Formal team documentation used to communicate status, issues, etc. to external entities – , contracts letters or presentations –Content and format both important Coordination, sign off, communication within the team and with stakeholders is formal

43 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 43 Example Process Information & Documentation TypeLow ComplexityMedium ComplexityHigh Complexity Decision Point MinutesXFF Project Team Meeting MinutesXXX Customer Meetings and ReviewsEEE Issues TrackingXXE Action Item StatusXXE Project PlanXXE Requirements SpecificationsXEE Work Breakdown StructureXXE Project ScheduleXXE Risk AssessmentsXXE Support StrategyEEE Resource PlanXXX Project Contract, Terms & ConditionsEEE Partner AgreementsE X = Informal team information & documentation F = Formal team information & documentation to internal stakeholders E = formal team information & documentation to external entities

44 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 44 Example Process, cont’d Information & Documentation TypeLow ComplexityMedium Complexity High Complexity Cost & Pricing ModelFFF Change Tracking (cost/schedule/ performance impacts) EEE OrderFFF Material ListXXX Project BudgetXXX Payment/BillingsEEE Acceptance Test ProcedureXXE Material Status ReportingXXX X = Informal team information & documentation F = Formal team information & documentation to internal stakeholders E = formal team information & documentation to external entities

45 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 45 Product Information Problem: –Engineering effort to required to document new design features was very high –Drove project complexity, costs, schedules & customer satisfaction issues Solution: –Standard product information format developed that greatly streamlined the process for less complex projects

46 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 46 External Interfaces Includes customers, subcontractors, consultants, partner organizations, standards/verification entities, governmental or funding bodies When the number of external interfaces is more than 3-4, need to consider using a variety of tools to manage complex interfaces

47 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 47 Interface Management Tools Formal contractual/partner agreement documentation Integrated project work breakdown structure and schedule Integrated risk management, issues management and action item tracking processes Integrated communication plan Integrated project plan Integrated change logs/control processes Regular extended team meetings Regular technical exchange meetings Integrated management level project reviews

48 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 48 Results PMs, team members AND Stakeholders have a good understanding of expectations re PM processes Processes are appropriate for project complexity and increases effectiveness and efficiency Schedule and budget performance metrics improved continuously for 2 years as measured in retrospectives

49 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 49 Implementation Evaluate projects and decide on the evaluation criteria and number of levels of the complexity scale Determine which processes have the highest payoff when tailored—don’t tackle the entire world of processes –Implies beginning with a set of processes that are reasonably well understood and used –If no standard set of processes, more difficult to decide what areas need to be tailored

50 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 50 Implementation, cont’d Let the stakeholders, project team members and PMs critique it and incorporate their ideas Train everyone on the use and roll it out for use–then use it! Make usage part of the PM, team member and stakeholder performance evaluations

51 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 51 Implementation, cont’d After 2 years of increasingly better project results, start tailoring the next set of processes and implement in the same way

52 7/14/2008 On Target Program Management Solutions 52 Summary Tailoring PM processes can yield greater efficiency and effectiveness in executing projects of varying complexity Tailored processes compliment project portfolio management theory that stresses having projects of varying size and importance to the organization


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