Presentation on theme: "Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations"— Presentation transcript:
1Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations Fitness
2Fitness Fitness involves physical activity or exercise. The components of fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle strength, and muscle endurance.All of these characteristics describe a healthy body.Today’s world encourages sedentary lifestyles (boo!) that foster the development of several chronic diseases. [Then you die]
4Fitness Benefits of Fitness Lower risks of some types of cancer Strong circulation and lung functionLower risk of cardiovascular diseaseLower risk of type 2 diabetesReduced risk of gallbladder disease in womenLower incidence and severity of anxiety and depressionLong life and high quality of life in the later yearsBenefits of FitnessRestful sleepNutritional healthOptimal body compositionOptimal bone densityResistance to colds and other infectious diseases
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7FitnessThe 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state that people need to participate in30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week for health benefits and60 minutes of physical activity most days of the week to maintain a healthy body weight.
9Before you criticize someone, you should walk a mile in their shoes. Thought of the dayBefore you criticize someone, you should walk a mile in their shoes. That way, when you criticize them, you're a mile away and you have their shoes
10Fitness Developing Fitness Guidelines for conditioning that are achieved through training.Cardiorespiratory EnduranceFrequency – 3-5 days per weekIntensity – 55-90% maximum heart rateTime/Duration – minutes
12Fitness Strength Frequency – 2-3 days per week Guidelines for conditioningStrengthFrequency – 2-3 days per weekIntensity – enough to enhance muscle strength, muscle endurance, and improve body compositionTime/Duration – 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10 different exercises
13Well keep looking, keep looking! I see no reasonWhy You should notengage in StrenuousactivityWell keep looking, keep looking!
14Fitness Flexibility Frequency – 2-3 days per week Guidelines for conditioningFlexibilityFrequency – 2-3 days per weekIntensity – enough to develop and maintain a full range of motionTime/Duration – 4 repetitions of seconds per muscle group
17Fitness Developing Fitness The Overload Principle – to slightly increase comfortable capacity in each area.Also called the progressive overload principle.Increase frequency – how often an activity is performedIncrease intensity – the degree of exertion while exercisingIncrease time/duration – the length of time
18Fitness Developing Fitness The Body’s Response to Physical Activity Hypertrophy is muscle gain in size and strength, the result of repeated work.Atrophy is muscle loss in size and strength, the result of lack of activity.Other TipsBe active all week.Use proper equipment and attire.Use proper form when exercising.Include warm-ups and cool-downs.Challenge yourself, but not every time you exercise.Pay attention to body signals.Build intensity slowly.
20Fitness Developing Fitness Cautions on Starting Healthy people can start with a moderate exercise program without seeking medical advise first.People with risk factors may need medical advice.
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22Fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance Cardiorespiratory conditioning is measured by maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max).Increases cardiac output and oxygen deliveryIncreases stroke volumeSlows resting pulseIncreases breathing efficiencyImproves circulationReduces blood pressure
23To prevent a heart attack, take one aspirin every day. R 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO STIRR 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO STIRR 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO STIRTo prevent a heart attack, take one aspirin every day.Take it for a walk, then take it to the gym,Then take it for a bike ride
24Fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance Muscle Conditioning Muscles use oxygen efficiently.Muscles can burn fat longer.A Balanced Fitness ProgramIndividualizedCardiorespiratoryMuscle strength and enduranceFlexibilityChoose an activity you enjoy
26Fitness Weight Training Also called resistance training Increases muscle strength and endurancePrevents and manages cardiovascular diseaseEnhances psychological well-beingMaximizes and maintains bone massEnhances performance in other sports
28Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity The Energy Systems of Physical Activity—ATP and CPATP is adenosine triphosphate – a high-energy compound that delivers energy instantaneously.CP is creatine phosphate – a high-energy compound in the muscles, used anaerobically.The Energy-Yielding NutrientsNutrients work together while one may predominate.Depends on diet, intensity and duration of the activity, and training
29Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Extremely intense activity8-10 secondsATP-CP (immediately available)No oxygen needed (anaerobic)Activity example – 100 yard dash, shot putVery highly intense activity20 seconds to 3 minutesATP from carbohydrate (lactic acid)Activity example – ¼ mile run at maximum speed
30Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Highly intense activity3-20 minutesATP from carbohydrateOxygen needed (aerobic)Activity example – cycling, swimming, runningModerately intense activityMore than 20 minutesATP from fatActivity example – hiking
31Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Glucose Use during Physical ActivityDiet Affects Glycogen Storage and UseHigh-carbohydrate diets increase glycogen storesEnhance endurance
33Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Intensity of Activity Affects Glycogen UseModerate activities use glycogen slowly.Intense activities use glycogen quickly.
34Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Glucose Use during Physical ActivityLactateLow intensity activities can clear lactic acid from the blood.During highly intense activities lactic acid accumulates and activity can only be maintained for 1-3 minutes.Lactate is converted to glucose in the liver (Cori cycle).Duration of Activity Affects Glycogen UseFirst 20 minutes – primarily use glycogenAfter 20 minutes – use glycogen and fat
35Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Glucose Use during Physical Activity“Hitting the wall” – exhaustion of glucose storesMaximizing Glucose SupplyHigh-carbohydrate diet – 8 g/kg body weight or 70% of total energy intakeGlucose during activities if activity last longer than 45 minutes (sports drinks, diluted fruit juice)Eat approximately 60 g of high-carbohydrate foods after activity.Carbohydrate loading is a regime of diet and exercise that maximizes glycogen storage. It is also called glycogen loading or glycogen super compensation.
36Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Glucose Use during Physical ActivityGlucose during ActivityActivities lasting longer than 45 minutesLight carbohydrate snacks under 200 kcaloriesGlucose after ActivityHigh-carbohydrate meal within 15 minutes accelerates glycogen storage by 300%High-carbohydrate meal within 2 hours and rate of glycogen storage declines by halfHigh-glycemic index foods
37Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Glucose Use during Physical ActivityTraining Affects Glycogen UseMuscles that repeatedly deplete glycogen through hard work will store greater amounts of glycogen.Conditioned muscles rely less on glycogen and more on fat for energy.Trained muscle cells have more mitochondria and can use oxygen better.Untrained muscle cells depend more heavily on anaerobic pathways.
38Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Fat Use during Physical ActivityDuration of Activity Affects Fat UseBeginning of activity uses fatty acids in the bloodAfter 20 minutes, uses body fat as major fuelIntensity of Activity Affects Fat UseAs intensity increases, fat makes less of a contribution to the fuel mixOxygen must be abundant to break down fat
39Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Fat Use during Physical ActivityTraining Affects Fat UseThe better trained the muscles, the more fat is usedThe better trained, the stronger the heart and lung to deliver oxygenIf better trained, then hormones prevent glucose release from the liver, so they rely more on fat
40Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between TimesProtein Used in Muscle BuildingSynthesis of protein is suppressed during activity.After activity protein synthesis accelerates.Repeated activities cause body adaptations to support needs.RemodelingDaily, ¼ to 1 ounce of body protein is added to muscle mass during muscle-building phase.
41Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between TimesProtein Used as FuelDuring physical activity muscles use amino acids for fuel.10% of total fuel usedDiet Affects Protein Use during ActivityDiets rich in energy and carbohydrate allow the body to use less protein for fuel.Carbohydrates spare protein.
42Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between TimesIntensity and Duration of Activity Affect Protein Use during ActivityIf glycogen stores get depleted, then more reliance on proteinAnaerobic strength training demands more protein to build muscles but not large amounts.Training Affects Protein UseThe more trained the less protein used for energy
43Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between TimesProtein Recommendations for Active PeopleAthletes in training need more protein than sedentary people.Athletes in training need to meet energy and carbohydrate needs first.Adult RDA: for males 56 g/day, for females 44 g/dayStrength athletes: for males g/day, females g/dayEndurance athletes: for males g/day, females g/dayU.S. average intake of protein: for males 95 g/day, females 65 g/day
44Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Vitamins and Minerals to Support ActivitySupplementsDo not enhance performanceDeficiencies may impede performanceTiming makes a difference; supplements take hours or days to combine with cells.Nutrient-dense foods provide nutrients needed.
45Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Vitamins and Minerals to Support ActivityVitamin EProtects against oxidative stressDoes not improve performanceMore research neededVegetables oils and antioxidant fruits and vegetablesIronIron losses in sweatSmall blood losses in digestive tractPoor iron absorption
46Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Vitamins and Minerals to Support ActivityIron DeficiencyCommon in physically active young womenConsume good dietary sources of ironIron-Deficiency AnemiaImpairs physical performanceCannot perform aerobic activity and tire easily
47Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Vitamins and Minerals to Support ActivitySports AnemiaLow blood hemoglobin for a short timeAdaptive, temporary response to endurance activityDoes not require supplementationIron Recommendations for AthletesBlood tests should guide the decisionDepends on the individual
48Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Fluids and Electrolytes to Support ActivityFluid Losses via SweatMuscle heat is times greater when active than at restCooling mechanism1 liter of sweat dissipates 600 kcalories of heat
49Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Fluids and Electrolytes to Support ActivityHyperthermia – an above-normal body temperatureBody heat builds upTriggers maximum sweating without sweat evaporation
50Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Symptoms of heat stroke – a dangerous accumulation of body heat with accompanying loss of body fluidHeadacheNauseaDizzinessClumsinessStumblingHot, dry skinConfusion or other mental changes
51Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Prevention of heat strokeDrink fluidsRest in the shade when tiredWear appropriate clothing
52Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Fluids and Electrolytes to Support ActivityHypothermia – a below-normal body temperatureSymptomsShivering and euphoriaWeakness, disorientation, and apathyPreventionDrink fluidsWear appropriate clothingWater Recommendations1.0 to 1.5 mL/kcal expended½ cup per 100 kcal expended
53Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Fluids and Electrolytes to Support ActivityFluid Replacement via HydrationFull hydration is imperative for athletes.Those who are aware of their hourly sweat rate can replace lost fluids.Plain, cool water is recommended.Endurance athletes may require carbohydrate-containing beverages.Hydration scheduleTwo hours before activity – 2-3 cups15 minutes before activity – 1-2 cupsEvery 15 minutes during activity – ½-2 cupsAfter activity – 2 cups for every pound of body weight lost
54Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Fluids and Electrolytes to Support ActivityElectrolyte Losses and ReplacementGreater in the untrainedTraining improves electrolyte retention.Eat regular diet meeting energy and nutrient needsEndurance athletes may need sports drinks.Salt tablets worsen dehydration and impair performance.
55Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Fluids and Electrolytes to Support ActivityHyponatremiaDecreased concentration of sodium in the bloodCausesExcessive sweatOverhydrationDrinking sports drinks during an activity; sports drinks offer glucose polymers
56Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Symptoms of hyponatremiaSevere headacheVomitingBloatingConfusionSeizurePrevention of hyponatremiaReplace sodium during prolonged events.Do not restrict salt in diets the days before events.
57Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity Poor Beverage Choices: Caffeine and AlcoholCaffeine is a stimulant.Alcohol is not the beverage to replace fluids and carbohydrate.
58Diets for Physically Active People A diet that provides ample fluids and nutrient-dense foods to meet energy needs will enhance an athlete’s activity and overall health.Pregame and postgame meals should be light and carbohydrate rich.
59Diets for Physically Active People Choosing a Diet to Support FitnessWaterThirst mechanisms are not as reliableMust be replenishedNutrient Density – consume nutrient-dense foods that are high in carbohydrate, moderate in fat, and adequate in protein
60Diets for Physically Active People Choosing a Diet to Support FitnessCarbohydrate60-70% total energy intakeAvoid fiber-rich foods in the pregame meal.Added sugar and fat may be needed during intensive training.Liquid supplements should not replace foods.8-10 g carbohydrate/kg body weight during heavy trainingProteinStrength athletes: for males g/day, females g/dayEndurance athletes: for males g/day, females g/day
61Diets for Physically Active People Choosing a Diet to Support FitnessA Performance Diet ExampleTotal kcalories – 300063% kcal from carbohydrate22% kcal from fat15% kcal from proteinAll vitamin and mineral RDAs are met
63Diets for Physically Active People Meals Before and After CompetitionPregame MealsFluidskcaloriesCarbohydrate-rich foods low in fat and fiberLight and easy to digestPostgame MealsHigh-carbohydrate mealsLiquids often preferred
66Supplements as Performance-Enhancing Aids It is difficult to distinguish valid versus bogus claims about ergogenic aids.Many individuals believe these drugs, supplements, or procedures will enhance physical performance in activities.Some are harmless, some have dangerous side effects, and some are costly.Most do not meet claims.
67Ergogenic Aids Substances promoted as ergogenic aids Arginine – a nonessential amino acidBoron – a nonessential mineralBrewer’s yeast is falsely promoted as an energy booster.Cell salts are sold as health promoting.Coenzyme Q10 is not effective in improving athlete performance.DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is falsely promoted as an energy booster.Epoetin is illegally used to increase oxygen capacity.
68Ergogenic Aids Substances promoted as ergogenic aids Gelatin is not a strength enhancer.Ginseng has many side effects.Glycine – a nonessential amino acidGrowth hormone releasers do not enhance performance.High doses of guarana can stress the heart and cause panic attacks.Herbal steroids or plant sterols do not enhance hormone activity.HMB (beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate) claims to increase muscle mass and strength.Inosine has been shown to reduce endurance of runners.
69Ergogenic Aids Ma huang has many dangerous side effects. Niacin does not enhance performance and has side effects.Octacosanol has false promotions.Ornithine – a nonessential amino acidPangamic acid does not speed oxygen delivery.Phosphate pills do not extend endurance or increase efficiency of aerobic metabolism.Pyruvate has common side effects of gas and diarrhea.
70Ergogenic Aids Ribose has some false claims. RNA (ribonucleic acid) does not enhance performance.Royal jelly is falsely promoted.Sodium bicarbonate may cause intestinal bloating and diarrhea.Spirulina is potentially toxic.Succinate is not a metabolic enhancer.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is useless; it is digested.Wheat germ oil is not an energy aid.
71Dietary Supplements Carnitine Chromium Picolinate Non-essential nutrientFacilitates transfer of fatty acids across mitochondria membranesSupplementation does not increase muscle carnitine or enhance exercise performance.Chromium PicolinateEssential mineral in carbohydrate and lipid metabolismSupplementation has no effect on strength, lean body mass, or body fat.
72Dietary Supplements Complete Nutrition Supplements Creatine Taste good and provide food energy, but do not provide complete nutritionShould not replace regular mealsCreatineSome studies suggest improvement in muscle strength and size, cell hydration and glycogen loading capacitySafety issues and side effects
73Dietary Supplements Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Caffeine Derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acidIncreases lean body mass in animalsFew human studies have been performed.CaffeineCaffeine can enhance performance by stimulating fatty acid release.Adverse effects include stomach upset, nervousness, irritability, headaches, and diarrhea.Use in moderation.Use as an addition to other fluids, not as replacement.Oxygenated WaterOxygen cannot enter the bloodstream by way of the GI tract.The body gets oxygen from the lungs.
74Hormonal Supplements Anabolic Steroids Illegal Authorities ban use Plant sterols from herbs are poorly absorbed.Dangerous side effects on the body and the mind
75Hormonal Supplements DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and Androstenedione Hormones that are precursors to testosteroneNo evidence to support claimsShort-term effects are identifiedHuman Growth Hormone (hGH)Used to build lean tissue and increase height if still growingExtremely high costMany adverse side effects