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Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations

2  Fitness involves physical activity or exercise.  The components of fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle strength, and muscle endurance.  All of these characteristics describe a healthy body.  Today’s world encourages sedentary lifestyles (boo!) that foster the development of several chronic diseases. [Then you die]


4  Benefits of Fitness  Restful sleep  Nutritional health  Optimal body composition  Optimal bone density  Resistance to colds and other infectious diseases  Lower risks of some types of cancer  Strong circulation and lung function  Lower risk of cardiovascular disease  Lower risk of type 2 diabetes  Reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women  Lower incidence and severity of anxiety and depression  Long life and high quality of life in the later years

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7  The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state that people need to participate in  30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week for health benefits and  60 minutes of physical activity most days of the week to maintain a healthy body weight.


9 Before you criticize someone, you should walk a mile in their shoes. That way, when you criticize them, you're a mile away and you have their shoes

10  Developing Fitness  Guidelines for conditioning that are achieved through training.  Cardiorespiratory Endurance  F requency – 3-5 days per week  I ntensity – 55-90% maximum heart rate  T ime/Duration – minutes


12  Guidelines for conditioning  Strength  F requency – 2-3 days per week  I ntensity – enough to enhance muscle strength, muscle endurance, and improve body composition  T ime/Duration – 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10 different exercises

13 I see no reason Why You should not engage in Strenuous activity Well keep looking, keep looking!

14  Guidelines for conditioning  Flexibility  F requency – 2-3 days per week  I ntensity – enough to develop and maintain a full range of motion  T ime/Duration – 4 repetitions of seconds per muscle group



17  Developing Fitness  The Overload Principle – to slightly increase comfortable capacity in each area. Also called the progressive overload principle.  Increase frequency – how often an activity is performed  Increase intensity – the degree of exertion while exercising  Increase time/duration – the length of time

18  Developing Fitness  The Body’s Response to Physical Activity  Hypertrophy is muscle gain in size and strength, the result of repeated work.  Atrophy is muscle loss in size and strength, the result of lack of activity.  Other Tips  Be active all week.  Use proper equipment and attire.  Use proper form when exercising.  Include warm-ups and cool-downs.  Challenge yourself, but not every time you exercise.  Pay attention to body signals.  Build intensity slowly.

19 Seven days without exercise makes one weak!

20  Developing Fitness  Cautions on Starting  Healthy people can start with a moderate exercise program without seeking medical advise first.  People with risk factors may need medical advice.

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22  Cardiorespiratory Endurance  Cardiorespiratory conditioning is measured by maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max).  Increases cardiac output and oxygen delivery  Increases stroke volume  Slows resting pulse  Increases breathing efficiency  Improves circulation  Reduces blood pressure

23 R 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO -STIR 0 0 To prevent a heart attack, take one aspirin every day. Take it for a walk, then take it to the gym, Then take it for a bike ride

24  Cardiorespiratory Endurance  Muscle Conditioning  Muscles use oxygen efficiently.  Muscles can burn fat longer.  A Balanced Fitness Program  Individualized  Cardiorespiratory  Muscle strength and endurance  Flexibility  Choose an activity you enjoy


26  Weight Training  Also called resistance training  Increases muscle strength and endurance  Prevents and manages cardiovascular disease  Enhances psychological well-being  Maximizes and maintains bone mass  Enhances performance in other sports


28  The Energy Systems of Physical Activity—ATP and CP  ATP is adenosine triphosphate – a high-energy compound that delivers energy instantaneously.  CP is creatine phosphate – a high-energy compound in the muscles, used anaerobically.  The Energy-Yielding Nutrients  Nutrients work together while one may predominate.  Depends on diet, intensity and duration of the activity, and training

29  Extremely intense activity  8-10 seconds  ATP-CP (immediately available)  No oxygen needed (anaerobic)  Activity example – 100 yard dash, shot put  Very highly intense activity  20 seconds to 3 minutes  ATP from carbohydrate (lactic acid)  No oxygen needed (anaerobic)  Activity example – ¼ mile run at maximum speed

30  Highly intense activity  3-20 minutes  ATP from carbohydrate  Oxygen needed (aerobic)  Activity example – cycling, swimming, running  Moderately intense activity  More than 20 minutes  ATP from fat  Oxygen needed (aerobic)  Activity example – hiking

31  Glucose Use during Physical Activity  Diet Affects Glycogen Storage and Use  High-carbohydrate diets increase glycogen stores  Enhance endurance


33  Intensity of Activity Affects Glycogen Use  Moderate activities use glycogen slowly.  Intense activities use glycogen quickly.

34  Glucose Use during Physical Activity  Lactate  Low intensity activities can clear lactic acid from the blood.  During highly intense activities lactic acid accumulates and activity can only be maintained for 1-3 minutes.  Lactate is converted to glucose in the liver (Cori cycle).  Duration of Activity Affects Glycogen Use  First 20 minutes – primarily use glycogen  After 20 minutes – use glycogen and fat

35  Glucose Use during Physical Activity  “Hitting the wall” – exhaustion of glucose stores  Maximizing Glucose Supply  High-carbohydrate diet – 8 g/kg body weight or 70% of total energy intake  Glucose during activities if activity last longer than 45 minutes (sports drinks, diluted fruit juice)  Eat approximately 60 g of high-carbohydrate foods after activity.  Carbohydrate loading is a regime of diet and exercise that maximizes glycogen storage. It is also called glycogen loading or glycogen super compensation.

36  Glucose Use during Physical Activity  Glucose during Activity  Activities lasting longer than 45 minutes  Light carbohydrate snacks under 200 kcalories  Glucose after Activity  High-carbohydrate meal within 15 minutes accelerates glycogen storage by 300%  High-carbohydrate meal within 2 hours and rate of glycogen storage declines by half  High-glycemic index foods

37  Glucose Use during Physical Activity  Training Affects Glycogen Use  Muscles that repeatedly deplete glycogen through hard work will store greater amounts of glycogen.  Conditioned muscles rely less on glycogen and more on fat for energy.  Trained muscle cells have more mitochondria and can use oxygen better.  Untrained muscle cells depend more heavily on anaerobic pathways.

38  Fat Use during Physical Activity  Duration of Activity Affects Fat Use  Beginning of activity uses fatty acids in the blood  After 20 minutes, uses body fat as major fuel  Intensity of Activity Affects Fat Use  As intensity increases, fat makes less of a contribution to the fuel mix  Oxygen must be abundant to break down fat

39  Fat Use during Physical Activity  Training Affects Fat Use  The better trained the muscles, the more fat is used  The better trained, the stronger the heart and lung to deliver oxygen  If better trained, then hormones prevent glucose release from the liver, so they rely more on fat

40  Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times  Protein Used in Muscle Building  Synthesis of protein is suppressed during activity.  After activity protein synthesis accelerates.  Repeated activities cause body adaptations to support needs.  Remodeling  Daily, ¼ to 1 ounce of body protein is added to muscle mass during muscle-building phase.

41  Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times  Protein Used as Fuel  During physical activity muscles use amino acids for fuel.  10% of total fuel used  Diet Affects Protein Use during Activity  Diets rich in energy and carbohydrate allow the body to use less protein for fuel.  Carbohydrates spare protein.

42  Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times  Intensity and Duration of Activity Affect Protein Use during Activity  If glycogen stores get depleted, then more reliance on protein  Anaerobic strength training demands more protein to build muscles but not large amounts.  Training Affects Protein Use  The more trained the less protein used for energy

43  Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times  Protein Recommendations for Active People  Athletes in training need more protein than sedentary people.  Athletes in training need to meet energy and carbohydrate needs first.  Adult RDA: for males 56 g/day, for females 44 g/day  Strength athletes: for males g/day, females g/day  Endurance athletes: for males g/day, females g/day  U.S. average intake of protein: for males 95 g/day, females 65 g/day

44  Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity  Supplements  Do not enhance performance  Deficiencies may impede performance  Timing makes a difference; supplements take hours or days to combine with cells.  Nutrient-dense foods provide nutrients needed.

45  Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity  Vitamin E  Protects against oxidative stress  Does not improve performance  More research needed  Vegetables oils and antioxidant fruits and vegetables  Iron  Iron losses in sweat  Small blood losses in digestive tract  Poor iron absorption

46  Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity  Iron Deficiency  Common in physically active young women  Consume good dietary sources of iron  Iron-Deficiency Anemia  Impairs physical performance  Cannot perform aerobic activity and tire easily

47  Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity  Sports Anemia  Low blood hemoglobin for a short time  Adaptive, temporary response to endurance activity  Does not require supplementation  Iron Recommendations for Athletes  Blood tests should guide the decision  Depends on the individual

48  Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity  Fluid Losses via Sweat  Muscle heat is times greater when active than at rest  Cooling mechanism  1 liter of sweat dissipates 600 kcalories of heat

49  Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity  Hyperthermia – an above-normal body temperature  Body heat builds up  Triggers maximum sweating without sweat evaporation

50  Symptoms of heat stroke – a dangerous accumulation of body heat with accompanying loss of body fluid  Headache  Nausea  Dizziness  Clumsiness  Stumbling  Hot, dry skin  Confusion or other mental changes

51  Prevention of heat stroke  Drink fluids  Rest in the shade when tired  Wear appropriate clothing

52  Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity  Hypothermia – a below-normal body temperature  Symptoms  Shivering and euphoria  Weakness, disorientation, and apathy  Prevention  Drink fluids  Wear appropriate clothing  Water Recommendations  1.0 to 1.5 mL/kcal expended  ½ cup per 100 kcal expended

53  Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity  Fluid Replacement via Hydration  Full hydration is imperative for athletes.  Those who are aware of their hourly sweat rate can replace lost fluids.  Plain, cool water is recommended.  Endurance athletes may require carbohydrate-containing beverages.  Hydration schedule  Two hours before activity – 2-3 cups  15 minutes before activity – 1-2 cups  Every 15 minutes during activity – ½-2 cups  After activity – 2 cups for every pound of body weight lost

54  Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity  Electrolyte Losses and Replacement  Greater in the untrained  Training improves electrolyte retention.  Eat regular diet meeting energy and nutrient needs  Endurance athletes may need sports drinks.  Salt tablets worsen dehydration and impair performance.

55  Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity  Hyponatremia  Decreased concentration of sodium in the blood  Causes  Excessive sweat  Overhydration  Drinking sports drinks during an activity; sports drinks offer glucose polymers

56  Symptoms of hyponatremia  Severe headache  Vomiting  Bloating  Confusion  Seizure  Prevention of hyponatremia  Replace sodium during prolonged events.  Do not restrict salt in diets the days before events.

57  Poor Beverage Choices: Caffeine and Alcohol  Caffeine is a stimulant.  Alcohol is not the beverage to replace fluids and carbohydrate.

58  A diet that provides ample fluids and nutrient- dense foods to meet energy needs will enhance an athlete’s activity and overall health.  Pregame and postgame meals should be light and carbohydrate rich.

59  Choosing a Diet to Support Fitness  Water  Thirst mechanisms are not as reliable  Must be replenished  Nutrient Density – consume nutrient-dense foods that are high in carbohydrate, moderate in fat, and adequate in protein

60  Choosing a Diet to Support Fitness  Carbohydrate  60-70% total energy intake  Avoid fiber-rich foods in the pregame meal.  Added sugar and fat may be needed during intensive training.  Liquid supplements should not replace foods.  8-10 g carbohydrate/kg body weight during heavy training  Protein  Strength athletes: for males g/day, females g/day  Endurance athletes: for males g/day, females g/day

61  Choosing a Diet to Support Fitness  A Performance Diet Example  Total kcalories – 3000  63% kcal from carbohydrate  22% kcal from fat  15% kcal from protein  All vitamin and mineral RDAs are met


63  Meals Before and After Competition  Pregame Meals  Fluids  kcalories  Carbohydrate-rich foods low in fat and fiber  Light and easy to digest  Postgame Meals  High-carbohydrate meals  Liquids often preferred



66  It is difficult to distinguish valid versus bogus claims about ergogenic aids.  Many individuals believe these drugs, supplements, or procedures will enhance physical performance in activities.  Some are harmless, some have dangerous side effects, and some are costly.  Most do not meet claims.

67  Substances promoted as ergogenic aids  Arginine – a nonessential amino acid  Boron – a nonessential mineral  Brewer’s yeast is falsely promoted as an energy booster.  Cell salts are sold as health promoting.  Coenzyme Q10 is not effective in improving athlete performance.  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is falsely promoted as an energy booster.  Epoetin is illegally used to increase oxygen capacity.

68  Substances promoted as ergogenic aids  Gelatin is not a strength enhancer.  Ginseng has many side effects.  Glycine – a nonessential amino acid  Growth hormone releasers do not enhance performance.  High doses of guarana can stress the heart and cause panic attacks.  Herbal steroids or plant sterols do not enhance hormone activity.  HMB (beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate) claims to increase muscle mass and strength.  Inosine has been shown to reduce endurance of runners.

69  Ma huang has many dangerous side effects.  Niacin does not enhance performance and has side effects.  Octacosanol has false promotions.  Ornithine – a nonessential amino acid  Pangamic acid does not speed oxygen delivery.  Phosphate pills do not extend endurance or increase efficiency of aerobic metabolism.  Pyruvate has common side effects of gas and diarrhea.

70  Ribose has some false claims.  RNA (ribonucleic acid) does not enhance performance.  Royal jelly is falsely promoted.  Sodium bicarbonate may cause intestinal bloating and diarrhea.  Spirulina is potentially toxic.  Succinate is not a metabolic enhancer.  Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is useless; it is digested.  Wheat germ oil is not an energy aid.

71  Carnitine  Non-essential nutrient  Facilitates transfer of fatty acids across mitochondria membranes  Supplementation does not increase muscle carnitine or enhance exercise performance.  Chromium Picolinate  Essential mineral in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism  Supplementation has no effect on strength, lean body mass, or body fat.

72  Complete Nutrition Supplements  Taste good and provide food energy, but do not provide complete nutrition  Should not replace regular meals  Creatine  Some studies suggest improvement in muscle strength and size, cell hydration and glycogen loading capacity  Safety issues and side effects

73  Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)  Derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid  Increases lean body mass in animals  Few human studies have been performed.  Caffeine  Caffeine can enhance performance by stimulating fatty acid release.  Adverse effects include stomach upset, nervousness, irritability, headaches, and diarrhea.  Use in moderation.  Use as an addition to other fluids, not as replacement.  Oxygenated Water  Oxygen cannot enter the bloodstream by way of the GI tract.  The body gets oxygen from the lungs.

74  Anabolic Steroids  Illegal  Authorities ban use  Plant sterols from herbs are poorly absorbed.  Dangerous side effects on the body and the mind

75  DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and Androstenedione  Hormones that are precursors to testosterone  No evidence to support claims  Short-term effects are identified  Human Growth Hormone (hGH)  Used to build lean tissue and increase height if still growing  Extremely high cost  Many adverse side effects

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